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VERDI, Giuseppe

( Music)

Comments for VERDI, Giuseppe
Biography VERDI, Giuseppe
1813 - 190
Coeval Wagner. Like Wagner, he was a great opera composer 2 nd half of the 19 th century. He wrote 26 operas and 1 Requiem. Had a sense of the scene, temperament and impeccable craftsmanship. Unlike Wagner, Verdi did not deny the opera traditions, but rather developed them (the traditions of Italian opera), but he reformed the Italian opera, filled it with realism, gave it a unity of the whole. By the time the opera was in need of reformation. There was a lot of vocal excesses, it is often divided into separate rooms. Verdi strove to create a musical drama. He wanted to put together drama and music. Verdi did not declare its reform, but made it (did not write articles on the reform). This did not happen immediately. The path to mastery was a long. Creativity absorb it different from the Italian tradition of Rossini (Skill deferentsirovannogo (contrast) of the ensemble, dynamic growth in the finals). From Bellini, Verdi took the vocal skills, breadth, expressive melodies, from Donizetti - sharpness contrasts, theatrical.

Verdi served as an opera composer in the 40-ies. At this time, intensified the war of liberation of the Italians against the Austrians. Opera this time the spirit of the time. Opera heroic, the abundance of massive popular scenes, written by a large style - the poster child, a funky, bright. Choirs and airs in 40-ies the people sang in the streets.

Opera 40-ies: 'Battle of Lignano', 'Nabucco', 'Lombards'. Librettist of the time - Solera. There are other operas: 'Lady Macbeth', 'Ernani', 'Luisa Miller'.

'Hernani' by Victor Hugo play. Full of romantic passion, contrasts. Emotions are exaggerated. Psychological development of the characters is not enough.

'Lady Macbeth'. On Shakespeare. Strong characters, vivid passion. Very theatrical.

'Luisa Miller'. According to Schiller. Deeply psychological. Appears theme of social inequality. This theme was called in 50-ies.

50-s

6 operas: 'Rigoletto', 'La Traviata', 'Il Trovatore', 'Sicilian Vespers', 'Simon Boccanegra', 'Masked Ball'. In these mature operas by Verdi wanted a real picture of the passions and characters, to psychologism. Characters are revealed in sharp conflict. Great importance attached Verdi libretto. He cared that it was concise and to have been sharp conflicts. Orchestra in the 50 years of enriched. It is complicated.

'Rigoletto'. 1851. Libretto by Piave, after Victor Hugo 'King having fun'. For censorship reasons, the action moved to Italy. Triboulet - 1-st name Rigoletto. Opera is full of vivid theater of conflict, but there is an exaggeration of feelings.

'Troubadour'. In drama Gumerisa. Extremely intricate plot.

'La Traviata'. By Dumas. Consumer psychological drama.

'Sicilian Vespers'. Continues the line of heroic operas 40-ies. It is written in the spirit of great French opera.

60's

2 Opera. 'La forza del destino' (commissioned by St. Petersburg). [In the 70 th and 80 th years Verdi wrote one opera]. Verdi 2 times came to St. Petersburg. Libretto by Piave. Libretto failure.

'Don Carlos' Schiller in. Psychological drama. Most opera. This Verdi opera does not divide the numbers, he gives it the through the development (through the scene).

1871. 'Aida'. 1-I production was in Cairo. Written by order of Cairo. Large. External signs - a large French opera, but here is very important deeply psychological drama. The whole opera is a cross-cutting scenes.

In the 70 years Verdi wrote the Requiem memory revolutionary poet Alessandro Manzoni. 1873. For dramatic and contrast, the theatrical requiem close to the opera.

80 s

1886. 'Othello'. Musical drama. Boito Libretto. Confluence of Music and Drama. Large dramatic scenes, intense development, which includes the established operatic forms. A huge part of the orchestra. Harmonic language is complicated - alteration interrupted turnover. Enters leitmotifs. In declamatory vocal parties increases. Formed declamatory arioso-style.

1893. 'Falstaff'. By Shakespeare ( 'Merry Wives of Windsor'). It takes place in the reform of the comic opera genre. Consists of cross-cutting scenes. With a large role declamatory.

'Rigoletto'

1851. Libretto by Piave. The plot - Hugo's drama 'King of amusing' - is a socio-drama invective from the era of the XVI century (King Francis I). The opera was written for 40 days and placed with great success. This is the first mature opera drama, the first peak of realism. This drama was illegal in France, tk. She exposes the vices of the royal guests. Piave transferred the action from France to Italy. King Francis was the Duke, the jester Triboulet - Rigoletto, his daughter Blanche was Gilda. This opera - psychological musical drama. It develops trends that emerged in the operas of 40-ies. Written in the tradition of 'Luisa Miller' and 'Lady Macbeth', but with more psychological. Opera is full of sharp contrasts, romantic exaggerations, which make a melodramatic character.

Opera stages well. Sharp contrasts give it a theatrical brightness. For example: 'The scene of the Duke ball' in the 1 st step. Appears tragic figure of Count Monterone, who curses the Duke and Rigoletto. In the last act grim situation, a violent scene of the murder, and suddenly it sounds frivolous ditty Duke.

. In the opera, there are contrasting characters: the frivolous image of the Duke and Rigoletto, Gilda suffering and coquettish Maddalena.

. Opera is a 3-Action
. Inside Verdi's action seeks to create cross-cutting scenes, which include the aria, melodious recitatives, the choral pieces. Some sections of the scene can be completely finished form.

Especially deeply characterizes Rigoletto. It is shown from different sides (nature): as a jester, mocks at the other, and as a loving father, and as an ominous dark avenger, and a deeply tragic figure (the culmination of nature - an aria 'Kurtizany - offspring of vice'). Party of the orchestra more complex and more interesting. It ceases to play only an accompanying role. It is in the orchestral part sounded only in the opera motif - motif Curse. Starts with an introduction to the opera. 2 Picture 1 st action - 'Conversation Sparafucile'.

1-e effect. C-moll. The tragic theme of the entry. The repetition of one note is typical for the party Monterone. 2-nd thread with sekundovoy groaning intonation. Theme suffering Rigoletto. Finalized reprise.

1 Scene. Ball in the house of the Duke. Frivolous atmosphere. In the center of the picture - Ballad of the Duke. It's as if his credo: 'Ta, il this, I can not make out'. As-dur. The finished room. Couplet form. Relying on the popular Italian dance.

Menuet and Rigaudon. Guests dancing. Simple (minuet and Rigaudon). Rigaudon in G-dur. All this is built like 1 scene.

Suddenly there is a scene Monterone. It appears all amazed. Vocals is based on one note (on the leitmotif of cursing). Rigoletto mocks him. The orchestra - affectation jester. He says: 'Trust us, you have not lived. . '. The role of the orchestra. Different riffs. In response Monterone said: 'Once again, an insult'. 'Grievances terrible I will not forget'. All are struck. Monterone cursed the Duke and Rigoletto. Then the chorus of the court: 'The old man crazy how dare you yavitsyaN'. Gradually the atmosphere of the ball clears up, and people forget about this incident.

2 Scene. Duet Rigoletto and Sparafucile. Gloomy entry - the leitmotif of curses. The atmosphere of the night is expressed in the orchestra. Um7 chords. Rigoletto one. What is important is his monologue. He remembers the curse: "Cursed is forever so I elder '. Sounding the leitmotif of curses. Further conversation c Sparafucile. The whole conversation - recitative. The conversation sounds on the background of orchestral themes.

Then the scene and duet. Duet with Gilda has 4 sections: 1 (C-dur) - joyful, 2 (As-dur) - sings Rigoletto, raspevnaya theme, 3 (as-moll) - agitated, 4 (Es-dur) - Rigoletto Gilda asks the maid to take care of. It is important that the subjects Rigoletto lose their angularity. Music noble raspevnaya.

Then duet Gilda and the Duke - the main theme in B-dur. This is - a love duet. Next Gilda's aria, which characterizes it as an unsophisticated, naive, charming girl. E-dur. Final I-go action. Negotiations court and Rigoletto. Grim. During the abduction of the chorus sounds of the court: 'P' ( 'Hush, hush'). Completes 1-e effect leitmotif curse. Rigoletto discovers the terrible truth.

II-e effect. Opens troubling assumption. Then the Duke's aria in Ges-dur. Appear courtiers (choir), who reported the abduction of Gilda.

. Scene and Aria Rigoletto (N 12) a song called Rigoletto, apparently remains characteristic Rigoletto - joke, broken melody.

. In Rigoletto's aria several sections:

. 1 section
. c-moll. Accused the Duke and his entourage. Important role played by the orchestra. 'Kurtizany, Devil blemish'.

2 Section. F-moll. Humbly requests that the duke.

3 Section. Des-dur. Wide raspevnaya topic.

Scene and duet Gilda and Rigoletto. Story Gilda. Sad music, the end of phrases like sighs. Duo Gilda and Rigoletto. There is a section (Des-dur), which resembles the 3rd section of the aria Rigoletto. The last section - high pathos, fast.

3rd effect. The whole scene is full of romantic exaggeration. To thicken the atmosphere of darkness Verdi introduces the chorus, which portrays the howling wind. Bright contrast of the atmosphere - lilt Duke. He comes to the house Sparafucile. He lured there Maddalena. Rigoletto brings Gilda. Formed quartet: the Duke, Maddalena, Gilda, and Rigoletto. A striking example of contrasting ensemble, where each musical hero gets his musical characterization, contrasting other.

Quartet. Des-dur. Duke Begins. Reference to Maddalena. It deceives its. He is responsible Maddalena. She flirts. At Gilda groaning intonation with sighs. We Rigoletto phrases are full of dark anger.

'Aida'

1878. Written by request of the Government of Egypt over the opening of the Suez Canal. Written by an ancient Egyptian legend. Scenario Marietta (geologist). French libretto du Locle. Italian translation - Gislantsoni with participation of the Verdi. Libretto concise and full of dramatic conflict. Opera is good theater, bright. Actions are developing rapidly. Large - 4 act. External characters close to a big French opera opera. Many scenes of mass popular. Enters ballet. The main feature of the genre - a psychological drama. Disclosure of internal feelings of the characters. Special psychological characteristics differ Aida, Amneris. The main conflict: on one hand - the pure love of Aida and Radames, and the other - the brutal force opposing it, which represent the priests. There is a heroic line, which runs from early heroic operas: 'Nabucco', 'Lombards', 'The Battle of Legnano'. Elements of lyrical drama come from the early operas: 'Luisa Miller', 'La Traviata' and others. Verdi refuses numerical structure and comes to the big cross-cutting scenes. They are melodious recitatives, choruses, arioso moments. There are scenes of purely solo or ensemble: the big solo scene of Aida from the 1 st action or series of ensemble scenes from the 3rd action.

A huge part of the orchestra. He saturated thematism (and not just an accompaniment). There are leitmotifs: Aida, Amneris, Priests, jealousy, etc.. The role of individual sounds: the harp (the scene of initiation in the generals), oboe (in the romance of Aida), bass clarinet (3rd action - characterizes Amneris), violin (the leitmotif of Aida), timpani and trombones (in the scene of the court).

. Considerably more complex harmonic language
. It is composed of various elements of the late romantic harmony: major-minor, enharmonic modulation. If you compare this with Wagner, there is a complete balance of instrumental and vocal parts.

Premiered in Cairo. Verdi was not present there. Opera was a great success after performances in Milan (1871). The brightness of the music gives the oriental flavor of some scenes. Often uses reduced level, elements of the Phrygian mode.

Introduction. It outlines the basic conflict. The violins are the subject of Aida. 3-private form. 2 nd theme - the theme of the priests. Detached. In the middle of the 2 themes are connected together.

1-e effect. 1 Scene. Action in ancient. Period of Egypt's war with Ethiopia. Effects of the palace.

Romance Radames. The only finished room in the opera. B-dur. 2 Theme. Mid-to b-moll. After her reprise.

Next 1-th ensemble scene. Love triangle: Aida, Amneris and Radames. Trio. It starts with a keynote Amneris. B-dur. 1-st section of recitative. The orchestra sounds theme features Amneris. Radames embarrassed. Amneris jealous.

2 nd section. Tenor of jealousy.

3rd section. Tenor Aida. Aida appears on the background of tremolo strings. Again, sounds the leitmotif of jealousy. Amneris Aida accesses.

2 nd Stage. Large ensemble with chorus. A large crowd scene. Radames announce commander on the way to Ethiopia. Marching topic. First, the subject begins to sing the Pharaoh, then the ensemble and choir. This topic is growing in the orchestra. 'Come back with a victory for us' - the last word.

Next scene solo - scene of Aida. Thorough development. Aida Encouraged by the general mood, it also says 'Come back with a victory for us' and then realizes what she says, because all are eager to win over her father. Next topic contrasting. E-moll. Ends 7 mind chord. 3rd section - 'Love has forgotten that she said'. 4-th section - as-moll - 'And I did not dare openly, freely, names dear to me called'. 5 th section - 'my gods, have pity, I pray, give me death. "

Scene N6 (2-Scene). Solemn dedication to commanders in the temple. It appears oriental flavor. Harp and voice offstage priestess. Es-dur. In harmony emphasizes II low level. Lush harmony. 'Omnipotent, the great God'. Then the chorus priestesses as an echo. Melodic Es-dur (VI, VII, II). Then the chorus of priests and kappella: 'You created the earth out of chaos'.

Then dancing priestesses. Play flute. Modal mood. Seul.

2 Effects. The victory over the Egyptians, the Ethiopians. In the royal palace are preparing for the holiday. Chambers of Amneris. Female Choir slaves and then Hades. Ends 2-e effect of a large crowd scene. In the center of conflict duet of Aida and Amneris.

Chorus slaves. G-moll. ( 'Who is there with a victory goes to the glory of the solemn'.) Entry votes simulation. Ceremonial march. 2 nd topic softer - B-dur. ( 'Come, man, we decorate. "). As the 3rd section of the voice of Amneris: 'My dear, come to my bliss, come, my love, my heart pacified'. Form couplet. Each couplet consists of 3 sections.

Scene duo. Stage-fight two opponents.

1 st section. Emergence Aida. 'Your brother arms has changed now, Aida'. A-dur. Amneris encourages her to trust. I Aida issue in high-contrast case: 'Can I be happy in a country where everything I chuzhdoN'. Subject agitated.

2 nd section. The theme of love ( 'Love for the happiness we gave the gods'). F-dur. Triolny background shows emotion.

3rd section. Appeal Amneris. The orchestra in the smooth R & B-dur. 'What else do you grieve stalaN'. This section is the most conflictual. Recitative passages.

4-th section. F-moll. Sadly romansovogo warehouse. 'Forgive and have mercy, do not hide the forces'. Replicas contrast Amneris Aida: 'You destroy a fatal passion'. Overbearing theme. At the end of this section arises triumphant theme in As-dur: 'Glory to Egypt "with a chorus. Closes scene enlightened theme of the prayer: 'I can not stop loving him'. That minor, some major.

A huge crowd scene, which also includes the chorus, and soloists, and orchestra.

Next comes the procession of winners.

It is yet another pompous march: 'Glory to Egypt "in Es-dur. Whole chorus sings. Solemn character.

2-nd section of the mass scenes: the output of the priests with their leitmotifs. Simulation membership vote. Ces-dur.

Then a military march. Solo trumpet, brilliant timbre.

The next episode of ballet. Groups of dancers are precious losers. C-moll.

Next section. Returns' Glory to Egypt "in Es-dur. Then again theme priests.

N6. Included Radames. Pharaoh comes down from the throne. Amneris confers on him a crown a winner. Sounding its leitmotif.

N7. Include prisoners. Aida sees his father in chains (Amonasro). Aida rushes to him.

N8. There is a story about the death of the king Amonasro. D-moll. For his party, characterized by syncopation. 'You see these clothes are simple, I am a warrior, fighting for the fatherland'. His vocal recitative.

2-nd section - pleading for mercy. 'But we made (N) a fair trial ..'. Submit smooth. F-dur. Subscribes voice Aida and all the prisoners. Radames intercedes for them. Priests against.

Terminate this whole issue final glory to Egypt.

3rd effect. Abounds in dramatic scenes, ensembles. They follow each other. First solo scene - the romance of Aida, then duet scene of Aida and Amneris, further duet scene of Aida and Radames, then the dramatic finale of the 3rd actions - conclusion Radames in custody.

Start paints an exotic landscape on the bank of the Nile. Flutes play the theme in octaves, and harp accompany. Intervals used in fifths and octaves. There is an element of exoticism. From the temple can be heard singing priests. Almost as kappella. Sing in octave. Archaic sounds. Amneris goes to church. Appears Aida. Sounding the leitmotif of Aida on the background of chromatic trills.

Romance Aida. Pass-through solo scene. 2 large couplet. 2 nd verse vary widely. It starts with a sad solo oboe (d-moll). Superimposed on him recitative Aida: 'Oh, my native land'. Then the main section - a-moll: 'The sky azure, the air is clean'. Peculiar music. The continuous alternation of major and minor (A-dur, a-moll).

2 nd verse. More Drama. Varies support - there are violent figuration. Between verses again sounds a solo oboe.

2 nd Stage. Aida and Amonasro. Amonasro need to find out from Radames as Egyptian troops will go tomorrow. Aida after prolonged perturbation agrees.

First comes the recitative section.

1 st section. Des-dur. Memories of Motherland: 'we will soon go back to the edge of our dear one' - singing Amonasro.

2 nd section. Aida refuses to learn the path down which the troops.

3rd section. It starts with a stormy aria Amonasro: 'Get up, enemies, and fearlessly Attack'. C-moll. Chromatic in the bass.

4-th section. Andante. Des-moll. Aida in a daze: "No, no '. The orchestra astinatnaya figure. Recitative for cello. Music rigidity. Recitative one sound from Aida: 'Know, they raboyu not anymore'.

3rd Stage. Ensemble. Aida and Radames. It consists of several sections. It sounds fascinating topic, chromatic - Aida Radames persuaded to stay in her homeland: 'There, in a dark grove of palm trees, we will meet at sunset'. Radames agrees, and tells Aida as Egyptians go. Radames grab soldiers. Aida and Amonasro disappear.

4-e effect. Consists of 2 paintings.

1-I pattern consists of scenes Amneris and Radames. Amneris comes to prisoner Radames. He rejects it.

2 nd Stage. Scene of the court in the basement. Drama. Priests and Radames. 2 nd plan contrasting. It Amneris watches the scene of the court. She suffers. This is most clearly delineated character Amneris. In the scene of a court there is a dramatic duality. This - the original reception of Verdi, which gives brightness and theatrical.

The structure resembles Mozart. The same set of repeats from the different notes, with a gradual upward movement.

1 st section. Prosecution of the priests, singing in unison. Almost the same sound (To note): 'Radames, Radames'. 'You dare to open all secrets: Give us an answer'. Sounds unaccompanied. At this point in Verdi's no bar-lines. Radames is not responsible for the prosecution of priests. In the background moaning cry Amneris: 'The gods have pity' in e-moll. Ends mind. 7 chord.

2 nd section. The same material. Ramfis accuses Radames, but on the B-flat (on the floor colors above). Again sounds theme Amneris in f-moll.

3rd section. Interest charges from the G-sharp. Sounds theme Amneris in fis-moll. Sounds a guilty verdict: 'Bury alive in a dungeon. "

2 Scene. Dungeon. There penetrates Aida to die with Radames. Again the duality. Amneris prays to the gods. Farewell to life - it is quiet in the enlightened end of the Ges-dur. Aida sings: 'Farewell, land'. Then the same theme sings Radames.

PS: Opera begins violins in high register and ends the same in the high register.

бL Denis Buryakov99g


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