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Beilstein Fyodor

( chemist)

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Biography Beilstein Fyodor
photo Beilstein Fyodor
Born in St. Petersburg on Feb. 5, 1838, died Oct. 6, 1906, Mr.. in St. Petersburg, professor of St. Petersburg Institute of Technology (from 1866 - 96 years) and an ordinary academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, chemist Board of Manufactures and Commerce. At the end of the course in the school of St. Peter (Peterschule) went to Heidelberg, where, under the leadership of Bunsen studied chemistry. In 1856, working with Professor Jolly in Munich, published his first work on the diffusion of the liquid, giving him - a young man 18 years - known in the scientific world. In 1858, Mr.. Beilstein received his Ph.D. in GцTttingen. In 1865, Mr.. invited professor of chemistry in the Technological Institute in St. Petersburg. Beilstein for their research received the diploma of honorary doctor of chemistry from the Moscow University. Works Beilstein made over 100. Of these, the first - the physical, still others - chemical. Total productive Beilstein worked in the field of organic chemistry, he enriched the science of a mass of new facts and, moreover, was one of the most prominent figures in the development of the theory of the structure of aromatic compounds. If KekulцL von Stradonitz must be regarded as the ringleader of this theory, the Beilstein should be put in the front row of staff KekulцL von Stradonitz. Theory of aromatic isomers, developed KekulцL von Stradonitz and his closest associates, did not admit the possibility of the existence, for example, more than one monosubstituta for benzene, thus, allow for the existence of only one of benzoic acid. Meanwhile, Kolbe argued that you can get another benzoic acid (Kolbe called her salilovoy). Existence salilovoy acid destroyed the theory of the structure of benzene KekulцL von Stradonitz or, at least, on the isomerism in the benzene series. Beilstein began the study of "salilovoy acid" and proved that Kolbe was wrong, . Having not quite pure benzoic acid for salilovuyu, cooked according to the description Kolbe salilovuyu acid and subjecting it to clean, . Beilstein proved, . that it is nothing, . as impure benzoic acid,
. Then, the first belongs to the Beilstein work, which opened him a number of studies on the so-called molecular movements (moleculare Umlagerungen). Beilstein proved that the action of chlorine on toluene, chlorine becomes a group or benzene, or methyl group, depending on the physical conditions. This work has shown that that kind of chemical processes in which each molecule of individual atoms of matter exchange their places. Of the other works is particularly interesting study of Russian oil, . which showed, . that it differs significantly in composition from the American, . namely, contains many gidrogenizovannyh aromatic hydrocarbons, . while American oil contains primarily fatty Saturates,
. Beilstein done a lot of work on analytical chemistry, particularly on the application of electrolysis to the quantitative separation of metals from each other. Finally, Beilstein issued a huge labor: "Habdbuch der organischen Chemie" (German). In this work, as the author himself, he tried not to miss a single analyze conjunctions, it is also included huge chemical literature. "Manual" Beilstein was assessed both in Russia and in Western Europe, it has become required reading for every chemist, and through three editions (Leipzig, 1886 - 90 and 1892 - 99). The compilation of the Manual Beilstein created a quite exceptional reputation in the academic world. Full of energy and life, a scientist Beilstein was as professor. His lectures, model of vitality, clarity and simplicity, has always been deeply scientific and demonstrative of impeccably furnished. Wed. article about him Professor PP. Alexeyev in the critical-biographical dictionary, SA. Vengerov, there is a complete list of works Beilstein.


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