Nominoe( founder of the Breton state.)
Comments for Nominoe
Nominoe rightly considered the father of the nation Breton. Briefly, his case can be expressed as follows: to him in Armorica was the territory inhabited by Britons, Brittany, was not.
. Ability to wait
. Nevenoe or Nominoe was born Plumoga (Plumaugat), near Dinant and comes from a noble Breton family
. In 831 he became Earl of Bath (recall that the county Vannskoe at that time was part of the Breton marks the border dividing the land area of the Britons and the Franks), that is - almost a representative of the Emperor Louis the Pious. Two times in his reign: the "control", and an independent sovereign. Watershed date between these two essences: 840, the death of Louis the Pious.
. During the first period, Nominoe manifests itself loyal subject, to this there are two reason: his oath of allegiance to Louis and weakness against the Bretons still a powerful opponent
. His immediate goal: to temper the impatience Brythonic regional leaders, so as not to spray lightly forces and compel them to take effect, rather than its nominal power. Therefore, . You can understand his position, . which at first glance may surprise: he took the direction of Louis against his countrymen (in collisions of 830, . 834, . 835, . 837, . Nominoe pacifies disturbances caused by the Bretons provocations francs, but accuses francs to Louis, . their emperor),
. Nevertheless, already in his work reveals a distant sight: Nominoe taking a Frankish methods that drew against them: he pushes his Bretons - peasants, soldiers and monks, to relocate to the East.
. His gift strategist and diplomat, well illustrated by the story associated with grounds Redonskogo the monastery, which became, along with the abbey in Landeveneke the biggest hotbed of Breton culture
. In 830, Konvoyon (Convoц¦on), Archdeacon Bath, with five associates, looking for a place to found a monastery, where they could devote themselves to service to God and "pray for all of Brittany". He won the sympathy of the local prince, which gives them the land at the confluence of the Vc and Wilen. First-class seat from a military point of view: a high promontory which dominates the whole area and closes the road invasions. Other leaders, unhappy with being challenged this decision before the Emperor Louis the Pious and the Archbishop of Tours, which prohibit the installation of the monastery. Even Nominoe failed to soften. But, in 834, the sons of the emperor francs, revolted against his father, Louis entered into custody. They tried in vain to find support from Nominoe, which remains loyal to the emperor. Moreover, in order to seek the help of God in favor of the emperor, he does not find a better way than the award, on behalf of Louis the Pious, the disputed land necessary for the establishment of the monastery Konvoyona:
. "... In these times when the decay is multiplied by telling the end of times, I give offerings to monks Redon, that God, moved by their prayers, was pleased to arrive in the favor of the emperor, taking into account this charity made on his behalf."
. Could Louis abandon this expression vernostiN
. 840: Louis the Pious dies, leaving the empire to his son Lothar, which is opposed to weapons in the hands of his brothers, Louis the German and Charles the Bald
. Opponent divided and weakened, it's an hour Nominoe is "Breton hour."
While grandsons of Charlemagne quarrel over grandfather's legacy, Nominoe moving to the East: the region of Nantes in 843, Rennes and Angers in 844. Meanwhile, the offspring of Louis the Pious come to an agreement at Verdun, in which the land of the Western francs go to the Charles bald. King Franks makes an attempt to add to his possessions and lands the Britons - plan which failed to achieve either Charlemagne or Clovis or other leaders francs. Alas, Charles the Bald did not possess even the talents of their famous ancestors. Nominoe forcing the enemy a place for battle, two leagues in the north of Redon: Container.
. 845 first date in the history of Brittany (the date which is almost never mentioned in history textbooks France ...).
. Battle of Cylinders
. "The Bretons, in accordance with their martial tradition, took the position before the Franks, a specially trained for this kind of fighting, horseback
. That they are promptly and all forces crashed into the thick of the Frankish troops, destroying them with their spears, then portrayed the flight, and the enemy, trying to chase them, come under a hail of arrows. Accustomed to melee, . spear against spear, . Franks remained without motion, . stunned by this tactic, . which was unknown to them, they nebyli prepared to prosecute these light troops, . and, . building stronger lines, . not find their strokes no salvation.,
. Night suspended battle
. Franks had many of those killed, more wounded, a large number of horses out of order. The next day the battle resumed and ended with the francs for a disaster. King Charles fled under cover of darkness, in secret from his army, leaving his tent, his retinue, all his royal regalia. Soon the army, terrified, do not even think about anything except the same flight. Bretons took their wealth and much booty camp ". "Raison du Kleuziou" (on Skol-Vreiz # 6, October. - Nov.. 1966, p. 6).
. From that day Nominoe become the undisputed master of Brittany.
. QUESTIONS OF THE CHURCH
. Having proved that he is a good military leader, Nominoe showed himself and far-sighted politician.
. Another father, Charles the Bald, Louis the Pious, made repeated attempts to make the Breton clergy, the most dependent on Frankish Turska metropolis
. He knew that if Brittany Church will report directly to the pope, passing, others (read - Frankish) instance, to curb the regionalist fervor Bretons will be much harder. In 818, Emperor used his stay in Brittany, that would force the adoption of the Benedictine monks Landevenneka Charter. Along the way, he tried to abolish the Celtic religious practices, to organize the diocese does not depend on the monasteries, where these traditions have taken root very firmly, to control the appointment of bishops and force them to obey the city of Tours.
. Proclaiming the sovereignty of Brittany, Nominoe sought and independence of its Church, but faced fierce resistance to the Franco-Roman part of the Breton clergy
. Konvoyon finds a method: he manages to catch some of the Frankish bishops in simony and force them to resign. Two of the accused had left to defend in Rome. Konvoyon officially sent Nominoe arrives earlier and is seeking formal condemnation. To convert it into reality, Nominoe collects Koatle (Coatleu), at 849, assembly of the 72 notables, religious and secular, in front of which, covered with shame the bishops go to retire ... Without wasting time, Nominoe inspires them to replace Bretons. Protests king of the Franks, Turska metropolitan and other bishops of Neustria, unheeded.
. After the church reform, Nominoe continues to expand the borders of the state to the east - joined the county of Rennes, Nantes and land Reetz, therefore, determined by the historical boundaries of Brittany
. However, he does not stop at this. Angers, Maine and now the army is already in Brittany Vendome, when it catches up with sudden death, March 7 851. Immediately, the Franks sought to regain the lost territories. Erispoe son Nominoe, and then Salomon, made them understand that the conquest was a strong and long.
National Hero, the initiator of the unity of the Breton, the founder of Brittany, that's who this Nominoe. His genius is marked by the vitality of his actions. If today, Bretons protest against the alienation of the Atlantic Loire, it is because it is the land of Brittany since Nominoe already 1100 years old. Independent Brittany there in 1532, four centuries of intensive assimilation did not succeed to destroy the descendants of those who fought at Cylinders consciousness that they Bretons. In this sense they are obliged Nominoe.