ABRAHAM Palitsyn( Famous figure Troubled Times)
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Biography ABRAHAM Palitsyn
In the world Averky Ivanovitch, a famous figure of the Time of Troubles. Born in the middle of the XVI century, according to family legend - in the village Protaseve (near Rostov), in a noble family and died a monk in a monastery Solovetsk September 13, 1626. The first mention of him found in I t. D. A. II, in the act of N 157, under 1584 g. Entered the service of another under Ivan the Terrible, in 1588, was subjected to disgrace, the reasons for which remain unclear. Soon, apparently voluntarily, he cuts his hair, his vows in a place not exactly known (or Solovki, or Trinity Lavra). In 1594 he was appointed manager ascribed to Sviazhsky Theotokos Monastery, where under Tsar Boris was summoned to the Monastery.
In 1601 he was entrusted with the management of the Trinity Court in Moscow, where he was acquitted of all the consequences of opals. When Basil Shuya, with whom A., apparently, have long established a good relationship, he was elected to the monastery Kelarev as that involved in the organization laurels selling cheap bread in a locked Tushino Moscow. Although A. and enjoyed great favor by Shuya, . reshivshego, . example, . in his favor, . contrary Sudebnik, . one of his old deal, . but, . apparently not embarrassed by this, . tied up good relations with Tushin, there is even reason to suppose, . he, . Being Kelarev, . on Tushinite hierarchy wore a higher rank of Archimandrite,
. In the era of boyar government, September 11, 1610, AA, together with other members of the Grand Embassy to Sigismund, went to Smolensk to ask the king's son to the Russian throne.
And there. chose to separate from the ambassadors, their special policy. Thus, even when presenting Sigismund he brought him such luxurious gifts that faded away in front of them, even gifts of the principal members of the embassy, Prince Golitsyn, and Metropolitan Filaret. He, . apparently, . just moved to the side of Sigismund, and begged him to his monastery a number of favors: despite all the horrors of stagnation, . he got from the king to get permission from the Moscow monastery treasury nedodannuyu for three years giving money to the monastery and t,
. d. Then the king gave a charter to the monastery injunction: 1) to issue a "regiments", 200 p.. and 2) to feed the fighting men of the Royal. So much so that in one of the letters Zygmunt A. was named after him, the king, "a parishioner, and the Archimandrite Monastery and monks were invited to" pray God "for him" emperor "and his son.
Characteristic that in a petition. Sigismund is nowhere mentioned Monastery Archimandrite Dionysius - a very nice person, then prichtennaya Church as a saint. In its negotiations with the Poles, A., apparently, did not forget his relatives: it may be that during his participation relative to п-.пг. Palitsyn received from Sigismund estate and rank Solicitor. Then A. went from Smolensk to Moscow - probably with a view to promote the idea of granting Russian throne Sigismund. Such a non-national policy. was well understood by his contemporaries and gave them the right to cross over it from the "Kelarev" in "The King". However, . upon arrival in Moscow he was forced to hide their sympathy and loyalty to the Polish Sigismund: he even tried to play up there under the prevailing anti-Polish sentiment and stick (hard to say, . how sincerely) to the most daring and uncompromising opponents Sigismund,
However, the activity A. during this time is drawn as yet not clear. He held the Cossacks and their government, partly because of personal, apparently, sympathy, and partly for practical reasons, because it was in Moscow the only organized force. He performed during this time many of their assignments, often serving as probably only a tool in the hands of the Cossacks to achieve their goals protivogosudarstvennyh. Such a role he had played, apparently, and in the relations of Cossacks to Minin and Pozharsky. However, and personal likes A. were soon on the side of the Cossacks, than on the side of the Zemstvo people. Personal time in all these respects, yet allocates more with great difficulty.
In the end, Cossack encampments way things have been forced to obey the popular army. In this "reconciliation" A. played, apparently, some part of almost a decorative nature. Some role (perhaps the same), he played and the election of Tsar Michael Romanov. With Michael, he took some part in the writings of Dionysius over the correction of liturgical books, but to suffer for it had only one Dionysius, after the imprisonment of which A. remained at the head of the monastery and took part in the defense of his Vladislav (in 1618).
In 1619, upon arrival in Moscow Filaret, was revised case Dionysius, when he was released. In 1620 he, together with A. consecrated built in the last Deulino Church. Shortly thereafter, A., apparently against his will, went to Solovki, where he continued his work begun long ago: "History in the memory existent previous birth". In this work, A. belongs, perhaps, one part of the so-called "other stories" - "Tale of 1606". As a person and politician, A. is one of those unstable in their beliefs, wavering in their loyalty, steadfast only in promiscuous achieve personal benefit people who are in such an appalling number of proliferated in Russia in the Time of Troubles.
Among them, he certainly is one of the first places. His activity and still can not quite revered by the observations, because in those sources, it is one of the principal, took the "History", where he artfully mixed up with the truth lies, covering up any trace of their dark deeds. Historian Zabelin denounced it in his peculiar language called "crooked" man. - See. on its general works on Russian history and works on the history of the Troubles, especially SF. Platonov, "ancient legends and stories about the Time of Troubles XVII century, as a historical source" and "Essays on the history of the Troubles" and I.E. Zabelina, "Minin and Pozharsky. Despite extensive criticism Zabelina and Platonov, . Some historians, . example, . Klyuchevskii ( "Course of Russian History", . III), and Waliszewski ( "La crise revolutionnaire 1584 - 1614) are still on the old point of view, . exalting A., . Paying him a lot more than its actual merits,
. History etc. " and Alternate legend "cm. the XIII t. "P. East. BA (ed. Michael. K.), ed. 2-e; History etc. " the first time published in 1784, "is another tale" - in 1856, in "Annals of the Moscow Society of Russian History and Antiquities". S. Ch