Aksakov Stanislavski( One of the largest representatives of `` Slavophile directions)
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Biography Aksakov Stanislavski
Born March 29, 1817 in the village Aksakovo Buguruslan District, Orenburg Province, died on Dec. 7, 1860 on the island of Zante. A Biography. not rich external facts, but the general store his personal life from early childhood to the grave finds out a lot in his outlook and attitudes to major issues in Russian life. The eldest son of Sergei Timofeevich not only grown, but spent his whole life in a typical family environment.
There is no doubt a significant influence was his father, distinguished him deep feelings of warmth and vivacity of imagination, his "Russian direction", an optimistic attitude towards life landlord, artistic and archaeological enthusiasm of the old Moscow. Deep attachment to his father - the most powerful feeling in the privacy of A.: the mountain after the death of Sergei Timofeevich shattered his health and drove through 1 1 / 2 years in the grave. From his mother, Olga Semyonovna nee Zaplatina, A. inherited, perhaps, distinguished him from the passive, more contemplative nature father's military power to defend their beliefs: Olga Semyonovna was the daughter captive Turkish woman.
Up to 9 years A. grew up in the countryside, Aksakovo-red, then Nadezhdin-Parashino than exhausted, and his personal communication with the peasantry, has abandoned all his life a number of encouraging and living experiences, which a. liked to refer disputes with opponents of its direction. Since 1826 A. almost continuously lived in Moscow, far from meeting the real conditions of everyday struggle and harsh features of everyday reality. Attempt to go abroad in 1838 was marred by the lack of habit to live independently and take care of their needs. Unable to bear a bore little things of life,. barely barely five months stood outside his father's house. These features significantly illuminate his personality, as an idealist, a theorist.
In 1832, fifteen-A. entered into a verbal faculty of Moscow University and graduated from the course a candidate in 1835. Student years tied him with Stankevich, high idealistic which deeply invaded A. "Seeing that - he wrote later - standing intellectual interest in this society, hearing the constant talk about moral issues, I just met, could not tear myself away from this circle and firmly held there every evening". Together with friends A. immersed in the study of German philosophy, particularly Hegel. But strong family tradition that has become second nature, were not slow to put A. in contradiction with reckless rationalism Russian gegeliantsev. Formed in the circle of the general conception of the Russian life and Russian literature, "mostly negative" permanent "attack on Russia, excited by official praises her," struck a. and, by his own testimony, caused him pain. However, this disorder has led to the break only later
. Whilst Stankevichevskom circle "negative" direction was expressed mainly in the literary and overshadow the idealistic "magnanimity", . while, . then, . members of the group experienced a period of "right" of Hegelianism and "reconciliation with reality", . A,
. lived with them the common life, left an imprint on the soul of personal sympathy for the opponents, that waging a relentless and full of mutual intolerance principled struggle. This connection is broken after the death of Stankevich and Belinsky's departure to St. Petersburg (1839), . When Belinsky, . bringing their passion to an extreme right-wing Hegelianism "The Anniversary of Borodino", . experienced a sharp change in the direction of a passionate criticism of Russian reality,
A. at this time moving closer to another circle - the senior founding Slavophilism: Kireevsky and Khomiakov. Theoretical basis of their teaching A. has finished, it is perfectly consistent with those sentiments and sympathies which it was nurtured by his father's home and personal. The same features, raised in a. influence of his father, to identify and place, engaged them in a circle Slavophiles. Artistic and archaeological fascination with old Russian way of life and originality of national life in general, a deep moral need for a positive, compassionate attitude towards the national life made a. historian Slavophil School. The value of A. development Slavophilism in the fact that he more than anyone else has put this doctrine in close liaison with the understanding and assessment of specific features of Russian historical life. Throughout the literary activity of its A. develops a conception of the Slavophilic ideals as to the actual basis of Russian life in its past and present, welcoming and preaching a positive attitude towards it and in science and in art. The implementation of these ideals seemed to him to return to the old days, still alive in the depths of the masses. And return that he understood figuratively, giving, together with his father, the importance of appearance, which "is the tone of life", the release of "Western fashion".
A. lets his beard, wears a shirt and murmolke. Barring these clothes, the order to shave off his beard - leads to despair Aksakovs: "the end hoping to appeal to the Russian direction!" - A literary work. form highly varied: poetry, comedy, philological studies, literary criticism and historical articles. Lyrics to A. writing for life - not poetry. This - didactic poems, developing a particular idea. Long before the 1860 A. argued that "social element ... essential element of our literature, especially in such as experienced by his generation, the era of inquiry, research, labor era of understanding and addressing common issues ". And his poems - the call and preaching.
In 1843, written "Return", with the appeal: "go home" in Moscow Russia. The poem "Peter" is a reproach to the converter for violence against Russian life and the belief that the Russian people, reborn in its identity "with his old Moscow - and the lives of free will move". A. These are all the poems: for the study of his views that the material is no less important than his article. Complete Collection of them, as is generally the complete works of A., there is.
These literary works A.: "Liberation of Moscow in 1812, Prince Lukovitsky; devoid of literary merit, they vividly express the trend A. The essence of the first - in the speeches of the representative zemshchina Prokopy Lyapunov expressing the views of A. the importance of the people, land - against the boyars, the essence of the second - in the idealization of beliefs and life of the peasantry, in contrast to insignificance landed society. - Among the philological work A. alone is a master's degree thesis on Russian Literature (1846; debate - in 1847): "Lomonosov in the history of Russian literature and Russian language". This work - tribute to the views of Hegelian period, it found justification Peter's reforms as "a decisive liberation of exceptional national, decisive move to another, the higher the scope" of antiquity, already devoid of life inside ". Others philological work A. are aiming to "original opinions" on the Russian language, the release of his summing up "under the forms and rules of foreign grammar. - Literary critiques A. start with small reviews in the "Telescope", "Rumor" and "observer in Moscow" the end of 1830.
The prevailing view is expressed in his later article: "A few words about the poem Gogol: The Adventures of Chichikov, or Dead Souls" (Section, Moscow, 1842), which has caused controversy between A. and Belinsky (answer A. in Moskvityanin, 1842, . N 9); the reviews signed "Imyarek" in "Moscow writers and scholars compilation", . 1846; in Russian Conversation "of 1857 (" Review of modern literature ") and 1858 (" On the story of Mrs. Kochanowski: "After lunch, a visit") in the "rumor" for 1857,
. In his criticism of the basic idea a. - Condemnation of "imitation", the requirement of "independence and intellectual life". And it leads to a preference criterion Kochanowski - Turgenev, because Turgenev did not look directly at an object and a man, but observes and writes off, "Kochanowski did not analyze, and provides" the breath of healthy whole life ".
A. Kochanowski wrote it - "the first Russian artist, who became not a negative, but a positive attitude to Russian life, moreover, not artificial, as Grigorovich, but freely and integrally. Therefore, for A. story Kochanowski, along with "Family Chronicle" swt. Aksakov, "begin a new era in literature". At the same criteria - the root of the duality relations A. to Gogol: it was meant to disclosure artistic and positive attitude to the Russian way of life, but he remained "the greatest Russian writer without finishing his speech, which is already bursting into a new area". - The most important area of literary heritage of a. his historical works: a series of articles and notes.
As to the "History of Russia" SM. Solovyov A. suggested, . that "currently, . in a state of historical scholarship, . history of Russia is impossible ", he reproached the author in, . that "it is very easily and quickly builds Russian history, . while still not known, . when the time comes for her; until the queue "time studies, . research, . prep processing ",
. A. not expect, however, the accumulation of materials and books and also "built the Russian history" - not in a systematic work, but in the integral conception of the main features of Russian historical development. Denying the possibility of harmonious presentation of Russian history, he put forward a number of broad generalizations, deriving from the finished doctrine, illustrated by historical references
. Theories gentile he opposed the theory of community life, in the articles: "The gentile or a social phenomenon was izgoyN" (Moscow News, 1850, N 97) and on the ancient life of the Slavs in general and the Russian in particular "(" Moscow Collection "t
. I, 1852), with the conclusion that "the community was constantly ... basis of the Russian social order "and that" the Russian land is primordially least patriarchal family the most and the most public (ie communal) land ".
Denying any role of violence in the education of the ancient princes, and the Moscow government, a. explains the "voluntary acceptance of authority" that the Russian people, "separating themselves from the rule of the state ... left his public life, and instructed the State to give him the opportunity to live this public life "(note 1855" On the internal state of Russia). Dualism of land and state their opposition, strongly rooted in the minds of Russian society Nikolaev times, it seems a. essential feature and political life, and outlook Russian: "The state has never in our nation not seduced him ... Did not want our people put on state power, and gave this power of his choice and then appointed the emperor himself wanting to keep their domestic life began ". This feature - a consequence of preference by the Russian people towards the "inner truth" and his disdain for the "external truth" established by coercive laws.
Ideals communal system of living and ways of "inner truth" A. represents the ancestral foundations of Russian national life, . fundamentally opposed to the historical foundations of the life of western Europe, . build your life on violence, . coercion, . individualism and the "outer truth" of formal law, . who hid behind the lie of internal relations,
. High moral value "Russian" began to make the Russian people support universal ideals, . God's chosen people: "Russian history can be read, . as the lives of the saints ", . as, . "At least, . on the desire of my life ", . Russian people have always kept the spirit of "Christian man",
. Peter the Great forcibly broke the national high-fidelity to Russia beginning of her life and proper development of these principles. But only the upper strata of Russian society transformed Peter, the people remained "standing", it "Russia, remaining in its distinctive form".
And this top layer is nothing to carry the masses. Their A. represents a powerful spirit and life, carriers "of the common humanity, which will reveal the great Slavic and that Russian nature" around the world. The sharp contrast between the historically powerless people in the aristocratic intelligentsia slavophilic and, . especially, . A., . certainly, . were influenced, . as the doctrine of the community, . the development of the populist views Herzen, . and through it - on the later Populism,
. A. All activities, no matter what form it takes, is to develop and promote certain views on the essence of Russian national life, the call back to the beginnings of depressed.
With all necessary for the triumph of these principles, A. outlined in the note on the internal state of Russia ", . submitted through the graph Bludova Emperor Alexander II in 1855: "The government imposed a standard of moral and oppression in Russia, it should lift the yoke", but should return to the fundamental principles of Russian civil device, . "namely: government - the absolute power of the state, . people - complete freedom of moral, . freedom of life and spirit; government - the right actions and, . hence, . law; people - the right of opinion and, . hence, . keywords,
. Freedom of speech - verbal, written and printed always and ever "- A. considered the supreme and sacred blessing to the country. For the government it is important and necessary to know people's opinion and to convene on a Zemsky Sobor delegates from all social classes and from all over Russia. But the view of the cathedral the emperor may or may not take. People should not interfere in government business: otherwise he "changes his way of inner spiritual freedom and truth, and certainly morally ruined".
Such is the political ideal of A. - The result of his spiritual work. - See: SA. Vengerov, "critical-biographical dictionary of Russian writers and scientists," t. I, St. Petersburg., 1889; his own, "Essays on the History of Russian Literature" (1907); Kostomarov, "The importance of historical works to. Aksakov on Russian history ", St. Petersburg., 1861; Pypin," Characteristics of literary opinion in the 20's - 50 years "," History of Russian Ethnography, t. II; Koyalovich, "History of Russian national consciousness"; Miliukov, "Sergei Aksakov" (in a collection of articles "From the history of the Russian intelligentsia"); NN. Platonov, "Kochanowski, St. Petersburg., 1909. A. Presnyakov.