BERLIOZ Hector( Music)
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Biography BERLIOZ Hector
(1803 - 1869)
. Berlioz went down in history as a courageous artist, . expanded the expressive possibilities of musical art, . a romantic, . acute depicting lush spiritual impulses of his time, . composer, . closely related to music with other arts, . as the creator of the program of symphonic music - romantic era of the conquest, . established in the work of composers of the XIX century.,
. The future composer Hector was born December 11, 1803 in La Cote-Saint-AndrцL, near Grenoble
. His father - a doctor, Louis-Joseph Berlioz, was a man of free-thinking and independent.
He introduced his son with the theory of music, taught him to play the flute and guitar. One of the first strong impressions of Berlioz's music was the singing of the women's choir in the local monastery. Although interest in music was awakened by Berlioz relatively late - in the twelfth year, he was unusually strong, and soon moved into all-consuming passion. Henceforth, for him there was only music. Geography, the classics of literature receded into the background.
Berlioz was a typical self-taught: musical knowledge, he was obliged to myself and books that are in my father's library. Here he met with such complex works as "A treatise on harmony, Rameau, with books, required profound training.
The boy showed all the great musical success. He freely played flageolet, flute and guitar. My father did not allow him to play the piano, for fear that this tool entice it into the music more than he would like. He believed that the profession of musician is not suitable for his son, and dreamed that Hector, like him, is a medical. On this basis then between father and son conflict arose. The young Berlioz continued to compose, and meanwhile the father continued to prepare his son to the medical profession. In 1821, the 18-year-old Berlioz successfully passed the examination for a bachelor's degree in Gre-Noble. From there he and his cousin went to Paris to enter the Medical Faculty. Both boys have settled in the Latin Quarter - the center of student life in Paris.
Leisure Berlioz spent in the library of the Paris Conservatory, studying scores of great masters, especially adored them Gluck. Realizing that without serious training can become a composer, he began to study theories of composition, first with Gerono, and then with Lesyue-rum - a professor of the Conservatory, the author of several operas and choral works.
. On the advice of Lesyuera in 1826, Berlioz entered the Conservatory
. During the next two years, according to Berlioz, his life was lit up by three "lightning strike": familiarity with the works of Shakespeare, Goethe and Beethoven. This is a further stage of spiritual maturity. But there was another flash of lightning, not related to music.
In 1827, Paris visited the new British theater troupe headed by the famous tragic actor and actress Kembla Smithson. Berlioz's extraordinary talent and moved by the entire artistic appearance Smithson, he loved her at first sight. The young British actress, Irish descent, was at that time 27 years. Contemporaries noted the sincerity of her lyrical talent, a deep emotional responsiveness. The surviving portraits, in particular lithography Devers reconstruct a talented artist, inspired face, pensive look.
. Love for the famous actress, who spoiled the triumph in London and Paris, made by Berlioz in whatever has to seek creative success
. Meanwhile, Harriet Smithson was not paying attention to him and thank him not come.
. Flammable, continuously being in the state of creative excitement, Berlioz composes, moving from one idea to another: cantatas, songs ( "Irish Melodies"), orchestral overtures and much more
. Since 1823 he spoke in the press ostropolemicheskimi articles and for many years has not parted with the vision of journalist. So quietly but intensely, he was involved in the artistic life of Paris, drawing close to the best representatives of the progressive intellectuals: Hugo, Balzac, Dumas, Heine, Liszt, Chopin and others.
As before, his life was not guaranteed. He gave the author's concert, which was a success. But he had his own money to rewrite the party, inviting the soloists, orchestra and therefore get into debt. This will continue in future: like Balzac, he could not manage to pay its creditors! Official authorities in no way going to meet. Moreover, the conservative musical circles at every step of repairing interference. For example, three times at the end of the conservatory he was denied a state scholarship, which was granted for the trip to three years in Italy (the so-called Rome Prize). Only in 1830 it honored ...
Berlioz wrote in this period and the purely symphonic works, and works, in which freely combine vocal and orchestral episodes. Their imaginations are always unusual and carry a charge of energy. Unexpected literary and pictorial associations, sharp contrasts figurative comparisons, the sudden change of state - all this conveys a bright, colorful sound conflictual peace of mind of the artist, endowed with vivid imagination.
. December 5, 1830 the premiere of "Symphonie Fantastique" - the most famous works by Berlioz
. Is a kind of musical romance with a complex psychological subtext. It is based on the plot, which is briefly described as a composer: "The young musician, with tenderness and hot imagination, poisoned with opium in a fit of amorous despair. Drug dose is too weak to cause his death, plunges him into a heavy sleep, during which feelings, emotions and memories are translated in his sick brain into musical thoughts and images. The very same lovely woman becomes a melody, as if obsession, which he finds and hears everywhere. "
. In the given program, explaining the idea of the symphony, easy to see and autobiographical features - echoes of the fiery passions of Berlioz, Harriet Smithson.
. Long before the end of the period of stay in Italy, in 1832, Berlioz returned to Paris
. At the concert, which he gave, were performed Symphonie Fantastique in the new edition and monodrama "Lelio". There was another meeting with Harriet Smithson. Life actress at that time was difficult. Spectators are full of new theatrical experiences were no longer interested in the performances of the British, in an accident, the actress broke her leg. Her stage career ended. Berlioz showed a touching concern for Smithson. A year later she married Berlioz. The young composer had to work 12-15 hours to feed his family, uryvaya a night watch for creativity.
Looking ahead say that family life is not formed. Because of the refusal of the stage character Smithson deteriorated. Berlioz seeks solace on the side, enjoys a mediocre singer Spaniard Maria Recio, who lived with him not so much in love, but from selfish motives: the name of the composer was already widely known.
. New major product of Berlioz symphony "Harold in Italy" (1834), inspired by memories of this country and enthusiasm Byron
. Symphony program, but the nature of the music less subjective than in the Fantastic. Here, the composer sought to convey not only the personal drama of the hero, but also to describe the world around him. Italy in this work not only the background, shielding human experiences. She lives her life, bright and colorful.
Generally, the period between the two revolutions - 1830 and 1848 - the most productive in the creative activity of Berlioz. Constantly in the thick of life struggles, . a journalist, . Conductor, . composer, . it becomes an artistic figure of a new type, . which by all available means of defending their beliefs, . passionately denounces the inertia and vulgarity in art, . fighting for the approval of high romantic ideals,
. But it is easy to burn, Berlioz as quickly cools. It is very unstable in emotional outbursts. This is largely clouded his relationship with people.
In 1838, in Paris the opera "Benvenuto Cellini". The performance was excluded from the repertoire after the fourth submission. Berlioz has long been unable to recover from this blow! After music opera spurts of energy and fun, and bright band draws its characteristic quality.
. In 1839, finalized the third, most extensive and given the highlights of a symphony of contrasts - "Romeo and Juliet" for orchestra, and soloists hira
. Berlioz before brings its instrumental performance elements of drama, but in this work in a rich changing scenes inspired by the tragedy of Shakespeare, yet clearly manifested features operatic expressiveness. He opened the topic of pure young love, growing up in spite of hate and evil and to conquer them. Berlioz's symphony - a work of deeply humanistic, full of ardent faith in justice. Music is totally free of false pathos and violent romanticism perhaps the most objective the creation of the composer. There alleged victory of life over death.
1840 marked the execution of the Fourth Symphony by Berlioz. Together with the previously written Requiem (1837) is a direct echo of progressive opinion frantic romantic. Both works are devoted to the memory of the heroes of the July Revolution of 1830, in which the composer participated directly, and are designed to execute giant performing compositions of squares, the open air.
. Berlioz is renowned as an outstanding conductor and
. In 1843 he began touring outside of France - in Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia, England. Everywhere he has a phenomenal success, especially in Moscow and St. Petersburg (in 1847). Berlioz - the first in the history of performing arts touring conductor, who served alongside their works and contemporary authors. As a composer, he is contradictory, often polar views.
Each concert of Berlioz won his new music listeners. A sad contrast in this respect remained Paris. Here, nothing has changed: a small group of friends, the indifference of the bourgeois audience, the hostile attitude of most critics, spiteful grin musicians, dire need, heavy forced labor newspaper hack. High hopes pinned on the first performance of Berlioz had just finished them at the end of 1846 a dramatic legend "Damnation of Faust". The only result of the concert was a new duty of 10 000 francs, which are required to pay the performers and for the tenancy. Meanwhile, "Damnation of Faust" - one of the most mature works of the composer. Indifference and lack of understanding, with which it was received, due to the novelty of music, a break with tradition. Conversation nature "Damnation of Faust" baffled not only the ordinary listeners, but also musicians.
The original intent of the work dates back to 1828 - 1829 years, when Berlioz wrote "Eight scenes from" Faust "". However, since the plan has undergone significant changes and became more deeply. This dramatized oratorio, even more than the dramatic symphony "Romeo and Juliet", moving closer to the theatrical stage genre. And just as Byron or Shakespeare, in his most recent works by Berlioz very freely interprets literary source - a poem by Goethe, freely adding a number of fabrications of scenes.
Ended with a rebellious period in the biography of Berlioz. Cools his exuberant temperament. He did not take the revolution of 1848, but at the same time he suffocated in the grip of the Empire "miserable nephew - great uncle" (as Hugo nicknamed Napoleon III). Something snapped in Berlioz. True, he is still energetic as a conductor (in the years 1867-1868 re-visited Russia), as a writer on music (publishes collections of articles, working on his memoirs), writes, although not so intense.
Berlioz stopped writing symphonies. For. concert performance is only a small cantata "The Childhood of Christ" (1854), distinguished musical hues and picturesque sentiment. In the theater Berlioz wants to achieve decisive success. Alas, this time in vain ... Not a success nor his opera in two parts of "Les Troyens" (1856), in which Berlioz tried to revive the majestic pathos of Gluck, or an elegant comedy of Beatrice and Benedict "(based on Shakespeare's play" Much Ado About Nothing, 1862). For all its virtues, these works nevertheless lacked emotional force, which is so impressive in the writings of the preceding period. Fate is cruel to him: Smithson died, stricken with paralysis. Died and his second wife - Recio, dies in a shipwreck, the only son of a sailor. Deteriorating relationships with friends. Berlioz broke illness. In solitude he died March 8, 1869.
Of course, this is twenty years is not all so bleak tinged with light. There was a partial success, and formal recognition. But the grandeur of Berlioz was not understood by his contemporaries in his homeland. Only later, in 1870 it proclaimed the head of the new French school of music.
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