Juliana (Juliana)( Queen of the Netherlands in the years 1948-80.)
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Biography Juliana (Juliana)
Princess Juliana (Juliana), daughter of Queen Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina) and Prince Hedrick (Hendrik), was born April 30, 1909 in The Hague.
She spent his childhood in the palaces of Noordeinde and Huis ten Bosch Palace in The Hague and Het Loo in Apeldoorn (Apeldoorn). The palace Huis ten Bosch on the advice of the teacher-theorist Jean Laygharta (Jan Ligthart) was set up a small classroom to the age of six princess could be educated with their peers.
As the Constitution stipulates that it must be ready to inherit the throne at the age of eighteen, Princess Juliana received education on an accelerated program. After five years of primary education, secondary education (pre-university level), the princess received, dealing with individual teachers. April 30, 1927 Princess Juliana celebrated her 18 th birthday. Under the constitution, it has reached the age when she can queen, if necessary. Two days later, her mother introduced her to the State Council.
From 1927 to 1930. Princess attended lectures at Leiden (Leiden) University. At that time she lived in a female student dormitory. Select it studies disciplines partly due to the need of time to become head of state, and partly to its own interests. More than other disciplines interested in its literature and religion. She joined the women's student association and participated actively in all student activities. For his accomplishments, she was awarded an honorary doctorate in literature and philosophy, her supervisor was a well-known historian Johan Huizinga.
After graduation Princess Juliana has had its own secretariat in his palace Kneuterdijk. Despite the fact that she had not yet entered into the right to inherit the throne, the Princess of the royal family was represented at many official events.
During the economic depression of the 1930. Princess paid particular attention to social issues. She was one of those who proposed the creation of national anti-crisis committee in order to help the victims of economic crisis. She was the most active honorary chairman of the committee. After the death of her father, Prince Henrik, in 1934. Princess replaced him as President of the Dutch Red Cross.
Marriage and family.
On the engagement of Princess Juliana and His Serene Highness the Prince of Lippe-Bisterfelskogo (Lippe-Biesterfeld) Bernhard (Bernhard) was announced on Sept. 8, 1936. They were married Jan. 7, 1937, the day of the wedding grandparents Princess Juliana, King William (William) III and Queen Emma (Emma). The civil wedding ceremony was held at the Town Hall in the Hague. The wedding took place in the Great Church (St. Jacobskerk), also in The Hague. The newlyweds chose for his residence in the palace of Soestdijk Baarne (Baarn).
At Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard had four daughters: Beatrix (Beatrix, 1938), Irene (Irene, 1939), Margaret (Margriet, 1943) and Christine (Christina, 1947). All of them except the Princess Margaret, who was born in Canada during the war, were born in the palace of Soestdijk in Baarn (e).
Germanic invasion of 10 May 1940 forced the royal family to move to the UK. A month later, Princess Juliana with two daughters went to Canada, where they have lived in Roklife (Rockcliffe), a suburb of Ottawa, until the liberation of the Netherlands from the Nazis. Prince Bernhard, the remainder with Queen Wilhelmina in the UK, several times visiting family in Canada. During the war, Princess Juliana visited Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. In April 1945, Princess Juliana, together with Queen Wilhelmina returned to Breda (Breda), region of the Netherlands, free from German occupation. Princess participated in the rescue operation in the northern part of the country, where starvation last winter damaged much of the population. August 2, 1945 Princess Juliana with the family again settled down to a fully liberated from the invaders Dutch land.
After Germany's surrender in May 1945, the princess took part in various charity events, to help the victims of the occupation. For example, she was chairman of the executive committee of the Council for the rehabilitation of the Dutch population. Spring of 1946 Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard visited the countries that assisted the Netherlands during the occupation.
Within a few weeks in the autumn of 1947 and in 1948 the princess was regent, t. to. for health reasons, Queen Wilhelmina was unable to perform their duties. In 1948 the Queen announced the abdication of the throne, and September 4, 1948 Julian came to the throne. Two days later, on 6 September, in Amsterdam in the New Church (New Church) a solemn coronation of Princess Juliana.
During the first year of the reign of Julian the greatest attention paid to the Indonesian question. In 1949, the royal palace on Dam Square in Amsterdam, the Queen signed a document proclaiming the independence of Indonesia. December 15, 1954, Queen Juliana approved the charter, which laid the foundation for mutually beneficial cooperation with the remaining parts of the kingdom: Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. Suriname gained independence only in 1975, when the Queen signed the act of the sovereignty of the Republic of Suriname.
Queen Juliana was directly involved in the formation of the Government of the Netherlands. As head of state, it has actively advocated for international cooperation and European integration.
On the night of January 31, 1953 the province of Zealand (Zeeland) and South Holland (South Holland) were subjected to severe flooding. Queen Juliana made every effort to obtain international assistance, and immediately visited the disaster area.
During her reign, Queen Juliana showed deep interest in events of public life. She frequently visited hospitals, rehabilitation centers, sanatoriums, nursing homes and orphanages. In addition, she was interested in the problems of developing countries, problems of refugees and the living conditions of children around the world. In 1966, at the opening of UN General Assembly on Children, Queen Juliana has launched a new project, identify the steps of his childhood, which could later be used as part of a plan for regional development.
The Queen also has a variety of financial and material assistance. When she and Prince Bernhard in 1962, celebrated its silver anniversary, they donated land and money to create child care centers in Holland. The twenty-fifth anniversary of his accession to the throne, the queen gave a considerable sum of money to the National Committee to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary, which used the funds to help needy children around the world. In addition, Queen Juliana donated gift it received from the nation at its seventieth anniversary, to fund the organization of the International Year of the Child.
Queen established the Fund, which is sent as financial support for projects and organizations dealing with social welfare, socio-cultural work and the work to protect the family. Later the fund was renamed the fund to maintain the welfare Juliana (Juliana Welfare Fund).
In 1984, for services to society, Queen Juliana was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Social Sciences of Groningen (Groningen) University.
Science and Culture.
Queen Juliana has closely followed developments in the field of art, especially in painting, literature and theater. She often visited the exhibition and premieres at home and abroad. Queen's Birthday (April 30) is always observed the parade of colors in the palace of Soestdijk.
Princess of the Netherlands.
January 31, 1980 on radio and television, it was announced that Queen Juliana is going to abdicate in favor of his eldest daughter, Beatrix. In his speech, the queen expressed the hope that Beatrix will continue to serve his country after the abdication. Beatrix became honorary chairman of National Committee of the International Year of Disabled Persons in 1981 and continued to make frequent visits to charitable organizations. In 1983, Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard visited the Netherlands Antilles, to see how to run projects for which funding was carried out of funds donated by its. Since early 90-ies Princess Juliana gradually moving away from the public and public life. Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard usually spend the summer at his residence l'Elefante felice in Porto Ercole in Italy. Until 1994, every winter they went skiing, usually in Lech in Austria.
based on the Official site of the Royal House of Netherlands