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Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich

( The mathematician, founder of the non-Euclidean geometry, the rector of Kazan University (1827-1846gg.))

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Biography Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich
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Born October 22 1793g., In Nizhny Novgorod. His father, a county surveyor, died in 1797, leaving his family penniless. His education must Lobachevsky mother Praskovia Alexandrovna, in her petition was adopted on November 5 1802. the Kazan school. After two trials Lobachevsky was admitted on January 9 1807. a hearing university lectures and 14 February of that year transferred to the students. Since 1809. Lobachevsky is allocated among his companions diligence in intellectual pursuits, and, in particular, in mathematics in autumn 1809. He, while still a student, assigned to check the inventory of chemical cabinet.
. But the behavior and mindset Lobachevsky deliver a lot of trouble inspection, appraising it as a young man "stubborn", "unrepentant", "quite a lot about myself dreamy" when even the "signs of infidelity"
. For his misdeeds Lobachevsky repeatedly subjected to penalties.

At the same time Lobachevsky announcement on behalf of the Minister of gratitude for the achievements in mathematics have been documented by Professor Bartels. In 1811. awarded a master's degree. Subjects of study Lobachevsky were "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" Gauss and the result of this study was the work: "On the resolution of the algebraic equation я-n - 1 = 0"; work remained unpublished, but its results were included in "Algebra". By 1811. include monitoring Lobachevsky (together with Simonov), a large comet. Since 1812. begins and teaching Lobachevsky.

In March 1814. Lobachevsky elevated to the rank of associate physical and mathematical sciences and with the next school year opens lectures, choosing the subject of teaching exposition of the theory of numbers (by Gauss and Legendre). In 1815-1820gg. taught arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, both flat and spherical - in their notebooks, differential and integral calculus - by Monge and Lacroix. In the 1819-1821 academic years, he was reading, physics, and in the 1819-1822 academic years, he taught astronomy. Since the autumn of 1830., With the transition to Dorpat Professor Bartels, Lobachevsky became an independent representative of the Department of Pure Mathematics.

Since 1822. approved by the full professor. Since the late twenties begins ebullient and energetic activity for the benefit of the Lobachevsky at Kazan University. In 1825-1835gg. - Librarian of the University and this position he was carrying, even combining it with the principalship. As a librarian, he insisted on opening to the public library and other university offices.

University publications are also required Lobachevsky very many. Since 1822. was a member and then chairman of building committee. In his principalship, with big savings were erected in 1833-1841gg. building an observatory, library, the Institute of Anatomy, a physics laboratory and the clinic. Colossal fire 1842. again forced him to resume their construction activities.

3 May 1827. Lobachevsky was elected rector of the University. The young rector (he turned 33) 5 July 1828. pronounces his remarkable speech: "On the most important subjects of education". In this speech clearly reflected his fascination with ideas, educational Varanda.

Proceedings Lobachevsky benefit the University, during his principalship, so large that a detailed account of them - would be to write about the history of the university during this time. Six times Lobachevsky was re-elected to the post of rector and only 1846g. resigned, was appointed assistant curator of the Kazan school district. In this new position Lobachevsky remained until November 1855, when he received a dismissal from service due to illness.

Recent years Lobachevsky were hard years of his life. The hard work of all his past affected the health - weakened eyesight. Despite this, he followed with interest the university life, and continued scientific activities. At 1852g. published his work on the importance of certain definite integrals, in the same years, read before the coterie of persons from among university professors and school teachers, a lecture on his new principles of geometry and in 1855. wrote an article: "Pangeometrie ou precis de geometrie, fondee sur une theorie generale et rigoureuse des paralleles".
He died in February 1856. Buried in Kazan.

Scientific activities Lobachevsky gave him immortal fame "Copernican" and "Columbus" geometry - applies mainly to the question of the principles of geometry. Construction geometry, . independent of the axioms of Euclid's parallel lines and contains the geometry of Euclid, . as a special case, . and given this proof of the logical independence of the axiom of parallel lines from the other axioms of geometry - is the main scientific work of his life.,

. Started Lobachevsky thoughts on the foundations of geometry coincides with the beginning of his teaching activities
. Between 1823 and 1826 years, Lobachevsky comes to thinking about the possibility of constructing the common geometrical system, which he called "imaginary geometry". Having it in compressed form for the first time in a meeting of the Department of Physical and Mathematical Sciences on Feb. 12 1826g., Lobachevsky gave then a full description of her in my "new lines of geometry with the complete theory of parallel".

With extraordinary tenacity Lobachevsky, then, throughout his life back to the presentation of different points of view of its geometrical system and tries to inform her of mathematicians, not only in Russia but in Europe. In 1840. he published in Berlin in German "Geometrische Untersuchungen zur Theorie der Parallellinien". In 1842. elected a corresponding member of the Royal Scientific Society of Gottingen. In 1867. done in physics and mathematics at Kazan University edition of the complete works of NI Lobachevskii geometry.

The merits of Lobachevskii in other areas of mathematics are not as great as its geometric case. But his major mathematical talent manifested itself in other studies, for example, in studies on the convergence of lines. In particular, they indicated with certainty the need to distinguish between gradual (continuity) and continuity (differentiability). In this issue Lobachevsky also ahead of his contemporaries in the decades. Algebra textbook Lobachevsky published them in 1834. under the title: "Algebra or calculation of the end" - differs from other textbooks of algebra, not only in Russia but also abroad, systematic arrangement, rigor of presentation of the basic concepts and the remarkable completeness.

. Love Lobachevsky to science was not limited to one in mathematics, which he called in his speech "the triumph of the human mind"
. It applies to all branches of knowledge and, . especially, . on observational and experimental science: it is taking an active part in the observations of soil temperature at the university court and he invents a metal thermometer, special construction, . then joins equipping Kazan University expedition to Penza to observe a total solar eclipse in July 1842,
. and, on return, print a detailed report that provides a set of data on the phenomenon of the solar corona and expresses his thoughts as to the nature of this phenomenon, and at the expiration of the theory of light and excitement.

Lobachevsky found time to educate the society and the people (both in 1839-1840gg. read to them to craft a special class of a popular course in physics called "folk physics"), . and activities for the benefit of agriculture, . as a way of personal experience in a small estate "Belovolzhskaya Sloboda, . and through the Imperial Kazan the Economic Society, . trying to free agriculture from routine,

. To high mental qualities Lobachevsky joined no less than the high quality of the soul: a good heart, compassion for all the honest desire, ardent love and fatherly attitude toward the university youth and all the talented young people
Museum Lobachevsky in KSU

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Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich, photo, biography
Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich, photo, biography Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich  The mathematician, founder of the non-Euclidean geometry, the rector of Kazan University (1827-1846gg.), photo, biography
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