Ablesimov Alexander Onisimovich( popular satirist and playwright of the second half of XVIII century.)
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Biography Ablesimov Alexander Onisimovich
Born in 1742, came from a poor aristocratic family, the county Galich, Kostroma. Education And. received elementary, not learned any foreign language. In 1758 A. enlisted in the army, which he left with the rank of lieutenant in 1766, having determined the commission for drafting a new Code. In 1770, a. re-enlisted and was in a campaign in Georgia, Imereti, and Mingrelia. In 1772 A. again leaves the military service with the rank of captain and received executor in the Moscow city council decorum. Died A. in 1783 in great poverty. Literary leanings evident in A. due to the influence Sumarokov, which he copied the works. In a literary career. made for the first time in 1759 in the journal published by Sumarokov "Hard-working bee" elegy: "sokrylos My Dearest Joy". Placing in this journal a few small epigrams, A. long time did not appear in print. Only in 1769, he released a collection of fables, calling them "fairy tales" and devoting gr. A.P. Shuvalov. In "Tales" in a strong degree of influence is found Sumarokova. In 1769 - 70 years A. collaborated in the "Drone" Novikova, which put several satirical works - "Byley, without a signature, or under a pseudonym Azazes Azazesov. In 1769, a. wrote a comedy in five acts: "Podyacheskaya buster". Comedy, as a result of the intrigues of the writer VI. Lukin, unlucky: it has neither put on the stage, or to print, it remained unpublished, and it lost manuscript. Until the late 70-ies A. known only to a small literary circles. In 1779, a. immediately becomes extremely popular among broad segments of society. This popularity has given a. comic opera - "Miller, a sorcerer, a deceiver and a matchmaker," staged for the first time on stage in Moscow, January 20, 1779, music was composed of Russian songs Sokolovsky. "Miller" was a huge success, constantly raised in Moscow and St. Petersburg and went to the Russian stage and 30 years of the XIX century. Published for the first time in Moscow in 1782, "Miller" appeared in 1783 in Ross. Featre and withstood many editions (the last - M., 1890, and St. Petersburg., 1900). Encouraged by the success of "Miller," A. after it has written two comic operas: "Happiness by lot" (Moscow, 1780) and "Hike with the essential apartments". First immeasurably weaker "Miller", the second manuscript is lost. "Happiness by lot" had no success, and it could not be put on stage. "Hiking with the essential flat" was put on the stage, and, according to "Dictionary of the Drama" in 1787, the play was very well received by the audience, the writer has shown in the play thereof in detail all the soldiers' needs, as good at this part ". In 1780 A. made an allegorical dialogue "Wanderers", written for the opening of the Petrovsky Theater in Moscow. In 1781 A., with the assistance Novikova, began publishing a small satirical weekly magazine - "The narrator is funny fables that serve to reading in a boring time, or when someone has nothing to do". A. spent a lot of energy to the magazine, filling it almost exclusively his compositions. "The narrator is" without success and had to stop, only lasted one year. A. - Pre-eminently a satirist, but rather its major merit is the only "Melnik", where the least satirical element. In a satire. No capture effect; further exposures minor public vices he did not go, public ulcers only briefly touched upon, although in their views, he must be counted among the best representatives of the intelligentsia. Sometimes, quite witty, satire A. wide public importance had. First satirical A. - "Fairy Tales" and "were" - in dignity above the next. Not having a great literary talent, A. be autonomous. Due to this, starting a literary work in the grip of the pseudo-classicism, A. already in the first of his works displayed elements of folk and realism. Attraction to life, nationalities and realism most clearly resulted in the "Miller": here is depicted peasant life, folk customs, entered the vernacular, much space is devoted to folk song. In the "Miller", but a lot of imitation and. Many scholars deny the influence of foreign models on the "Miller" on the grounds that A. did not know foreign languages, but certainly in this work affects quite strongly the influence of French comic opera. AN. Veselovskii indicates similarities in the overall conception of "Miller" from "Le Devin du village" Rousseau, noting that A. might be familiar with this play in someone's transfer. Russian imitation of French comic operas have been with us before the "Miller". French comic opera depicting the people and the people's life in a heavily ornamented. The same must be said about Russian comic opera, not excluding the "Miller". Nevertheless, the comic operas have dealt a serious blow to the pseudo-classicism, and this prominent role played by "Melnik", together with the "Village Festival" In. Maikova, "Misfortune from the coach" and "Sbitenschikom" Knyazhnin, "Annie" Popova, "Rozaltom and beloved" Nikolev etc.. Works A. Smirdin published in 1849 in a book with the works Kostrova. This publication is incomplete and carelessly. The full text of the poem A. printed SA. Vengerov in the first volume of his "Russian Poetry" (St. Petersburg, 1879) with valuable articles and notes. Full list of literature on A. Dan also SA. Vengerov in the first volume of his "Origins of dictionary of Russian writers" (St. Petersburg, 1900). - Wed. A. Bogumil, "The initial period of Populism in the Russian literature" (Kiev, 1907). A.G. Fomin.