Claparede Edward( Psychologist)
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Biography Claparede Edward
Born: 1873, Geneva, Switzerland.
Died: 1940, Geneva, Switzerland.
Interests: applied psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, mental retardation.
Education: Doctor of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1897.
Edward Claparede was born and spent most of his life in Geneva. After studying natural sciences and medicine, he devoted himself to psychology, studying with Theodore Flernoya, its close relative, and later, and cooperating with. Claparede replaced Flernoya the post of Professor psiholgogii University of Geneva in 1915 and held this post until his death. In the field of psychology, it differs in breadth of interests, including topics such as sleep, work of intelligence, problem solving and education. In addition, he was interested in neurology and psychiatry. In addition to theoretical, experimental and applied work in psychology, Claparede devoted much time to their professional and administrative duties. Together with Flernoem he founded the journal Archives de Psychologie, and made a significant contribution to international cooperation through the activities of psychologists International Psychological Congress. In addition, in 1912 he founded the Institute of M. ZH. Rousseau conceived it as a center for innovative research and practical developments in the field of education. Later there were written many works of Jean Piaget.
Claparede always insisted on the importance of the functional approach. For example, dealing with the problems of sleep, he treated it as a functional state that meets the needs of the organism and protect it from exhaustion. Claparede proved that the dream must be accompanied by active inhibition, performed by the control of the nervous system. The refusal of contact with the outside world (namely, the situtsiya observed, as suggested Claparede, and in the case of hysteria) must have a functional reason. Accordingly, . of the contact between the organism and the environment occupies a central place in the outlook Claparede and conceptually brought him to the pragmatism, . which can be seen in his "Law of Becoming Conscious" - "the law of conscious development",
. Law Claparede entails a whole series of consequences. It implies that mental activity does not affect the mind until the body has successfully carried out its functions. Like the instincts, cognitive processing can also be effectively implemented without the involvement of consciousness. Only if the environment poses new demands, mental processes will be "intercepted" knowledge. Both experience can then be used to solve problems and an adequate assessment of implementation of. This dynamic approach to consciousness arose by combining psychoanalysis and comparative psychology. It spawned an experimental method in which the subject must tell the scheme for solving the problem. Through this method, research Claparede display some characteristics of cognitive psychology, emerged much later.
The second aspect of the law Claparede - a problem of. Claparede argues that the processes inherent in the earliest stages of development, awareness of which is not necessary after all "intercepted" consciousness. He wrote: "The sooner begins to use us, and the longer it is used, the later is its conscious perception". As the main example he cited the perception of similarity, so the child's actions are based on the similarity of objects and situations, but awareness of the similarities are much later than the awareness of differences. This hypothesis, as well as other aspects of the law Claparede and his other theories, drew attention to Piaget. Its consequences seem to be somewhat provocative, as if we could come to an agreement on what phase of development are the late (and most mature), it would provide tempting opportunities for understanding the phenomenon of childhood. Connecting the logic, for example, could be regarded as the last stage of the awakening of consciousness. If so, then, according to the consequences of the law Claparede, unconscious use of logical mechanisms should apply to the earliest cognitive abilities. It should be emphasized that the work of Piaget did not fully exhaust the law of the developing consciousness Claparede nor the rest of his assumptions. Indeed, Claparede uses a more dynamic, open approach to the problem of development of cognitive abilities than his younger colleague. Claparede always unbiased judgments, he always tried to identify the flexibility of reactions of man in his interactions with the environment.