Baikov Fyodor Isakovich( Ambassador travel XVII century)
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Biography Baikov Fyodor Isakovich
His father was the first head in Streletsky Toropets, and then produced in 1629 in Moscow nobles, took the governor at Tara and Valuiki. Theodore B., in 1627 referred to in those Stolnikov Metropolitan Filaret in 1654 was sent to Tobolsk to the Embassy of China to "prismatrivaniya tender and products and the other there the road". Almost two years he used to have to get to Kanbalyka, as at that time called the Russian Beijing. He walked first along the Irtysh, . then by kamnykov, . "Pashennykh Bukharans and mungalskih (Mongolian) people", . reached Kokokotona (Huhu-Haughton, . Lake Hhohho-nor), . y "Zastavna city Ranke", . passed the Wall and, . having been on the road in 18 cities, . reached Kanbalyka,
. But the order of their B. not performed, all six-month stay of the Russian embassy in Beijing, during which it sat locked up, went into the negotiations and wrangling with the Chinese authorities. Were conditioned by the requirements of the misunderstandings in part of Chinese officials, who, for example, told Theodore B. dismount from his horse, and against kumirnits, near the gates, pripadshi on one knee, bowing: "de bowed our king," partly representation B. of dignity, as the Ambassador of the Tsar. For example, he certainly would personally convey the king's gifts bogdyhanu and only after strong insistence Chinese gave them "on the mural officials" and "amateurish letter" B. anyone except the emperor, would not agree to give. The upshot was that B. returned brought them gifts, and he left with nothing, not having time to engage in any contact with the Chinese government. On the way back, he figured that he acted too straight, and sent one of its satellites in Beijing with the request to transfer mandarins that he agrees to waive goodbye to bogdikhan. The Chinese, but the pretext for something, and ceased all negotiations. Back in Moscow, B. filed stateyny list, t. e. description of his journey. This description belongs to the most important phenomena of ancient geographical literature and, in extreme conciseness of presentation, the same richness and accuracy of information. In extreme inaccessibility of China in the XVII century, the description of B. was for its time, extremely important contribution to geographical science, and soon became known in Western Europe. A friend of Peter the Great, the Amsterdam mayor Witsen, during his stay in Russia pulled out a list of reports B. and extracting printed it in his book: "Nord en ost Tartarey" (Amsterdam 1692). Hence it is horrible - with the notes, apparently, Witsen same - in the IV t. "Voyages au Nord" (Amsterdam, 1732). There were German, and Latin translations, but they are no exact data. Historian Miller learned of these translations the essence of travel and with its very valuable notes and corrections printed in his magazine "Monthly writings" (1755, Bk. VII). True description of the B. was published twice: in Volume IV Novikov "Ancient Russia Vifliofiki" and in II T. "Legends of the Russian people" Sakharov.