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ALEXANDER III

( Emperor of All-Russia)

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Biography ALEXANDER III
photo ALEXANDER III
The second son of Emperor Alexander II and Empress Maria Alexandrovna. Born February 26, 1845 in Anichkov Palace in St. Petersburg. Before the death of his elder brother, the Crown Prince Nicholas, T. e. up to twenty years of age, A. was not heir to the throne and was brought up not as a future emperor, but as a great prince, destined mainly for military career.

The main tutor was his Adjutant General BA. Perovskii, and it was in charge of education professor at Moscow University, a distinguished economist Chivilev recommended by Count S.G. Stroganov, who was at that time the main educator of the Crown Prince Nicholas. Of the teachers of the early period was the most outstanding academic YA.K. Groth, who taught both brothers in 1853 with Russian and German languages, history and geography. At the end of the educational course A. have been communicated to the beginning of legal and political sciences invited for the professor of St. Petersburg and Moscow universities, among them, and Kn. Pobedonostsev subsequently played such an important role in the reign of A. In 1861, he taught a course on tactics and military history of MI. Dragomirov, while still a young captain. In addition, in 1865 and 66 years of A. Alexandrovich was read by well-known historian SM. Solovyev course of Russian history.

April 12, 1865, died in Nice crown prince Nicholas Alexandrovich, Grand Duke A. was declared heir to the Russian throne. Tsarevich Nicholas died fiance Princess Dagmar, daughter of Danish King Christian IX, which in 1 1 / 2 years - October 28, 1866 - married Cesarevich A. A.. From this marriage were born: sons - Nicholas (reigning emperor), George (died 1899), Michael and daughter - Xenia and Olga.

In 1868, during a severe famine in various provinces (especially in Smolensk) A. was appointed chairman of a special committee on the collection and distribution of benefits the hungry. When he was heir to the throne, he participated in meetings of the Council of State and Ministerial Committee, . was Ataman Cossack troops and Chancellor of the University of Helsingfors; active duty in the armed forces was held in St. Petersburg until the command of the Guards Corps, . and in 1877 he has taken part in the Russian-Turkish War, . as commander of a separate detachment of forty thousand ruschukskogo, . whose task was to arrest the movement of Turkish troops, . Located in the fortresses noisy and Silistra, . and to protect the rear of the army,
.

After the war a. commander of the Guards Corps in St. Petersburg and participated in meetings of senior government agencies and the special committees and meetings, . convened by the Emperor Alexander II at the end of his reign to discuss measures to combat the revolutionary movement,
. Heir lived with his family in the Anichkov Palace quite closed family life, he loved to study the history, collecting historical monuments, especially those connected with the patriotic memories, and the study of ancient Russian art. He stood at the head of the Imperial Historical Society, based near his involvement in. Equally glad he studied music and participated in home concerts, playing on the horn and the "bass".

In the eyes of the broad circles of society, he enjoyed the reputation of exemplary family man and a man with humane and liberal views. In fact, his political views were deeply conservative, that was clearly evident in the meetings of the fight against the revolutionary movement and the direction of domestic policy in 1880. He has consistently advocated the inviolability does unlimited autocracy, as native pillars of Russian life, and for dealing with the revolutionary currents with wide set of repressive measures. After the war of 1877 - 78 years, during which A. had the opportunity to see firsthand the sad lack of significance of our naval forces and means of transport, he took an active part in collecting donations for the formation of voluntary fleet. The chairman, in charge of the case, became one of close to A. people Kn. Pobedonostsev.

Join the throne A. had to be in extremely difficult circumstances, after the accident March 1, 1881, which fell victim to his father. March 2, taking the higher ranks and those suites, A. said: "I accept the crown with the determination. I will try to follow my father, and finish the work begun their. If God and I tried the same fate as him, I hope you will be my son as surely as my father ". In dispatch, . sent by the Russian envoys at foreign courts on March 4, . stated, . that "the emperor has to devote himself primarily to the internal state of, . closely linked to the success of citizenship and the economic and social, . components of the current object of special concern of all governments ",
.

These statements have promised as if progressive policies and, in any case, did not show any reaction intentions. Due to prevailing public opinions on the liberal and even constitutional inclinations of the new sovereign, they supported the development expectations of the liberal initiatives, to which Alexander II came in the final year of the reign. But these hopes were not destined to. Within a few weeks, despite the strength of conservative opinion A., he seemed to hesitate in choosing the course of his reign. At the council of ministers formed two opposing currents, which were engaged in a fairly sharp struggle. A. as if found it necessary to allow them to speak until the end.

At the head of one of these tendencies, his desire to continue the moderate-liberal policy adopted by the end of the reign of Alexander II, was Loris-Melikov, is adjacent to the War Minister, Count DA. Milutin, Minister of Finance AA. Abaza and Minister of Education AA. Saburov. At the head of another, the reaction flow was Kn. Pobedonostsev, in difficult moments, calling for his aid that the old count S.G. Stroganov, who lived out of business in St. Petersburg, the "patriotic"-minded journalists Katkov and Aksakov from Moscow. Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Valuev and other ministers had not adhered firmly to any of these currents

. A week after the accident on March 1, . convened, . the insistence of Loris-Melikov, . special meeting to address the question of, . publish or not publish approved March 1 by the late sovereign government report, . in which the government declared, . it was decided to consider the most important cases of a legislative nature to form a special commission in St. Petersburg,
. Loris-Melikov admitted the publication of this document, which later colloquially called the "constitution of Loris-Melikov" - although it was nothing constitutional - urgent. The report, . read them in meeting, . seen, . that the emperor during the first discussion of this issue found their sacred duty to implement the last wishes of his father and thought, . that the assumption that the reform is to be like the last gift of the Emperor Alexander II to the Russian people - a gift, . worthy of his reign.,


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  • _ц- for ALEXANDER III
  • From this marriage were born: sons - Nicholas (reigning emperor) _ц- huyase
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