Marco Polo (Marco Polo)( Venetian traveler)
Comments for Marco Polo (Marco Polo)
Biography Marco Polo (Marco Polo)
1254 - 1324
Book Venetian traveler Marco Polo in China is mainly composed of personal observations, as well as the stories of his father Niccolo and uncle Maffeo counter people. Senior Polo than once, as he himself Marco, and thrice crossed Asia. with two-fold - from west to east of IA and one in the opposite direction.
Marco Polo's mother died early, but the boy's uncle, also named Marco Polo, all these years, probably without a break traded in Constantinople, and the future traveler lived in Venice with her aunt Flora (paternal). Life Marco proceeded as it proceeded at that time all the boys. Brand awareness gained on canals and embankments, . bridges and city squares, . Formal education then received very few, . unless, . contrary to the opinion of many editors and commentators, . quite possible, . that Marco was able to read and write in their native language,
The arrival of Nicolo and Maffeo in Venice was a turning point of the entire life of Marco. He eagerly listened to stories of his father and uncle about the mysterious countries in which they have visited, many of the people among whom they lived, about their appearance and dress, manners and customs, what they look like and what does not resemble the Venetian. Marco even started to learn some words and expressions in the Tatar, Turkic and other strange languages - they are father and uncles are often explained, and its Venetian speech they often lard strange catchwords. Unconsciously, he accumulated practical knowledge, which in the future, rendered him an invaluable service.
In 1271 Nicoll, Maffeo and Marco went to seventeen-year journey. Before that they met with only having inherited the throne of Pope Gregory X, who gave them to the satellites of two monks from the Order of Preachers - Piccolo Vichentskogo brother and his brother William Tripoli.
Three Venetian and the bottom of the monk got to Layasa and began to move to the East. In Armenia they learned the army Beibars arbalester, and frightened the monks chose to return to the Acre. They sent him Polo papal letter and gifts intended for the Great Khan.
Desertion cowardly monks did not discourage the Venetians. The road they knew to continue my journey, in local languages could speak, they carried letters and gifts from the higher spiritual shepherd of the West to the greatest monarch of the East. The most important thing - they have a golden plate with the personal seal of Kublai Khan, who was a safe-conduct and a guarantee that they will be provided food, shelter and hospitality, almost the entire area on which to pass,
. The first country that they had reached a "Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) to the port Layasom
. There was a brisk trade in cotton and spices.
Of Cilicia travelers hit the modern Anatolia, which Marco calls "Turkomaniey". Passing Turkomaniyu, Venetians entered into the limits of Greater Armenia. The next town, which tells the Venetian traveler, was Mosul. Mosul is located on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Nineveh, he was so famous for its beautiful woolen fabrics.
Travelers staying then in Tabriz, the largest shopping center, where people gathered from all over the world, there was a flourishing colony of Genoese merchants.
In Tabriz Marco first saw the greatest and the world pearl market. Leaving from Tabriz, Iran travelers crossed the south-easterly direction, and visited the city of Kerman. After seven days' journey from Kerman travelers reached the top of a high mountain. To overcome the mountain, it took two days, and travelers suffered from severe cold. Then they went on an extensive blossoming valley, here Marco saw and described the bulls with white humps and sheep with fat tails.
Now the Venetians entered into dangerous places, as in this part of Persia had a lot of thieves, called "karaunasami". Introducing karaunasami almost cost the life of Polo and nearly deprived the world of one of the most interesting books. The robbers took the travelers by surprise. Marco, his father and uncle and some of the escort, only seven people were rescued in the near village. All the rest of the robbers was caught and killed or sold into slavery
. Newly convoy, . intrepid Venetians moved towards its goal - to the Persian Gulf, . of Hormuz, . Here they were going to board the ship and set sail for China - Hormuz was then the end point of maritime trade between the Far East and Persia,
. During the Polo Hormuz was on the mainland. Later, as a result of the raids of hostile tribes, he was destroyed and the inhabitants moved their city on the island five miles from the mainland.
Deciding that a long voyage at the local unsafe vessels so even with horses. usually submersible surface covered with leather goods, too risky, the Venetians turned to the north-east, inland, towards the Pamirs. Many days the Venetians were traveling through the sultry deserts and fertile plains, and were in the city Sapurgane (Shibargane), where, to the delight of Marco, in abundance vodilas game and was an excellent hunting. From Sapurgana caravan to Balkh in northern Afghanistan, but the city at that time was destroyed by Genghis Khan. The Venetians saw before them the sad ruins, although some of the inhabitants of the city, escaped from the Tatar sword, has returned to the old place
. Coming Balkh, . travelers for many days moving through the lands, . gamy, . Fruit, . nuts, . grapes, . salt, . wheat, . Leaving these wonderful places, . Venetians for a few days back got into the desert and profits, . Finally, . in Badakhshan (Balashan), . Muslim region along the Oka River (Amu Darya),
. The caravan stopped here for a year because of illness or Marco, or because the Polo brothers decided to live in a wonderful climate of Badakhshan, to ensure full recovery of boys.
From Badakhshan travelers, rising higher, and went towards the Pamirs - upstream of the river Oka, and they passed through the Kashmir Valley. From Kashmir, the caravan went to the north-east and climbed the Pamir: Marco guides assured me that this is the highest place in the world. Marco said that during his stay there the air was so cold that we never could see any birds.
Descending from the Pamirs in the gorge of the river Guez (Gezdarya - southern tributary of the Kashgar), Popo came to the broad plains of Eastern Turkestan, now called Sintseyanom. In the course of his journey Polo described the ancient city of Khotan, where for centuries extracted emeralds. Leaving Khotan, Polo, stopping to rest a few oases and wells, took to the uniform, covered with dunes, desert.
On the thirtieth day of the journey the caravan arrived in Shachzhou ( "Sand County"), located on the border of the desert. It was here first observed by Marco purely Chinese manners and customs.
And a long journey across the plains, mountains and deserts of Asia are already coming to an end. It took three and a half years, during which time Mark had seen and lived through a lot, learned a lot. But this endless journey. I suppose, tired of Marco, and his older companions. You can imagine their joy when they saw on the horizon cavalry detachment sent by the Great Khan, to accompany the Venetians to the Khan's court.
Hospitality extended to travelers Kublai Khan, surprisingly, Marco described very simply and with restraint. Great Khan after the official reception of a long talk with his brothers Polo: he wanted to find out about all their adventures, beginning with the day that they long ago went to the Khan's court. Then the Venetians provided him with gifts and letters, . entrusted to them by Pope Gregory, . and handed over the vessel with holy oil, . undertaken at the request of the Khan of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and cherished for all the vicissitudes and dangers of a long journey from the shores of the Mediterranean,
. Marco was entered in the list of court.
Venetian remained in the service of the Great Khan for seventeen years. Marco never reveals to the reader, for what it matters to him as a trusted lime Kublai Khan during the years. Just follow his travels in China is impossible,
Marco tells about the peoples and nations of China and its neighboring countries, about the amazing views on the morality of the Tibetans, he described the indigenous population Yun-nan and other provinces.
As a reward for his loyalty and in recognition of his administrative ability and knowledge of the country's ruler Kublai Khan appointed Marco city of Yangzhou, in the province Tsznnsu on the Grand Canal, near its junction with the Yangtze.
Venetians enjoyed the patronage and favors great Kublai Khan, the service had they bought and wealth and power. But Khan's grace caused him to envy and hatred. Enemies at the court of Kublai Khan in the Venetians done more and more. They feared the day when the Khan died, and zasobiralis way back. However, Khan initially did not want to let the Venetians.
Kublai summoned Marco along with his father and uncle, told them about his great love for them and asked that they promised, visiting a Christian country and at home, go back to it. He was ordered to give them a gold plaque with the command, . to extend the whole earth they are not dissuaded delays and everywhere were given food, . He ordered them to provide security escort, . and authorized them to be his ambassadors to the Pope, . French and Spanish kings and other Christian rulers,
Having spent many years in the service of Kublai Khan, the Venetians returned to their homeland by sea - around South Asia and in Iran in 1295. According to some. Marko was involved in a war with Genoa and about 1297 during a sea battle was captured by the Genoese in prison in 1298 he dictated the Book "and in 1299 was released and returned to. Almost all of the information contained biographers of his later life in Venice, based on later sources, some of whom are even the XVI century. Docs XIV century is about the Marco and his family have survived very little. Proved, however, that he lived out his life as a wealthy, but far from a poor citizen of Venice. He died in 1324.
The vast majority of biographers and commentators believed that Marco Polo actually made those trips, which he says in his "Book". However, still many mysteries.
WWC Team on the basis of chapter "Marco Polo" book "100 great travelers" - M.: Veche, 1999.