Tikhon Khrennikov( Composer, People's Artist of the USSR.)
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Biography Tikhon Khrennikov
Born in 1913. In the town of Orel province Yelets. Father - Nikolai Ivanovich, had been a clerk at local merchants. Mother - Barbara V., a housewife, was absorbed by the big fuss about a large family. Wife - Clara Arnoldovna.
Tikhon was the youngest, the tenth, a child in the family. The family lived together. May prosperity was not large, but the one that was, all determined on education. Older brothers graduated from Moscow University. One of the medium, Hleb had a beautiful singing voice - a lyric tenor, he studied at the Moscow Conservatory and Moscow University. He predicted a bright future in the vocal art, but the First World War, he went as a volunteer at the front and died there in 1918. Elder brothers and sisters were already grown up and heatedly discussed all the new items, concerts, played music. The house music played continuously. On such instruments as guitar, mandolin played all. Tikhon also played guitar in the orchestra, sang in the school choir. In nine years, he began to learn to play the piano.
After two years of the Moscow Elec arrived V. Agarkov. Student Konstantin Igumnov, rector of the Moscow Conservatory, the creator of one of the largest piano school in Russia, he gave concerts, composed music, was a gifted and demanding teacher. Classes with him dragged Tikhon. But perhaps the most significant was his meeting with Anna Feodorovna Vargunin, which Khrennikov started after the departure Agarkova. Having started playing the piano, he pretty soon began composing music. His first opus - Etude for piano written in thirteen years, and then constantly composing waltzes, marches, etudes and pieces. Soon, a friend of her sister, S.G. Zeitlin, who studied at that time in Moscow in the music college of. Gnesinyh, spoke about the young talent of Michael Fabianovich Gnesin, and he advised to come to him for advice.
In winter 1927-28 he. Tikhon arrived in Moscow and showed his works. Maestro treated the boy with great sympathy and said that, first of all, you need to finish secondary education in Yelets, and then to study in Moscow. Then he wrote a letter of recommendation in MuzGIz, which Tikhon was given a lot of music literature. With this wealth he left to his Elec. A year later, in the spring of 1929, Tikhon graduated from school devyatiletku. I had to finally decide what to do next, but the music part was no longer possible. He wrote a letter to MF Gnesin, which asked whether released from the composer. Michael Fabianovich sent a warm reply, in which he advised to do in college Gnesinyh. This advice and decided the fate of Tikhon Khrennikov - he became a student. In the college was engaged in two specialties: the class of piano at E.G. Gelman, in the class composition - a M.F. Gnessin. A major step towards professionalism began classes at Poly GI. Litinsky. In class piano Tikhon was moving fairly quickly and confidently, playing Liszt, Beethoven, Rachmaninoff. By the end of the stay in college, he decided to write a piano concerto. In the process of working consulted VY Shabalin, thanks to him to rethink everything he wrote, made new, earning him praise. Feeling confident in himself, began to write with incredible ease. In 1932, Mr.. Tikhon Gnessin graduated from college, he took the second course of the conservatory, in the class VY Shabalin. By the time of transition to the third course completed a piano concerto and performed it on the exam. This fact, which dates from 1933, Law went into the creative biography of the great composer. In the same year, Tikhon Khrennikov was invited to work in a Moscow children's theater, which was led Ilinichna Natalia Sats. Getting it grew into a friendship for many years. She ordered Tikhon music to play the anti-fascist "Mick", written for the theater Nikolai Shestakov. At the premiere of the music for the play was well received. In 1933. the first public concert. This was in Voronezh, where T. Khrennikov, invited the famous conductor NP. Anosov. It held a baptism of fire, Tikhon Khrennikov learned what success. Unfortunately, creative, productive 1933. was marked by a tragic event - my father died.
Soon T. Khrennikov participated in a radio program designed for America. There, he played his first concert, received congratulatory messages from the American fellow musicians. Many years later, in 1959. during a trip to America has a touching encounter with the composer Samuel Barber, who wrote the letters TN. Khrennikov after that transfer.
In 1934, Mr.. Tikhon Nikolayevich (he was still a student at 4-th course of the conservatory) has begun work on the symphony. By 1935, Mr.. was completed and publicly voiced in October 1935, at the Great Hall of Moscow Conservatory. Was heard clearly and was a great success. In the same year was held in Leningrad Second international musical-theater festival, where TN Khrennikov performed a concert together with Melik-Pashayev. This was the first international baptism. Symphony has been included in the repertoire of the famous Leopold Stokowski, played in America and was a great success. After Stokowski she entered the repertory of Eugene Ormandy.
At the Conservatory, teacher of piano T. Khrennikov was a great G. Neuhaus. He is very good to talented student, introduced him to his teacher - Leopold Godowsky, who also praised and supported Tikhon. Name Khrennikov began to acquire fame, appearing in the press. After the premiere of the symphony called him V.I.Nemirovich-Danchenko, offered to meet and commissioned an opera for his theater. At the dinner, which Tikhon was invited Nemirovich-Danchenko (a great honor for the young musician), they agreed together to find a subject for future work, which will certainly be devoted to the modern theme. Khrennikov was happy getting to know and supply of Vladimir Ivanovich. After much searching and deliberation, they stopped at the opera on the product Wirth "Solitude". Libretto wrote a famous playwright AM Faiko. Work progressed slowly. Meanwhile, Khrennikov, who after the first became known as the Moscow Symphony Shostakovich, received an order from the theater Vakhtangov - to write music for the play "Much Ado About Nothing". This music Khrennikov wrote at the turn of 1935-1936. Autumn 1936. premiere performance. The success was enormous. In the performance was attended by masters - R. Simonov, T. Mansurov, D. Dorliak. At this time in Moscow was L. Feuchtwanger. He attended the performance, admired them and the music, and described it in his book "Moscow 1937"
During the six months before the premiere took place on the final exams at the conservatory. The commission does not require a comment: Sergei Prokofiev, N. Myaskovsky, VY Shebalin. And then, something unexpected happened. Tikhon Khrennikov, already known, performed composers, specialty received four. He explained that the mark set at the insistence of Prokofiev. Khrennikov adored him and knew that Prokofiev had given the supreme right to judge the music. After some thought, he put himself in the life of a rule not to upset failures and never celebrate their victories and successes. Focus only on his business.
After the success of the performance theater Vakhtangov immediately ordered Khrennikov music to the following statement - "Don Quixote" by Mikhail Bulgakov. He wrote to her a few songs and symphonic episodes. Then there was written music for the play "Birthday" W. Kirshon.
It was 1937, and again, as in 1933, a creative success for T. Khrennikov combined with the personal drama. He is enthusiastically working on an opera, is growing his friendship with V.I.Nemirovichem-Danchenko. And suddenly, the arrest of the brothers - Nicholas, and Boris. Tikhon took everything I could: write letters to the high court, the request for an open court, but both brothers were killed.
By October 1939. completed opera "The Storm" and soon took its premiere, which had a great success. In the same year on the representation of opera in the theater was attended by Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov. At that time it was a sensation, and the highest sign of recognition. At the end of 1939. The opera was also held in Saratov.
In the same year at the request of I. Pyrev T. Khrennikov wrote music for the film "Pig and Shepherd". Writes with passion. Melodies him succeed. People liked the film, love and song.
Simultaneously Khrennikov begins work on the Second Symphony. When war broke out his wife with the baby and mother were evacuated to Sverdlovsk. Tikhon stayed in Moscow. Like most composers, in his work he focuses on the songs on War. Among the most popular are "All for the Fatherland", "There is a good town in the world", "Farewell". In the story song "Farewell" was made a film called "Return to victory".
In 1941, Mr.. Khrennikov went to Sverdlovsk - to visit family. At that time there was Theater of the Red Army, the head of which was AD Popov. They met. Popov suggested Khrennikov to head in the theater part of the music, as well as write music for the play "A long time ago" by A. Gladkov. It is no exaggeration to say that this surprisingly optimistic music, written by T. Khrennikov, warmed up and warms the hearts and souls of many millions of people for decades. It remains a favorite and now.
In the troubled 1942. held in London chamber concert of works by Soviet composers. In his program became "The Dance" T. Khrennikov. For the composer in 1942 was a year of hard work on the Second Symphony, and in January 1943. She performed in the Hall of Columns. Symphony sounded and the All-Union Radio. This was the last essay, which was listening on the radio mother Tikhon Nikolayevich - March 1943. died.
In 1943, Mr.. I. Pyr'ev and poet-writer in. Gusev Khrennikov offered to write the music for the new film "At six o'clock in the evening after the war". The picture came on the screens in 1944. Songs from the movie became popular immediately and permanently. A "March of the gunners from the Gunners have made this film almost my anthem. Alexander's group took it in his repertoire, as well as other songs Khrennikov.
In the spring of 1945. TN Khrennikov, together with M. Blanter on the proposal of the Political Administration went to the First Belorussian Front in the army in. Chuikov. Along with the legendary Army Commander, they moved to Berlin. These last months of the war were filled completely improbable events, experiences, impressions. They returned to Moscow only in June. The speakers in military units, hospitals, and everywhere they were received enthusiastically.
Returning home, Tikhon Nikolayevich begin work on a new opera. At one time Nemirovich-Danchenko offered him a plot "Frola Skobeeva". The work lasted for about three years. Parallel Khrennikov wrote the music for several films: "The train goes to the East", "Cavalier" Gold Star "," Donetsk miners and several other.
In 1949, Mr.. Work on the opera "Frol Skobeev" was completed and the composer played it in the theater of Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko. By 1950, Mr.. play was finally ready. Passed a dress rehearsal. However, the opera banned. Khrennikov, by that time secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, he decided to write a letter to Stalin. The letter reached the addressee. As a result, the opera was allowed. It was a new version of the production, and she appeared under the title "rootless son". Subsequently, the opera have set in the Soviet Union and abroad.
In 1957. the premiere of the next opera Khrennikov - 'Mother' of the product Gorky. The Bolshoi. Production exercised N. Okhlopkov, conductor: Khaikin. The opera was also staged at the Kirov Theater in Leningrad, as well as in the Gorky Theater of Opera and Ballet.
1958. was a year of work on the violin concertos. In 1959, Mr.. score of the First Violin Concerto was completed. Violin Party Kogan edited himself, he was also the executor of his first. Following this concert was written by Cello Concerto, completed in 1964, and performed together with Mr. Rostropovich. Christmas in the Great Hall of the Conservatory. Later, Mr. Rostropovich played it in Carnegie Hall and sent out a telegram with the message of his great success.
The composer TN Khrennikov multifaceted. In those years, he successfully works in the genre of operetta ( "One hundred devils and one girl," "White Night"). For theater N. Satz prepares opera 'boy-giant', a lot of concerts.
In 1972. T. Khrennikov produces Second Piano Concerto, and proceeds to work on the Second Violin Concerto, which later played Igor Oistrakh.
In mid-1970's he returned to the symphonic genre, and wrote the Third Symphony. Its premiere took place in the State Orchestra under Evgeny Svetlanov, then entered the repertory of other domestic and foreign conductors and orchestras.
During these years the Bolshoi Ballet offered Khrennikov write. In 1976. the premiere of the ballet Love for Love ". He was then put in many theaters in our country and abroad. In 1979. the Kirov Theater in Leningrad, the premiere of another ballet - "Hussar Ballad".
In 1983. was completed Third Piano Concerto. Then followed: the opera "Dorothea" (based on Sheridan's comedy The Duenna), set in the theater of Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko, the comic opera "The Golden Calf" and "Naked King" (in Ilf and Petrov). The premiere was held last spring 1988. in Leningrad, Maly Opera Theater staged Gaudassinskogo.
After that, the composer decided, however, put the point in the opera repertoire and decided to do chamber music genres. Autumn 1988. composed his first quartet, then cello sonata. In 1989. wrote music for three of the sonnet by Shakespeare.
Tikhon constantly at work. On the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses is his new work - the ballet "Napoleon Bonaparte", and soon on the same stage will premiere another ballet - "The Captain's Daughter".
Fate gave the composer a bright, long creative life. His music - a musical portrait of the 20 th century. This music has never lost his youth, the spirit, optimism. And today it is illuminated with sincerity and enthusiasm, glows with a warm smile and infects the real temperament. He never betrayed himself, his ideals either in life or in art.
Tikhon Khrennikov more than four decades, stood on the captain's bridge Composition. He was the first secretary of the Union of Soviet Composers, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, a member of the Committee, at the beginning - the Stalin, then - on State Prizes. In recent years he headed the organizing committee of the International Competition. PI. Tchaikovsky, was chairman of the Competition of Young Composers of Russia. The Moscow State Conservatory, he has a wonderful class. Students of different editions adore his professor.
Tikhon Khrennikov - People's Artist of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor, laureate of Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR and Russia.
His ideals in music were and are - Bach, Tchaikovsky and Prokofiev.
Lives and works in Moscow.