AFANASYEV Nikolai Yakovlevich( violin virtuoso and composer)
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Biography AFANASYEV Nikolai Yakovlevich
Born December 24, 1821. Died May 23, 1898 in St. Petersburg. His grandfather, Prince IM. Dolgoruky, the governor of Vladimir, a great lover of music, had two orchestras, symphonic and horny. His illegitimate son, the father of Alexander, in his youth was a teacher in Tobolsk, but then moved to Moscow and entered the theater orchestra. A good violinist, he gave his son a thorough musical education. A boy A. had a good salary, playing in the homes of noble lovers, taking part in quartets and accompanying singing in concerts. When the father's health deteriorated, he began to support family. He was familiar with the then living in Moscow, a famous pianist Field, heard Berlioz, Franz Liszt, Thalberg, the violinist Ole Bull, Gaumana, Vieuxtemps, Arto. In 1838 A. joined the first violin in the orchestra of the Moscow Imperial Opera, but soon took the place of Kapellmeister at the theater Vyksinskom Ironworks (near Murom) landlord Shepeleva. The theater was then one of the best in Russia, and the house Shepeleva was an excellent library. A. I read a lot and wrote a lot, mainly for the violin, and began the opera, the plot of Goethe's Faust, but did not finish it. When Shepelev ruined, A., with his brother, went to the four-concert tour of Russia. The material success of the trip was great: the net income from it amounted to about 18 thousand rubles. In the Caucasus, he was familiar with the native music, some of the motives which he subsequently served for the opera "Ammalat-Bek. In St. Petersburg, where A. arrived in 1851, his concerts have also had great success. Ulybyshev (see) wrote a whole article on A. as a virtuoso ( "Northern Bee, 1850, November). Entering the first violin in the orchestra of Italian opera, A. acquaintance with Glinka, Prince VF. Odoyevsky, Goncharov, A. Maikov, Pisemsky, visited the graph M. Velgorskogo and A. Lviv, in whose house he gave lessons violins. In 1853 A. was invited as a music teacher in the Smolny Institute, and in 1854 left the Italian opera. His tastes gravitated to music by Glinka. In 1857, a. made a concert tour abroad in his repertoire included the quartets of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Since 1858 A. all free from teaching musical activities gave the time of composing, showed undoubted talent, technical skill and greater fecundity. He was the author of the first Russian string quartet "Volga" (for 2 violins, viola and cello), won first prize in 1860 at the Russian Musical Society Competition. And was awarded his cantata "Feast of Peter the Great" (in the words of Pushkin. He owns more: trio "Souvenir de l'Esthonie" for piano, . Violin and Cello, . 9 quartets (including one very characteristic on Jewish themes), . stringed quintet, . 2 strings quintet with piano, . bow octet "Housewarming", . Octet for strings, . Flute, . Clarinet, . bassoon and horn, . suite for Viole d'amour Piano, . few concerts, . sonata, and many works for violin, symphony (not published), . performed in the Russian Musical Society, . in Pavlovsk and in Moscow, . many pieces for piano, . vocal works - ensembles (duets, . trios, etc.) and songs for one voice with piano, . choirs (including 64 Russian folk songs and 115 choral songs for children and youth, . separate church hymns and the full liturgy of John Chrysostom,
. His teaching and musical compositions "Daily exercises for the violin," "School for Piano," "Guide to teaching singing in the schools, children's collections (the game with a gallery, album, lyrics). His opera "Ammalat-Beck" in the plot story Marlinskogo (libretto by VI. Dahl), staged at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg in 1870, was not successful and was not published. Sheet music - manuscript it is stored in the central library of the Imperial Theaters in St. Petersburg. Another of his opera "Stenka Razin" (libretto M.V. Watson) was not placed on censorship and also not issued. Works A. imprinted Russian character, which he partly imitated Glinka. The most important are the works of A. in the field of chamber music: in a magnificent sonority, they are not devoid of distinctive identity. At present the works of A. obsolete. In the two years before the death of a. donated over 50 thousand rubles in St. Petersburg Conservatory for scholarships for students in grades stringed instruments, singing and composition. G. T.