JosöL Gervasio Artigas( National hero of Uruguay, one of the leaders of the Revolutionary War the Spanish colonies in South America)
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Biography JosöL Gervasio Artigas
Jose Artigas called "the father of Uruguayan independence, although the independence of Uruguay was declared today only a few years after Artigas was forced to leave the country.
Artigas was born in the Spanish colonies in South America. In his youth he was a gaucho (local name for a shepherd, cowboy). In 1797, Jose joined the Spanish army, which is mainly engaged in capturing the bandits in the territory of modern Uruguay. With experience, in 1810 he offered his services to the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires (now - the capital of Argentina), which led the liberation struggle for the independence of the Spanish colonies. After a brilliant victory at Las Piedras, Artigas captured by Spanish troops besieged Montevideo. However, the Spaniards asked for help from the Portuguese army in Brazil, and Artigas had to retreat. This retreat of more than shestnadtsatitysyachnoy army because it is considered a brilliant military operation because of the clarity of organization and the minimum loss.
Artigas was a supporter of the federal structure of the liberated colonies, but the government in Buenos Aires was in favor of a rigid centralization of power. In 1814, this confrontation led to the Civil War. First running Artigas was an area of about 900 000 square. km. (now Uruguay and central Argentina). However, due to the fact that power in this area has been decentralized, it has been weakened, and Artigas resistance was finally broken by the invasion of Portuguese forces from Brazil, which he resisted for three years.
Since 1820 Artigas lived in exile in Paraguay. August 27, 1858 was proclaimed the independence of his homeland - Uruguay.
Jose Artigas died Sept. 23, 1850.