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Apukhtin Alexey

( famous poet)

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Biography Apukhtin Alexey
photo Apukhtin Alexey
Born November 15, 1840 or 1841 (the date 1840 is listed in the authoritative biography of Modest Tchaikovsky, attached to the "Collected Works A. This date confirms the indication "15 November 1857", standing under the poem: "Today I have passed 17 years". But in a handwritten autobiographical note, sent to "literary archive, the author of this article, A. said that he was born Nov. 15, 1841), in Bolhove, Orel province, in an ancient noble family. The total value of PR and his father, a retired major, belonged to the nobility average. Mother is very spoiled remarkably early demonstrated its ability to boy. A spoiled child in our common. remained in the Law School, where he gave in 1852: he was seen here as a future celebrity. Patron of the College, Prince PG. Oldenburg, butchering the name of A., would say: "If the Lyceum Pushkin was, then we have Apuschin". According to efforts of the school director, language, in "Russian Invalid" in 1854 was published a patriotic poem by 14-year-old A. "Epaminondas," dedicated to the memory of Kornilov. A year later, where it was printed "Imitation of the Arabic. Ode on the birth of Grand Duchess Vera Constantinovna was represented by the Emperor. In 1859 A. brilliantly finished the course with a gold medal and joined the Department of the Ministry of Justice. Also in 1859, overshadowed for his mother's death, A. in this way entered the literary field, placing a number of poems in The Contemporary. Service A. totally engaged. He gave himself up to all the fast life in the aristocratic golden youth. The famous "Gypsy" romance A. "Nights of crazy, sleepless nights," written later (1876), is very accurate autobiographical echo of noisy youth held. And memories of those "crazy nights" forever remain dear to the Epicurean poet: "Even if the time merciless hand I pointed out that it was false to you, nevertheless I'm flying to your memory avidly seeking the answer in the past is impossible". At the beginning of the 1860 A. leaving the village, a short time clerk for special assignments in the Orel governor, and in 1864 finally settled in St. Petersburg. Nominally ranked among the Ministry of Internal Affairs and. again given to idle, high life, carefully protecting themselves from any responsibility and was serious unrest. Even in his literary work, which until the mid 1880's when he began to write stories and great poems, did not require perseverance and labor, it applies to both light entertainment and has always recommended itself as a "layman". Excellent reader and subtly Art reciter, wit, jokes and intimate epigrams which enjoyed widespread popularity in the fashionable areas, A. was a welcome guest of the most brilliant salons. On the basis of literary interests, he became close in 1880 with the Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich, several times he had read in the presence of Emperor Alexander III. A significant part of the evening. gave the card game, mostly in the English club. Carefree lifestyle of an independent bachelor, who was in AA, was, however, is spoiled more and more imminent, serious disease. Already in 1870 he began a morbid obesity, which in the past ten years of his life has tremendous size and brought him to this misery, "although the particular suffering is not caused. By the end of his life he spent whole days on the couch, barely moving even a few steps. Oppressed by the poet-sybarite and financial difficulties, had to resort to borrowing. Some malicious "gossip" and "libel" is also very difficult to act on his mood. Died A. of dropsy August 17, 1893. - A literary work. A very peculiar. Despite the fact that placed in the "Contemporary" in 1859 ten poems A. attracted the attention flattering, and Turgenev, Nekrasov it early in the 1860's realized that he was estranged from all public poetry was at that time to the court, and disappeared from the pages of magazines as much as 20 years. Only in 1880, when there was a twist of social psychology, A. felt this surge of creativity. In 1885, AA, almost unknown to a large audience, speaking with the poem "The Year of the monastery, which is so compelled to talk about it, that ensured the success of collection of his poems appeared a year (St. Petersburg, 1886). Success was strong and continues to this day: in 1907 (St. Petersburg) went 7-th edition. A. - It is therefore only of intimate feelings, he is organically alien to everything that goes beyond the purely personal life. He considered himself a supporter of "pure art", but if he is literally my whole life singing "sweet caress, it is not because that intentionally avoided other reasons, but because everyone else is not strongly interested in. In the same measure in which he was a stranger to the public, he was a stranger and interest to all sorts of "accursed questions". Even in the sphere of religion he himself defined his "broken heart life": "... and not in thee, warm place for faith, and not for lack of faith in the strength you ". And the fact that he was indifferent to the anger of the day and the highest issues of life, A. sees no merit, no offense, but simply a fact that does not boast, but was not ashamed. A. favorably with other poets who spoke in 1880 under the banner of "pure art", so that there is nothing militant. He does not think about, to which "camp" adjacent, and just gives the outcome that has accumulated in his soul. And because, no matter how tiny size poetic A. possessions, and he was able to give them samples of true poetry. If at all to someone from the dii minores Russian Parnassus applicable words Musset: "Mon verre n'est pas grand, mais je bois dans mon verre", then it is to A. Much of his works portray amorous feelings of a man, a little disappointed, a little melancholy and several grown old. At this persevering ministry of "love" no violent impetuosity Southerner: in the veins of the author "at the Abbey of flows in the northern blood are to melancholy and self-sacrifice. A poet, an image of feelings of which passes through all the poetry of A. does not need even in a divided sense: "I am not sorry that you I did not love: I am not worthy of your love ... But I am sorry that I once lived without love, but I am sorry that I did not like! "- In general, A. can be called a singer not a success of love. The tragedy especially when this happens: after the scene - Lymphatic environment "more light". But the heart is still broken and a secular people - and here, the psychology of such a broken heart and a secular elected its main specialty A. This could not leave an imprint of quiet melancholy to the whole collection of his poems. In sadness A. There is nothing resembling zapravsky pessimism: it is sad not so much because the world is ill constructed, how the fact that not everyone can eat the sweets of life. Very often melancholy A. there is nothing like an autumn feeling, the consciousness that have long to live, youth is gone and ahead of only boring old age. - A major work. - The poem "A Year in a Monastery. This is a purely secular tragedy, psychologically, however, reflect the mood of general "Chekhov's" period of 1880, with his weak-willed and impersonality. Hero - "wounded warrior" who had escaped from the "enemy camp" big light in the monastery to heal the psychological wounds. He does a novice to the strict elder-ascetic. Under the influence of the monastic silence in the soul "runaway" begins to establish a certain equilibrium. But then it began to extend to the outside world. He does not care that the light above him "laugh till you drop", "but the view is one I would like to know ... What does onaN "Since breaking through, the memories of her becoming the main contents of the diary-poems. With horror feels fugitive, that neither fasting nor prayer did not banish his depression and thoughts of the days of short-term happiness. "I've forgotten everything, . forgiven, . one love in me burns quench! Give me a breath of air with you one! "Appointed day vows, . hours before the solemn rite of the hero gets "five lines of" from her: "She calls me" - and that's enough, . that all went down the drain,
. "Oh yes, I'm mad! What awaits menyaN - Shame! Unable to think I decision: her life, my needs, so why Reflections. And again he "runs", but in a different way: "... dear to me moments: rather in the way! She calls me! "- Nice in its simplicity and rusticity, this poem gives an idea of the best aspects of talent A. Verse, smooth and elegant, marked the true beauty - the beauty of the north, a few anemic, which, however, the northern people as more akin to than the bright and colorful beauty of the Southern. Gives a favorable presentation of the poem and the poetic techniques A.: He is not free of elegance, but elegance, so to speak, of course, not constrained. Despite the strangeness of the plot, the author never broke any pompous or bombastic way of comparison,. And precisely because he managed not only as peculiar to finish the poem, but also to the end of this very important material for the general characteristics of the sagging of Psychology 1880. Think up such an end is impossible: it may suggest only a living reality. We had to completely renounce the pursuit of the tawdry glitter to allow the state of mind a man with no doubt a perfect storehouse of nature "exploit" such a strange kind. But the truth of A. suggested that only such a "feat" and is capable of such a man, what is the author of the diary-poems. - Characteristics of AA, as a singer of love in general, and failed in particular, does not determine, however, the entire contents of his poetry, although these are just the biggest of his belongings. So, . exemplary in its conciseness poem "On the express train" is a melancholic story about, . as the two lovers, . that circumstances prevented unite their destiny, . when they were young, . get this opportunity in twenty years and when I see you feel, . that made poetry of memories of feeling, . essentially, . evaporated, . and that would be better if they were not at all meet again,
. "Letter" is pendant to the "Year of the monastery, and also is the subject of slavish devotion to the merits, without any hope of reciprocity. "Old gypsy woman" again deals with the charah love. Finally, a collection of short pieces. Almost all belong to the category of poems, especially the favorite composers of romances. But in rare moments of secular author of the "Year of the monastery" and take the interests of another order. Then he wrote plays such as "unfinished monument" (1871), which praised Catherine for having freely surrendering impulses of the heart, she never forgot because of their public interest. This poem at one time enjoyed great popularity among the actors, readers and the audience liked: by that time there was a certain piquancy to the touch taboo topics. Not in such solemn things strength intimate mainly A., and a very bad few "patriotic" poems and some of his pieces d'occasion, like "October 5, 1885". There are at A. good things and neintimnye. So, . on a beautiful poem, "The wretched rags, . motionless and dead, as if reminded Nekrasov, . but the poem has saved nothing in common with the basic "civil" motif of the play parallels between the found in a field of dead woman and the situation, . among which overtook her death: "It was a wonderful springtime day,
. By tussocks fresh green shoots of the nascent grass, and the children ran, and the larks singing "... Of the poems for the most elegiac note the excellent character of the octave "Venice". They definitely say that the author grew melancholy than on philosophical grounds, not on the lining of the public and other spiritual disappointments, but solely on the basis of personal and physiology of the aging organism. Beautifully written, but does not leave a certain impression big play: "From the Securities prosecutor" - the confession of the fashionable suicides. Piece "Before the surgery," was written with the usual simplicity of A., so strongly reminiscent of the manner Koppe. From humorous pesok A. funny: "gossip". A Prose. very uneven dignity. Dull and boring to the beginning of a huge unfinished story without a title, occupying one-third volume, which fit a small literary heritage A. The feeling of bewilderment is "fantastic story" - "Between death and life", more related to the field of naive spiritualism than to fiction or mysticism. But with interest read "The Diary of Pavlik Dolsky" and "Archive Countess D ***. Story in Letters. Some memories of a. states that in "Diary of Pavlik Dolsky" a lot of autobiographical. What is it - is not specified, but in terms of literary and autobiographical, t. e. since "Diary," along with "Archive", is an expression of a major mood. and central types of it, both the story, of course, autobiographical. Before us obscheapuhtinskaya psychology: uncertain agony of an elderly man, . not surrendering before the onset of old age, . loving dispassionate love, . no claim to reciprocity, . gutless, . slavish mistress heart, . performing all, . he ordered,
. Many in the "Diary" and especially in the "Archives" and purely descriptive, sometimes evil, and accurately depicted the different sins fashionable, for the most amorous. But this is only sins, but not sins: A. was not able to seriously denouncing his native environment. In general, it represents a rare in the history of Russian literature example of a talented writer, thoroughly imbued with the fashionable. All our great writers in one way or another touch to the big world. Not everyone, of course, owned Lermontovskoye desire to quit "blank verse assemblage of iron, covered with bitterness and anger", but almost all above vanity and emptiness of this "gathering". Pro A. This can not be said. He not only for its taste, but throughout his temperament in the least did not rise above the ordinary secular psychology. - Wed. Arseniev, "Critical studies", t. II; Borozdin, "A." ( "Historical Journal", 1895, N 5); Vengerov, "critical-biographical dictionary ', t. I, and "Sources of dictionary of Russian writers," t. I; Govorov, "Contemporary Poets (St. Petersburg, 1889); Zhirkevich," Historical Journal, 1906, N 11; Kony, "Vestnik Evropy, 1908, N 5; box," Essays on literary sentiment "(St. Petersburg, 1903); book. V. Meschersky, in "The Citizen" 1893, August 20, Pertsov, "philosophical currents of Russian Poetry" (St. Petersburg, 1896); Protopopov, in "Russian Wealth" in 1896, N 2, and A. R., "Historical Journal, 1907, N 2; Skabichevsky in Russian Thought", 1895, N 5. A translation of the poem. German Language P. Fiedler in "St. Petersburger Herold "(1910). S. Vengerov.


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