1797 - 1828 Schubert
refers to the first romantics (the dawn of Romanticism). His music has no such condensed psychology, as in the later Romantics. This composer - lyricist. The basis of his music - inner life. Broadcasts in the music of love and many other feelings. In the final product of the main theme - loneliness. He covered all genres of the time. He has made a lot of new. The lyrical nature of his music has predetermined its main genre of art - a song. He has more than 600 songs. Singing influenced instrumental genre in two ways:
Using the song so in instrumental music (the song 'Wanderer' became the basis of piano fantasy, the song "Girl and Death" became the basis of the quartet).
Penetration of the songs in other genres. Schubert
- creator of the lyrical and dramatic symphony (unfinished). Thematism song, the presentation of songs (Unfinished Symphony: I-Part I - GP, PP. II-nd part - percentage points), the principle of development - form, as in verse, a complete. This is especially evident in the symphonies and sonatas. In lyrical songs symphony he has created an epic symphony (C-dur). He - the creator of a new genre - the vocal ballad. Creator of romantic miniatures (and impromptu musical moments). Created vocal cycles (Beethoven was this approach).
. Creativity is enormous: 16 operas, 22 piano sonatas, 22 quartets and other ensembles, 9 symphonies, 9 overtures, 8 offhand, 6 musical moments of the music associated with the domestic music-making - waltzes, lenglery, marches, more than 600 songs.
. Life path.
. Born in 1797, Mr.
. the outskirts of Vienna - the city Lichtental. Father - a school teacher. Large family were all musicians who played music. My father taught France to play the violin, and his brother on the piano. Familiar Regent - singing and theory.
Years of teaching in Konvikt. This is a boarding school, which prepared the court chanter. It Schubert
played the violin, played in the orchestra, sang in the choir, participated in chamber music ensembles. There he learned a lot of music - a symphony by Haydn, Mozart, 1 st and 2 nd Beethoven. Favorite product - 40-Symphony Mozart. In Konvikt he became interested in creativity, so threw the remaining items. In Konvikt he took lessons from Salieri in 1812, but the views they had different. In 1816, Mr.. their separate ways. In 1813, Mr.. He left Konvikt because education interfered with creativity. During this period, wrote songs, fantasy in 4 hands, 1 Symphony, brass works, quartets, operas, piano works.
. 1813-1817 gg.
. Wrote the first song masterpieces ( 'Margarita for the spinning wheel', 'Forest King', 'trout', 'Wanderer'), 4 symphonies, 5 operas, a lot of instrumental and chamber music
. After Konvikt Schubert
at the insistence of his father graduated teachers' courses and teaches at the school his father's arithmetic and the alphabet.
In 1816, Mr.. out of school and tries to get the post of music teacher, but can not. Severed ties with his father. A period of disasters: lived in a damp room, etc.
In 1815, Mr.. written 144 songs, 2 symphonies, 2 Masses, 4 operas, 2 sonatas for piano, string quartets and other works.
In love with Therese Grob. She sang in the church choir Lihtentalskoy. Her father gave her for the baker. In Schubert
's been a lot of friends - poets, writers, artists, etc.. His friend Shpaut wrote about Schubert
Goethe. Goethe did not answer. He had a very bad character. He did not like Beethoven. In 1817, Mr.. Schubert
became acquainted with a famous singer - Johann Vogl, who became a fan of Schubert
. In 1819, Mr.. made a concert tour of Upper Austria. In 1818, Mr.. Schubert
lived with friends. Few months served as a tutor of Prince Esterhazy. There he wrote the Hungarian Divertissement for Piano 4 hands. Among his friends were: Shpaun (written recollections of Schubert
), poet Mayrhofer, poet Schober (in the text of Schubert
wrote the opera "Alfonso and Estrella ').
Most were meeting friends Schubert
- Shubertiady. These shubertiadah often present Vogl. Thanks shubertiadam his songs began to spread. Sometimes some of his songs were performed at concerts, but never staged opera, the symphony does not play. Schubert
published very little. 1 edition songs came out in 1821, Mr.. the means of admirers and friends.
Dawn creativity - 22-23 g. At this time, he wrote a cycle of 'Miller's Beautiful', the cycle of piano miniatures, musical moments, a fantasy 'Wanderer'. Consumer side Schubert
continued to be heavy, but he never lost hope. In the mid 20-ies his circle disintegrated.
Recent years. The hard life reflected in his music. This music has a dark, severe, changing style. In
songs have more declamatory. Less roundedness. Complicated harmonic basis (dissonance). Songs on poems by Heine. Quartet in D minor. At this time the symphony was written by C-dur. During these years, Schubert
once again filed a petition for the position of court Kapellmeister. In 1828, Mr.. Finally, the beginning of the recognition of talent Schubert
. There was its author's concert. In November, he died. He was buried at a cemetery with Beethoven.
Art song by Schubert
600 songs, a collection of recent songs, a collection of recent songs. What is important is the choice of poets. He began with the creation of Goethe. He graduated from the tragic song of Heine. He wrote to Schiller 'Rellstab'.
Genre - vocal ballad: 'ErlkцTnig', 'Grave fantasy', 'Father of the murderers', 'Complaint Hagar'. Genre monologue - 'Margarita for the spinning wheel'. Genre folk song 'Rose' Goethe. Song-aria - 'Ave Maria'. Genre serenade - 'Serenade' (serenade Rellstab).
In his melodies was based on the intonation of Austrian folk songs. Music is clear, sincere.
Relationship of music with text. Schubert
conveys general content of the verse. Melodies broad, generalized, plastic. Some music notes the details of the text, while in the performance appears more recitative, which, after becoming the basis of melodic style of Schubert
. For the first time in the music of piano party has become so important: no accompaniment, but the bearer of the musical image
. Expresses the emotional state. There are musical moments. 'Margarita for the spinning wheel', 'Forest King', 'Miller's Beautiful'.
Ballad 'ErlkцTnig' Goethe was built as a dramatic refrain. Several objectives: the dramatic effect, the expression of feelings, the narrative voice of the author (narrative).
. Detailed Biography of Schubert on the portal "F G H
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