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Beketov Nikolai

( chemist, ordinary academician)

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Biography Beketov Nikolai
photo Beketov Nikolai
born January 1, 1827, was raised in the first school in St. Petersburg, in 1844. enrolled at St. Petersburg University, but from the third course went to Kazan, where in 1849. received the degree of candidate of science. After moving then to St. Petersburg, he began to study chemistry under the direction of NN. Zinin. In 1854, Mr.. received a Master of Chemistry in 1855, Mr.. appointed assistant professor in the department of chemistry at University of Kharkov, in which, as a professor of chemistry, stayed 32 years, t. e. until 1887, when he was elected ordinary academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. For many years he lectured on the chemistry of the higher women's courses. In 1887 - 89 years of reading chemistry Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich, now the Emperor Nicholas II. - After all the scientific activities Beketova be clearly traced one direction - a chemist-philosopher. Beketov in all his work in theoretical chemistry sought to address the question of what is the cause, the source of the chemical affinity. In this area Beketov made a remarkable synthesis: it showed that the most strongly connected to each other substances that have the greatest affinity units. This study was reported in Beketovym Chemical Society in Paris in 1859, and in Russian appeared in 1865. ( "Investigation of the phenomena of displacement of some elements of the other", Kharkov, 1865). Proceeding from this principle, . Beketov tried to confirm his experience and made a number of observations: so, . he has proved by experience, . that aluminum does not displace from its barium chloride compounds, . but displaces it from the oxide, . that one can hardly have been foreseen, . not based on the principle, . which kept Beketov,
. The first idea about the dependence of strength of affinity elements from the value, which is in the chemistry of "atomic weight", belongs Beketov. Second and equally important idea, . Present Beketovym, . was, . that the amount of heat, . emitted when connecting to the data of simple bodies, . can not serve as a measure of their affinity, . and represents the difference between the affinities of homogeneous and heterogeneous affinities of atoms,
. This view was illustrated by examples (acetylene, etc.) and is contained in Beketovym Chemical Society meeting in Kharkov. Absolutely identical view was expressed later J. Thomsen'om ( "Thermochemische Untersuchungen", t. II, 1862, Einlitung). Finally, the third very interesting conclusion, usually attributed to Muller-Erzbach'u (Lothar Meyer, "Die modernen Theorien der Chemie", 5 th ed., 1884, p.. 446) and consists in the fact that if a metal displaces other metals from its connection to substance P, the sum of volumes derived substances in the solid state is less than the sum of volumes of substances taken - does not belong to Muller-Erzbach'u and Beketov. In the above-mentioned his work Beketov definitely says: "Considering the cases of displacement of one element of another, . involuntarily, . can say, . struck by an almost constant condition reaction, . precisely the, . that the less dense body displaces more dense "(loc,
. cit., p. 33). From this position can be derived by very simple calculations generally Muller-Erzbach'a. Actual opening Beketova always of great interest. Before Beketova no one had the pure oxides of alkali metals. Major works Beketova: "On some new cases of chemical combination and general observations about these phenomena" (St. Petersburg, . 1853), "The effects of hydrogen pressure on solutions of silver (1859)," On the recovery of metallic barium through the aluminum (1859), "On the Education of potassium permanganate in the alloying of manganese peroxide with potassium hydroxide (1859)," The effects of zinc in the form of vapor in a jet of hydrogen on the barium chloride, . chloride, aluminum chloride and silicon "," Research on the phenomena of displacement of some other metals "(1865)," On the formation of formic acid in the electrolysis of sodium bicarbonate (1869), "a Shell for the condensation of gases" (1869), "On the atomicity of elements"; "On the action sineroda of formic acid", "On the tsianotsianide" (1870), "On the atomicity of chlorine and fluorine," "On the dissociation of the sulfurous, , , . 1890); "Mendeleyev's periodic system in relation to new gas" ( "Journal of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society, . 1902, . t,
. 34), "On the chemical energy in connection with the phenomena presented by radium" (ibid., 1903, t. 35); "Radii as a mediator between this ponderable matter and ether" (ibid., 1904, t. 36); "On the energy elements" (ibid., 1908, t. 40).


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Beketov Nikolai, photo, biography
Beketov Nikolai, photo, biography Beketov Nikolai  chemist, ordinary academician, photo, biography
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