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Belyaev Ivan Dmitrievich

( well-known historian and lawyer)

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Biography Belyaev Ivan Dmitrievich
photo Belyaev Ivan Dmitrievich
(1810 - 73). The son of a priest, he graduated from the course at Moscow University in the Faculty of Law. He served in the Moscow office of the Holy Synod, then in the archives of the Senate and old cases. Here he enthusiastically studied the documents, worked often in drevnehranilische Pogodin. He did not and could not be properly Archaeological and training, and state archives, not listed in the order and in most of which are not described, made it difficult to develop and study the rich archival material. Despite such unfavorable conditions, Belyaev managed to do a lot for Russian Archeology and Archival. He gathered himself and left a valuable manuscript collection, stored in the Rumyantsev Museum. When in 1848. Secretary of the Society of History and Antiquities of Russian at Moscow University and editor of "Reading", . Professor Bodyansky, . suffered the punishment for having printed Russian translation of the works of Fletcher, . Belyaev was elected secretary and editor of "Annals", . which began publication in place of "readings" on the amended plan, . compiled Belyaev,
. Despite serious objections (especially Undolskogo), the plan was approved by the society; Belyaev three times elected as a secretary and managed to publish 25 books "Annals" (1848 - 1857). Since 1852. Belyaev, as replaced the adjunct faculty at the history of Russian law at Moscow University, NV. Kalachova and remained there until his death. Belyaev much written and published a lot of monuments. Most of his work is purely descriptive; few devoted to the history of law. The largest of the last - his "Lectures on the History of the Russian law" - was published after his death, compiled from his handwritten notebooks, not intended for printing, with additions from the student's notes. And in this course descriptive element prevails over the legal. Belyaev bytopisatel much more than the historian of law. All his works are a nationalist tinge himself Belyaev always been a faithful member Slavophile camp among the writers, historians. But Slavophilism Belyaeva not been solid philosophical outlook, it manifested itself only in his ardent love for Moscow and the Moscow-up to the old days, she and the other had not strictly delimited and, . so it came down more to Slavophilism velikorossofilstvu,
. In his research, he usually walked in the footsteps of more prominent members of directions, first Pogodin, then K. Aksakov. In the controversy with the writers Westernising direction defending immemorial tribal or personal rule began in ancient Russia, Belyaev demonstrated predominance of communal life, as a special product of the creative spirit of the Slavic. On the banner Belyaeva, as a writer, all it would be better to chart the words: the struggle for community, for its antiquity and ubiquity. It is impossible not to recognize his great achievements in clarifying this aspect of our everyday stories, but the very concept of community in the various works Belyaev is highly uncertain, . vague and adopted different values, . without any distinction in land communities from administrative, . even the common ownership, . sometimes merging with the notion of any human communication,
. Such uncertainty is often accompanied by the characteristics of lack of substantiation provisions, to support them did not provide any documentary evidence, or are those which have no direct relationship to the test situation. Faith or belief of the author often be a substitute for the reader to witness a monument. These negative features works Belyaeva redeemed in part the abundance of fresh material at his disposal thanks to extensive acquaintance with the archival data. His main essay - doctoral dissertation "The peasants in Russia". In close connection with it are his polemical articles about the origin of the village community in Russia ( "Russian Conversation", 1856) and the article "The laws and acts, ustanovlyayuschie serfdom in Russia" ( "Archive of historical and practical information", 1859, Prince. 2). Those of his writings were not merely theoretical, but also affected the implementation of the agrarian reform. Second place belongs to his study of agrarian relations in the Moscow State in connection with the systems of taxation ( "Annals", kn. XI and XII; "Readings" for 1884 - 85 years), the first illuminating many dark questions. Noteworthy its finding on the organization of the military forces of Old Russia and the Moscow State, . example, . "The brigade and the country", . "Service class people", . "On the Russian army in the reign of Michael Godunov" and especially "On guard, . stanitsa and field service on the Polish Ukraine, the Moscow State ",
. Several of his articles devoted to the origin and the ratio of our chronicles. His master's thesis: "On the inheritance without a will on ancient Russian law to the law code" belongs to the failed his works. From his reviews is particularly valuable regarding the research professor Osokina on the history of financial management in Ancient Russia. Since 1861. Belyaev undertook extensive work on Russian history, to explain the history of the formation of the Moscow State. To this end, he outlined a plan of study and treatment of regional land that later became part of Moscow's possessions. But the stories of Russian history ", only the second book depict the history of Russia by area, in the first refers to the entire Russian land to the XIII century. 2 - 4 books contain stories of Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsk. This edition ended in the death of the author. To this period of his activity as a writer is his article: "Zemsky Sobor in Russia". Publication monuments Belyaev had no fewer services of Russian history than his research. A number of important acts and monuments for the first time it was put into circulation. It includes valuable information on the history of the peasants, . edition Novgorod scribe books, . bit records, . materials on the history of the Moscow Court, . Lithuanian Statute in three editions, . Trade books, . more general historical monuments and t,
. d. Works and publications Belyaeva placed mainly in the "Readings" and "Annals", in "Moskvityanin", "Russian Conversation," "Day", in the publications of the Academy of Sciences. Separately issued only "Peasants in Russia" (1-ed. 1860, 4 th ed. 1903), "Zemsky Sobor in Russia" (1867, 2 ed. 1902) and "Lectures on the history of Russian legislation" (1-ed. 1879, 3rd ed. 1901). Above the publication of works Belyaeva gravitates some bad luck. The best and most important study, "The peasants in Russia", edition of the publication of more and more distorted. Very poorly prepared for publication, and "Lectures". Until recently, neither had any amended list of works Belyaeva. A very incomplete list compiled by a student Belyaeva, C. Petrovsky, worse list annexed to the latest edition of the book "The peasants in Russia", a correct list P.N. Mroczek-Drozdovsky, but it has gaps. - See. S. Petrovsky Ivan D. Belyaev (obituary), "Report and speeches in a solemn meeting of the Moscow University on Jan. 12, 1874" (Moscow, 1874, 63 - 75), E. Bars "Ivan D. Belyaev, secretary of the Imperial Society of History and Antiquities of Russian" ( "Reading", 1882, Prince. 1, mixture, 14 - 20); M.F. Vladimir-Budanov "Lectures on the history of Russian legislation I.D. Belyaev "(" University Izvestiya, 1879, 136 - 164); P.N. Mroczek-Drozdovskii "List of works of the late Professor I.D. Belyaev ( "Reading", 1905, Prince. 2, mixture, 65 - 88); A. Victoria Collection manuscripts I.D. Belyaev (Moscow, 1881); D. Lebedev, "A Collection of historical and legal acts I.D. Belyaev (Moscow, 1881). M. D.

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