Fryderyk Chopin( Music)
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Biography Fryderyk Chopin
Chopin - the founder of Polish classical music. This romantic composers, but a special romantic. All his work is connected with Poland, its folklore, history. His life was tragically formed. It (life), as it were divided into 2 parts. The first 20 years he lived in Poland (until 1831), and then was forced to leave Poland for ever. Later in life, Chopin lived in Paris, yearning for the homeland. There are 2 features of his work: 1) Homeland has acquired its value unattainable romantic ideals, dreams, for which he languished all his life. Chopin - composer-lyricist. 2) romantic impulse, longing in his music is always combined with a clear logic, polished form. Chopin has always rejected riot, intentionally and exaggeration. He could not bear the staggering effects. Leaf said: 'Chopin makes no frills and naked'. Chopin loved Bach, Mozart. Music Chopin differs artistry, spirituality, subtlety. He did not like Beethoven.
Chopin created his own piano style, which combines virtuosity and subtle, deep lyricism. He created new types of playing piano, playing piano, new colors, new appliances in the pedal.
Chopin reinterpreted different genres of piano miniatures. Prelude became independent, rather than opening play. In depth prelude or impromptu approach to drama. He made a lot of new things in the genre of etude. Each etude - romantic miniature, and at the same time each sketch - a way to learn new techniques.
Nocturne and Waltz. There nocturnes tragic-sounding (c-moll) with a complex continuous development. Waltzes and brilliant, concert, virtuosic, and there are deeply lyrical.
Chopin created a new genre of romantic miniatures based on Polish dances - the mazurka, polonaise, Krakowiak.
Created new genres major form. These are: scherzo, which before was part of a symphony cycle (from 2 in Beethoven's Seventh Symphony), a ballad, which had previously been in German poetry. This - complex genres, in which there is a synthesis of different forms, including even cyclic. Chopin - the greatest master of melody. Melodic roots had different. His music combines the features of the Polish national song and the classic Italian Belsanta. In tunes there and melody, and declamatory, and complex development tool. The special peculiarity of the melodies of Chopin attaches ornaments. These ornaments thematically important. The origin of identity serves as a violin virtuoso and a popular variation of the Italian singing. Harmonic language is complicated, but the harmony is very melodious, as if they were made of singing voices. Features of harmony: Remote key, alteration, enharmonic modulation, modulation to distant tonalities. This set of Liszt, Scriabin and other more recent composers.
Chopin was born near Warsaw in е¦elazowa Will in a very cultural family. Father - a former army officer Kosciusko. My father worked in the Warsaw Lyceum. Mother was very musical. In Chopin's very early apparent attraction to the piano. 1 st concert he gave in 8 years. 1 st piano teacher - Vojtech Zhivny. He instilled the love the boy to the classics. At age 13 he entered the Lyceum father. He studied Polish literature, aesthetics, history. In high years, Chopin wrote poems, plays, well painted (especially cartoons). He had a congenital tuberculosis.
Musical life in Warsaw was pretty intense, lively. Polish composers of opera were raised, as well as Rossini, Mozart and others. Chopin heard Paganini, Hummel (pianist). Hummel had an impact on the early piano style. In Warsaw, there were different musical circles. Chopin played in them.
Studying in the Main School of Music (Conservatory). Engaged in composition class of Elsner. Composing Chopin started early (before the conservatory). Wrote polonaise, waltz.
. Early Works
. Group 1 works: The main product of concert, virtuosic, and several complex, lush, for piano and orchestra.
. Group 2: Miniatures - waltzes, mazurkas, polonaises.
. The highest achievement of this period - 2 piano concerto
. In 1828, Mr.. Chopin first time went to a concert tour abroad. Was in Berlin, Vienna, Prague and Dresden. In 1830, Mr.. He charted with friends new concert tour. In the autumn he went to Vienna and then in Paris. At this time in Prague was imminent uprising, which Chopin warmly supported. On the way to Paris - in the city of Stuttgart, he learned of the defeat of the uprising. It shocked him. He rushed home, but kept his friends.
After this work Chopin changed. Appeared before this unprecedented drama. Posted rapid sketch - c-moll, which he described as revolutionary (this sketch was written in the same - in Stuttgart). The impression of the defeat of the uprising was expressed later in other works (1-I ballad, preludes a-moll, and d-moll).
The main period of creativity. Paris, 30-40 years, has become a cultural center of Europe. There flocked all celebrities: Balzac, Stendhal, Hugo, Merimee, Musset, Delacroix (painter, who wrote the only portrait of Chopin), Heine, Mickiewicz, Liszt, Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini and others. There were the famous opera singers: Pasta, Malibran, Viardot, and as there were: Berlioz, Auber, Halevy. In Paris, played piano virtuoso: Kalkbrenner, Thalberg, as well as Paganini. In Paris, Chopin made friends with the Poles. Joined the Polish Literary Society. First of all, Chopin won Paris as a pianist. He had a thin sound. Chopin was very weak, so it was perceived as F i. He is very well conveyed subtlety of color. He had a wonderful rubato. In the future, little Chopin played in concerts. He played mostly for his friends, the Poles.
Years affair with Polish woman, Maria Vodzinskoy. Her parents did not let them get married. After the death of Chopin found a stack of letters from Mary.
Years of living together with writer George Sand (pseudonym). She wore men's suits, smoking his pipe, was similar in character and mind of a man. They are not married. In George Sand had 2 children (not by Chopin).
Years dawn of creativity. George Sand, Chopin introduced with the best people in Paris. In winter, Chopin gave private lessons and summer living on the earnings and engaged in creative work.
In 1838, Mr.. Chopin and George Sand went to the island of Mallorca. There was a romantic atmosphere, which inspired him to 2-S ballad, the polonaise and the 3rd Scherzo.
Prior to 1838, Mr.. Chopin wrote almost exclusively thumbnail: mazurkas, etudes, polonaises, waltzes, nocturnes. Major form in the period before 1838, Mr.. - 1 st ballad, 1 st and 2 nd Scherzo. After 38 g. Chopin reveals a desire for a dramatic and major genres: 2, 3 and 4, ballads, Sonata b-moll, and h-moll, Fantasia f-moll, Polonaise-Fantasie, 3 and 4 Scherzo. Even the thumbnails are dramatic and large (Nocturne c-moll, Polonaise As-dur).
In 1847, Mr.. - Break with George Sand. Other years - a gradual extinction of creativity. In 1848, Mr.. Chopin went on tour in London. There he gave lessons, some performed in the salons. Last appeared on the Polish ball. Chopin died of tuberculosis at the hands of his sister. At the funeral, performed Mozart's Requiem. On the testament of Chopin's heart was moved to Warsaw. Since the mid 40-ies. in his art, new trends: the quiet contemplation, Bright harmony. Musical language is more complicated. Appears more polyphonic techniques. Stratification ringtones. Harmony hromatizirovana. Here begins the path to musical emprissionizmu (Debussy, and others). This is embodied in his 'Lullaby'.
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