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Artsybashev Mikhail Petrovich

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Biography Artsybashev Mikhail Petrovich
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Born in 1878 in the landed gentry family in Kharkov province. The mother of Polish origin. My father served in the Guards, and later was a police officer Okhtirka, with which all the young 'impression of being "A. Almost all his works appeared the same drowned in lush gardens Southern Russian town on the picturesque river, with the beautiful monastery of this river, with a comfortable boulevard, which runs a cheerful young. And the freshness of young impressions so great that completely disappears imprint gray commonplace, which is commonly associated idea of small town. Master of Landscape, A. most often describes the solar fields and beautiful forests that surround Akhtyrka. A high-school teaching. not gone beyond class V. For a time he studied at the Kharkov school of painting. An attempt to get into the Academy of Fine Arts did not succeed due to lack of certificate, but amateurishly A. continued and continues to paint. Write started very early, 16 years in provincial newspapers, in 1901, placed in the "World of God" essay "Pasha Fog" in 1902 in "Russian Wealth" - the big story of the life of the people: "Kupriyan". A literary name. formed a novel "Death of a student Lande", published in the Journal for All 1904. Huge, though highly dubious fame brought a. his novel "Sanin", published originally in the "modern world" in 1907, and then quickly dispersed in a separate volume. 2 nd edition was confiscated and the author prosecuted for pornography. Translated into many foreign languages, "Sanin" everywhere was a resounding success. In Germany, he also led the prosecution, and, moreover, in two locations: Berlin and Munich. It was prosecuted against the translators in Hungary. The prosecution in Germany, however, ended with a justification. Russian court has not yet considered the case of "Sanin". Prosecution for pornography were brought against a. and for the first part of the novel "The latest features, printed in 1910, in the 4 th book collections" Earth ". Of the other works of a. attracted the attention of critics of big stories: "Millions" ( "Earth", Prince. 2) and "Working Shevyrev" ( "Earth", Prince. 3, 1909). - There is a fatal popularity, either permanently or for a long time connecting with the author's name is not his best work, but with the worst, who highlighted the public eye, regardless of the display of talent in it the author. Such a role in the literary life of a. played "Sanin", still inseparable from his name. That upset of the most valuable aspects of talent, A., reinstated against him the better part of the critics and the reading public the best interests. Yet it is impossible, as it is now accepted, to look at a. as "pornography" for the most. If you take a literary work. as a whole, the main theme, in one form or another runs through all his works, we must recognize the fullness of life, natural thirst for joy of life, sometimes leading to the capture of a purely zoological lust. It is, as a derivative, "sexual problem" and as the inevitable antithesis hymn of life - the problem of death. And while A. Art notes, it is strong and truthful. A sad mistake was to turn it into "Sanin" from the artist to theorist. The result was not only full morally unacceptable but woodenness, art lies. - In the stories the "pre-saninskogo" period A. perfectly possible artistic chiaroscuro, the ability to grasp the whole phenomenon. For example, an excellent, finely written story "Blood". Here, on the one hand, all eager joy of life, all happy, "a long and delicious" eating, drinking sensibly, witty jokes. Cheerful and happy owners of the estate, cheerful and generous guests, a beautiful young lady of the manor, good, high-maid, Anna, and that comes at night to the student Sergei, healthy, beautiful and in addition with a "nice convictions". Intoxicating, finally, air, solar fields, mysterious and fascinating forest. All of the depths of feeling that "life in general good". This foreground. And in the background at this time drown "unnecessary" kittens (one "good-looking" leaves), . skillfully and with artistic passion slaughter chickens and lambs for the nice reviews, . that, . in turn, . beautifully written in the hunting scene, . from a purely zoological ecstasy Lying pleasure completely unnecessary destruction,
. They smeared themselves with blood, and the game bag drips blood, and the mugs of dogs covered with blood, but his eyes burn with enthusiasm fighters, and they have an exciting full of sensations. And they are so natural in this picture plainly inherent in all people of cruelty, that in all of this densely stained with the blood of the story and not anything resembling the usual sentimental protests. The "Pasha Tumanov, recounting how the exam is cut schoolboy shot director, and. able to clearly emphasize the conditionality of our ideas about life, excluding the spontaneity in the use of natural benefits of being. Why should shoot or shoot expelled schoolboy, . healthy boy, . when the sun so bright, . warmth and fun shines, . river so joyfully poured, . spring air so zhivitelen, . swallow so carefree chirping, . swimming in the sea air, . light and blue prostoraN.,
. The hero of the story: "Kupriyan - horse thief. Yet the author admires them, because it is the fullness of force, there is a daring and a genuine passion. This person lives, rather than tediously vegetate, as the men around him, to whom the author refers, without any traditional tenderness. - Elements "saninstva" abound in the story prior to the notorious novel. Such, for example, the story of "Wife". There is almost entirely affected by the main theme of "Sanin", but again gave the story a different chiaroscuro lighting. Hero - the artist, like Sanin, saying in various ways on the "mighty and courageous life of delight". And he lived with might and main, does not shy. As an apologist for the fullness of life, . the author seems willing to justify his hero's desire to surrender to this completeness, but, . opposing thirst "beautiful" enjoy the suffering of abandoned in the name of a woman's beauty, . He thus sufficiently emphasized dryannost shearing flowers fun at the expense,
. Not always act with such retouching elements "saninstva" in other stories, appeared to "Sanin". Reading the story: "From the notes of Rights", to make an impression, as if we have before us a man in a fit of satiriazisa. Sometimes under saninskim sauce is served in the stories of the first period, even a revolution. Looking at life as a pleasure, and death, as the sad end to this pleasure, it is difficult to adopt the point of view of heroism. And the revolutionaries of the first stories A. or Uhara any, or people who went in motion because the life they did not smile. Such, for example, the heroes of "Shadows in the morning". - This would, perhaps, enough so that, despite the best retouch, to recognize the entire first period of creativity A. demonstratively-immoral, if such a conclusion does not contradict the great and wonderful story "The Death Lande". This story - one of the most outstanding events throughout the general "young literature" past 10 - 15 years. In fairness, A. should be called not "the author Sanin," and "the author of Death Lande". Death Lande "- a tribute to the once strong drag - strange as it may sound, when it comes to a. - Teaching Tolstoy. On passion Tolstoyanism speaks directly and himself a. one autobiographical recognition. And this must be to believe, because the figure of the hero - a student Lande - created with the true love, which is impossible without a deep passion. Before us is a manifestation of purely organic Captivated by resisting evil. Lande is committed to an enthusiastic desire to serve people, which in practical life takes the form of almost foolishness. Prince Myshkin, with the usual point of view - "idiot". And now, the greatest, of course, praise the author, we can say that after the Prince Myshkin of The Idiot Dostoevsky, in all our literature is not so bright image heartfelt altruism, as a figure artsybashevskogo student Lande. This sometimes irritating its extreme, altruism is so organically captures Lande that the reader, as when reading the "Idiot", a single moment does not come thought about what whatever exaggeration. Most characteristically, that "Death Lande" and "Sanin" represent almost literally the same material, only in different processing. We have before us not only the same favorite A. town, not only a favorite of the same circle of young people think only about boating with the girls and given the fullest flirting, but some individuals appear in both works, even with the same surname. A bearing other names, both types are the contours of what later, with no sense of measure, developed in the "Sanin," which, judging by his display in the date "1902 - 1907" and was written in conjunction with the "Death Lande". The question of the sense of proportion is, in general, crucial for the whole literary activity A. The absence of this sense of making "Sanin" an ugly piece, and "Death Lande" was written in a happy moment of aesthetic tact, when the artistic instinct tells the writer all the right nuances. For example, the artist spurges - real predecessor Sanin, possessed by desires to complete loss of composure, but he outlined just how physically big and strong man ". He not only did not preach, but in general feels his impotence to theoretical discussions. The author would like to submit a beast beginning, and, of course, had the right to give him - but gave it precisely as the beginning of a beast, and not as an apotheosis of "force" in general. Permanent contrast perception of life complete renunciation of life gives the story necessary in this work of art chiaroscuro. The author talks about his favorite colors in Lande surprisingly tender, then disdainfully puts frail in such an idealistic situation, where it is either funny or pathetic. Undoubtedly, . that some fruitless attempts, and the total futility of the final deed Lande (he foot, . without means, . an unknown road, . goes to the Crimea to comfort the dying, . embittered fellow - and dies) should mark, . from the viewpoint of the author, . collapse Tolstoyism,
. Beginning of life overcame the beginning of the ascetic, but the clash of opposing sentiments in the soul of the author is truly tragic. - But in "Sanin" no shadow of any kind had been suffering mental and struggles. There is, however, the main shortcoming of the novel. The worst in "Sanin" - its artificiality. This is one of those ugly and vulgar Nietzscheanism reflections, which completely disappeared initial outline of the idea of individualism. Herald the complete lack of restraint of sexual and other appetites, . Sanin outside of the endless conversations, . over the whole of a large novel manifests itself only to, . that a sister lusts, . on the principle of spying, . as bathing girls, . rapes a girl on a boat, . says intending to take his own life youth, . to live it really is not worth, . at the funeral of Comrade suicide says "a fool has become less and T,
. d. Above all these reigns supreme continuous desire of female and certainly a very beautiful body, . in the name of, . that "between man and happiness should not be anything, . people should freely and fearlessly (amazing courage!) given to all the pleasures available to him ",
. Sanin - only a dummy, which dangles lifelessly beautiful at first glance mantle "freedoms". While Sanin very rounded, sometimes cleverly and eloquently expounds his theory of the pleasures of life - this can listen with interest. But when it comes to practice, as soon as the author of the artistic, t. e. in the specific facts necessary to show a "new understanding" of life - he becomes childishly helpless. You can not seriously think that any sort was "understanding" of life, old or new, may be the violence, because maiming of people and spying bathing girls. Some critics have tried to justify "Sanin," the fact that the novel is valuable apotheosis of "power" brute force, but forces - and this is supposedly from the social point of view, better than whining and feebleness of the novel A. is "banking on the strong", and in strong need of both Russia. Much closer, but we will be back to reality, if you fall into the now decreasing wave of pornography, one of the strongest manifestations of which was "Sanin," and the apotheosis of brute "force," how to scale a feverish excitement of recent years. Years of the revolution awakened the thirst of colorful and strong feelings, not finding the outcome of the normal, accepted in unstable temperaments ugly forms. In "Sanin" before us a sort of literary maximalism. - The fact that he wrote A. after "Sanin" indicates that no organic, t. e. long rush of "force", therefore, and cheerfulness, he himself is not marked. C "Sanin" ended cheerful band of creativity A. and another began - hopeless pessimism. Along with the life-line for A. From the very first steps of his literary parallel was the line of death, she now took possession of his work entirely. No murders, suicides, shootings, death from an incurable disease and, at best, the blood of animals in A. almost no story in the two bands of his work, but the second is characterized by the fact that over all forms of forced termination of life prevailing suicide. Besides, in the early works of psychology samoistrebiteley shaded particularly intense feeling of joy of being with other characters. Such, . example, . very interesting story "Ensign Gololobov", . where clear and calm philosophy of suicide (body forever, . spirit dies, a man still sentenced to death, . why prolong zhiznN) makes a strong impression and original, . but, . however, . has no claim to be the only solution to the question about the meaning of life,
. Now people of all classes, regulations and temperament together with a. mere thought of death and destruction in general. A dull, tired-die jaded debauchery and loneliness millionaire ( "Millions"). Equally exhausted, but with the terrorist attacks of wild exasperation Tkachev ( "Work Shevyrev"), who comes to the conclusion that "a man disgusted by nature", his soul was eternal darkness and the desert. No joy, no regrets, no faith, no unbelief, no hope, nothing! There remained, perhaps, one acute aversion and desire for revenge, but revenge is impersonal ". - The same lack of sense of proportion, which is so spoiled "Sanin," played a fatal role in the gloomy pessimism of the last bands of creativity A. This is particularly apparent in the new, not yet consummated his great novel: "The latest features". Even the title is sufficiently outrageous and original novel, as reported in the press, should have been called "Suicide Club". Before us is a mixture of "saninskoy" pornography demonstrative relish the idea of destruction in all its forms. In general, the author suffered a setback. Unnecessary and kind of boring pornography produces a depressing effect. Only occasionally flares talent once sincere and just think about the problems of life the author of "Death Lande" and "The Ensign Gololobova". Mostly the author of "Sanin", with the only difference being that "Sanin" still gave some interest fervor "daring", and in the new novel all wring and deliberately. Not even a real animal passion in a long series of rapes, uchinyaemyh hero of the novel - the artist Mikhailov, and boring for the most part imaginary terrible dreams Naumova the extermination of all mankind. Here it is possible to use bad words of Tolstoy about Leonid Andreev: "It scares me, but I'm not scared". In addition, Naumovski puzhanie largely not independent: it is rather inept borrowing really terrible speeches Kirillova of Devils. Very characteristic and other borrowing, from "The Death of Ivan Ilyich": Professor Razumovsky disease and, in particular, the famous ship. But the fact that Tolstoy is a necessary trait, outlining the delicate mental anguish of Ivan Ilyich suffered deeply from his helplessness, in A. developed in a tedious episode. Another characteristic is not only novel, but also for A. general, borrowing from Nietzsche. Roughly, incredibly, unnecessarily processed famous dictum of "Zarathustra": "You're going to zhenschinamN Do not forget to whip!" A. took it literally. His disgusting Don Juan beats a whip does not defy him to flirt and achieves its goal ... It is important to note that the novel, despite its "spicy", success had nothing. Prosecuting nothing to do with: we have only reinforces the prohibition of interest. It is tempting to see in the title of the novel a kind of symbolic meaning, but not including, of course, understood as conceived by, overwhelmed his novel not only rape but also the deaths of rotting corpses, grave worms. I'd like to think that we really "have the latest features" of the troubled waves of pathological interest in the resolution of the "sexual problem" that threatened to engulf one time clean, chaste, heroic Russian literature. S. Vengerov.

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