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Ivan Mikhailovich Simonov

( Scientific and successor of the founder of the department of astronomy at KSU I. Littrova)

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Biography Ivan Mikhailovich Simonov
photo Ivan Mikhailovich Simonov
Born on June 20 1794g. , G. Gorokhovets Vladimir province, in a family of merchants. His early education was in high school, Mr.. Astrakhan. At the end of 1808g. gymnasium course, in November the same year he entered "for themselves in higher education subjects in the Kazan school, and 14 February 1809. number of students enrolled in the newly founded University of Kazan, which has always been one of the first on the successes of students, but especially in mathematics. Due to this in 1810. When, as a professor of astronomy has arrived in Kazan IA Littrow, Simonov, together with Lobachevsky was recommended to him for "pre-cooking and priobucheniya to doing observations". Same outstanding achievements in mathematics have been documented by Professor Bartels, brought him in September 1811. special thanks to the Minister of Education.
As a student, June 7, 1810. Simonov found to be the degree of Master of Mathematical Sciences, but approval was delayed to this extent before 1812. Because of his affiliation to the tax-paying class, the dismissal of which was necessary for the doctoral degree. Trustee District Rumovsky promised to seek, through the Minister of Education the highest assent to the dismissal of Simon's tax-paying class, if he is a special challenge, will display their talents and successes that they had been satisfied.

. Simonov was the first graduate of Kazan University, have been subjected to, to obtain a master's degree, special test
. When she was in Kazan, . Vishnevsky Academy drew special attention to the outstanding talent and persuaded him to Simon's move to the service at the Academy of Sciences; Simonov, . apparently, . himself was not averse to move to St. Petersburg, . but, . Fortunately for the Kazan University, . this movement does not take place.,

. Classes Simonova practical astronomy took place under the direct supervision of Professor Littrova
. The appearance of a 1811. Comet enabled Simonov to show their abilities and in this area and for observations of the comet he had received thanks from the trustee Rumovsky assigned to it in the plenary meeting of the University Council. Rumovsky, himself an astronomer, a lively interest in the development of Simon's talent and asked him various astronomical topics for the development and in the same 1811. Simonov submitted to the trustee, a professor director Yakovkina made them "checking quadrant and estimates of the acceleration of hours against the mean time."

On 26 March 1814. Adjunct matematicheskik Physical Sciences. In the academic 1814-1815 and 1815 - 1816gg. Simonov teaching practical astronomy and geodesy, under the overall supervision of Prof.. Littrova. In May 1816g. Littrow, leaving very Kazan, he pointed to Simon, as a worthy successor. And, indeed, 31 May 1816g. He was charged with the teaching of practical astronomy, . explanation of the audience use of astronomical instruments and logging of observations; by the University Council had also agreed, . want to see the observatory appealed to an associate of Simon,
. When, according to the election board, Simonov (July 7, 1816g.) Was elevated to the rank of extraordinary professor, he was charged with teaching and theoretical astronomy.

Early 1817g. Simonov was seconded for six months in St. Petersburg, the Academy of Sciences, for improvements in knowledge, where he worked in the academic Observatory, under the leadership of academics Schubert and Vishnevsky. In 1819. Simonov was appointed by His Majesty's orders, as an astronomer, a voyage around the world, equipped to the sloop of war "East" and "peace" to the South Pole, under the command of Bellingshausen and Lazarev. The expedition set off from Kronstadt on July 3 1819. And then returned back to 24 July 1821. Simonov was the first Russian astronomers to circumnavigate the world voyage. Travel was committed Simonov with a great honor for myself and brought up his university ". Attaching such a high value of this voyage, Trustee Magnitskii thought Simon's a worthy title of professor. 25 February 1822. held unanimously electing him to full professor, and on 24 May and was followed by approval in that position.

. During his circumnavigation of the astronomical part Simonov had:

. 1) determine the status and progress chronometers
. For this purpose they were made many observations in Rio Janeiro, Port Jackson, New Zealand and Otaiti, with forward and backward implication.
2) The definition of geographical coordinates of parking spaces sloops.
3) Supervision of the fixed stars, which for 50 years until he watched Lacaille.
4) Supervision of variations of mercury in the barometer between the tropics. The latter kind of observation at the time hardly made, . whereas they were extremely interesting for theorists (Laplace), . as these observations of mercury in the barometer is characterized, . to izvstnoy degree, . fluctuations in the Earth's atmosphere under the influence of gravity of the moon and sun.,
. To determine the latitude of the place Simonov observed, with the sextant, the height of near-noon sun
. Under the tropical sun can be at noon, even at the peak or very close to him and, in this case, the use of the sextant is impossible. This fact led me to Simon's idea of a new reflective tool, which was described to them in a special essay: "Sur un nouvel instrument et sur l` universite de Kasan ".

. In the absence of other scientists on the sloop "Peace" and "East", Simonov worked well and items related to natural history "
. Upon returning from a trip they had been brought in gift items collection Kazan University for cabinets of curiosities and natural history. Description of the expedition and its results Simonov outlined in two published speeches: "The word on the successes of sailing sloops East and the Peace around the world and, . especially, . in the southern Arctic Sea "and" On the difference of temperature in the southern and northern hemispheres ", . uttered in a solemn annual meeting of the University,
. On the way back from the voyage around the world, Simonov traveled to Raumel, where he spent a great time vakatsionnoe Bessel. With the last Simonov consulted about the device and the observatory on the distribution of observations among observatories, according to their geographical location. Invented them reflective tool Bessel highly approve of, and advised him to publish in learned journals.

. Shortly after returning from a trip to Kazan, Simonov was elected to the position of dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics (27 May 1822.) Stayed there until May 1823g
. After that, he has twice been elected to the deans. At 1823g. Kazan University was released 40000 USD. ACC. for the acquisition of astronomical and physical instruments. To purchase these instruments, was sent Simonov, along with physics professor Kupfer, Vienna, Paris and London. Are still in use at the observatory Breguet watches, with a compensated pendulum, and a silver chronometer Breguet.

. When, . in 1828., . Trustee suggested, . that the professors could with great benefit for themselves and the university to vakatsionnoe time, . if it undertook research within a particular locality, . Simonov and Kupfer were the first, . expressing a desire to make a scientific excursion,
. According to the proposal of the trustee, dated 31 January 1828., . Minister of Education authorized to send Simon and Kupffer, . first - for the study of Kazan, . and the second - the Perm province, . with one and the other had been earmarked for the purchase amount of rarities and collections for university classrooms,
. In addition to the collection of collections, the subject of the study were to serve: 1) the definition of the geographical position of the principal settlements and cities, and 2) determination of the barometric heights of the mountains and down rivers and 3) the magnetic observations.

At the same time. M. Simonov was busy drawing up the course of astronomy. In the first half of 1829. was printed the first part of this course - "Uranometriya", and in the next academic year, Simonov was allowed to teach spherical astronomy on the manual. The second part of the course has not been written, what prevented the various duties. Since March 1, 1831. He was appointed inspector of students and director of the Pedagogical Institute. 29 March 1833. He appealed to the Board with a request to release him from the post of inspector of students and director of the Pedagogical Institute, . because these positions absorb all his time, . without giving any opportunity to finish the course of astronomy, . not handle astronomical and magnetic observations,
. April 15 Simonov was removed from these posts.

. Start Astronomical Observatory in Kazan was laid Littrovym, . with him were also purchased and some of the necessary tools to monitor, but now is an existing building of the observatory and its instruments of environment, . one of the best for that time - was entirely the work of Simon,
. The building of the observatory was laid on October 5 1833. and completed by early 1838. In the absence of a large astronomical telescope, the mobile tower was not supposed to do, but the Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich expressed the desire to Kazan Observatory was built on a semblance of Dorpat, t. e. that when it was, and mobile tower. So, when Simon in 1833. asked to leave for Moscow, 23 October 1833. to 5 February 1834., then, with leave, he also receives a trip to St. Petersburg and Dorpat. In St. Petersburg, he was instructed to inspect the pavilion and the magnetic order pedestal bought them 1823g. abroad equatorial, and in Dorpat - the observatory, and especially the mobile tower, so that when building a similar tower in Kazan did not work any any misunderstandings. From this trip Simonov returned to Kazan on March 4, . and March 13 they had before it a note by the trustee, . in which he expressed the need to purchase for Kazan Observatory great refractor, . finding, . otherwise, . aimless construction of mobile tower,
. Only a year later, July 2, 1835., Followed by the highest Assent on vacation 36000 USD. ACC. for the acquisition of refractor. The order was made through the academician in. Struve, who maintained relations with foreign artists. Refractor was to have a 9 inch hole and be equipped with a micrometer; Tripod - Wooden. Order followed in October 1835., And in August 1837g. instrument was prepared and sent to St. Petersburg. Refractor was assembled in the Academy of Sciences and sent to Kazan and installed on August 21 1838. In this same trip Simonov were purchased stellar clock and timer. In 1839. Simonov was sent to St. Petersburg for the opening of the Pulkovo Observatory.

7 July 1841. under 25 years of performance and. M. Simon. In this regard, the trustee, . ratio of 30 May 1841., . suggested that the Council of the University of abandoning his ballot at the university for another 5 years, however, . Trustee appealed to the Minister with the idea of erecting Simonova in the title of Distinguished Professor,
. On June 7 the unanimous election to the abandonment of the university for 5 years, and on July 23 received approval in the rank of Distinguished Professor.

In 1842. Manchester to hold congresses of foreign scientists and Simonov appealed to the trustees with a request to send it to the congress for a meeting with foreign scientists, . to talk to them about how observations, . the distribution of astronomical works, etc.; especially as it was desirable to see in Sabinov, . Gauss and Humboldt, . to talk with them about the observations of magnetic and magnetic devices,
. Incidentally, he invented a new magnetic inklikator, which wanted to know the opinion of foreign scientists.

22 April 1842. held the highest resolution on sending Simonova in England, France and Germany. During this journey Simonov examined the best Western European Observatory; in Paris, read in filomaticheskom Society report on the invention of a reflex dip circle, . in Mainz, . the Congress Germanic naturalists, . their research in the field of terrestrial magnetism,
. In this trip Simonov were purchased some small appliances for the astronomical observatory, and for the physical cabinet purchased electromagnetic telegraph. Traveling is described them in an interesting essay: notes and memories of travel to England, France, Belgium and Germany, in 1842 ". At the end of 1843. construction was completed magnetic observatory at the Kazan University and director of its appointed Simonov. 21 May 1844. Simonov was sent back to St. Petersburg for a meeting with B. Struve about altered in workshops Pulkovo Observatory tools Kazan Observatory. The fact is that during the incident on August 24 1842. in Kazan, a huge fire was corrupted marble pedestal equatorial and burned a wooden tripod large refractor. The first was re-commissioned in Yekaterinburg, the second one it was decided to replace the cast iron. However, through in. Struve was commissioned by a large meridian circle Hamburg artist Repsolda.

November 27 1846g. Simonov was elected and 21 January 1847. approved by the university president, remaining in that position until his death.

Proceedings of Simon's already in 1829. put him the title of Corresponding Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. In 1839. he was elected an honorary member of the Kharkov State University, was also an honorary member of many Russian and Western European scientific societies and institutions.
Died and. M. Simonov in the service, 10 yanvarya1855g.


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  • Nazila and mile for Ivan Mikhailovich Simonov
  • and Th so much that ?!?!?! shorter, it was impossible about it ...=)))
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