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BESTUZHEV Alexander (Marly)

( Outstanding Writer)

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Biography BESTUZHEV Alexander (Marly)
photo BESTUZHEV Alexander (Marly)
Known under the pseudonym Marly. Place of an old noble family, born October 23, 1797, Mr.. a highly cultured and talented family, which gave Russia a few great figures. Uncommon man was his father, Alexander Feodosievich (1761 - 1810), a highly educated artillery officer, published in 1798. with п?.п?. Pnin "St. Petersburg journal, dealing with various sciences and pedagogy and has written" The experience of military training "and" Rules of military education "and for their scientific and artistic interests п-.пг. Bestuzhev was present encyclopedic, and his home has created "a rich museum in miniature", as one of his sons. His energy and love for knowledge he passed on to children, . of whom two sons, . Decembrists, Michael and Nicholas, . were similar to those formed, . active, . versatile talented people, . as a father, a prominent kind of elder sister Helen, . loving and selfless, . good genius of the family,
. Teacher by vocation, a. F. diligently cared for the upbringing of their children, of whom quickly separated the second son, "diligent Sasha, are particularly susceptible, impressionable, eager to read. Ten years he has been given to the mountain building. In his diary, . he then started, . clearly defining the future "Marly", . - "With his turn of mind and heart, . its originality, . sarcastic speech, . observant eye and vivid imagination ", . says his brother, . Michael, . reading this document, . subsequently destroyed,
. Already on the school bench Bestuzhev drew the attention of ardor and ambition. He was a generally good, but did not like science, and not overcome his distaste for them, out of the shell, without completing the course. Under the influence of his elder brother, a sailor Nicholas, he wanted to join the navy, depicting himself in the alluring features of the life of a sailor, but the same mathematics blocked his path to the midshipman's exam, and he had to start the service of a cadet in the household cavalry regiment. "Self-esteem, desire to differences in what whatever walk of life - says his brother - made him a glorious soldier and an even more rider". In 1818, Mr.. He was made an officer. Official case and serious literary pursuits in his life interspersed with frivolous love affair and happy, sometimes reckless pranks. He got carried away her daughter's chief communication routes Betancourt, where he was at one time aide, but the important dignitary refused to give his daughter to marry a poor young officer, this refusal to seriously acted on Bestuzhev. In 1823, . state adjutant by changing the former chief of Duke Alexander of Wц+rttemberg, . Bestuzhev was captain Guard, . and opened up before him a brilliant service career, . but the friendly ties and fiery temperament, dragged him into a conspiracy, . solved the 14 December 1825, Mr.,
. the open rebellion in the Senate Square. Not playing a particularly prominent role in the conspiracy, . not extreme in their political beliefs, . not marching, . essentially, . more moderate constitutionalism and completely agree with the then general mood, . Bestuzhev, . popular figure who all caught the eye, . killed himself a few tasteless jokes and harsh outbursts, . for which the comrades have repeatedly called him a braggart,
. In court, he lost heart, and "first made an important discovery about a secret society", . as stated in its verdict judged the cause of the commission, . recognized by, . that he "conspired to kill the Czar and the extermination of the imperial family, . awoke to the other, . agreed also on the deprivation of liberty of the imperial family, . participated in a riot involving intent comrades and writing seditious poetry and songs, . personally acted in the rebellion and excited to onomu lower ranks ",
. Candor, which he later regretted, softened his fate, and after a year and a half seats in the fortress and one of the Finnish castles, he was sent into exile in Yakutsk, where he lived until July 1829. There, . as is evident from his letters to his brothers Nicholas and Michael, . were present in the Chita prison, . and to Peter and Paul, . which the total lot, . comprehended family, . drove the Caucasus, . Bestuzhev was still cheerful and energetic, . I read a lot and worked, . interested in the new edge to him and tried his best not to fall,
. He dreamed of returning to Russia, but I understood that to neglect the government of the past is still very far away, and began to try to transfer to the Caucasus. With joy he received the news of his appointment as a private in the army Caucasian. Paskevich defined it in the 14 th regiment of Chasseurs, and he immediately plunged into the climate of war and adventure, who wanted not only in Siberia, but everywhere and always. Although Caucasian superiors had ordered him "and for excellence does not represent an increase, . but only communicate, . what kind of difference it made ", . hope for further improvement of the fate he had not quite taken away, to the same, . away from the suspicious central government, . Local authorities mostly belong to disgraced softly and did not trouble them annoying oversight and official quibbling,
. Others had to Bestuzhev his literary fame, . in his hands were always really hard cash, . delivered pen, . and, . except for a few common and not for the exile of service trouble, . Bestuzhev better place, . than many of his comrades,
. Camp life completely satisfy his thirst for foreign activities, which could not satisfy even the assiduous studies of literature, she gave him a good opportunity to examine the Caucasus. In 1835, Mr.. for a number of military distinctions, he was promoted to sergeant, and new differences through the year brought him a commission, which he "suffered and knocked out with a bayonet". He was already thinking about retirement, the transfer at least in the civil service, but this hope has not come true. June 7, 1837, Mr.. Bestuzhev was killed in battle with the Circassians on the Cape Adler. - In literature and in life in general Bestuzhev - one of the few people who did not know of discord between the passage of external events and internal experiences. That is why his personal history, rich in suffering and change, does not produce a painful impression. He can not be a victim if fate threw them at his pleasure, . he was not in her hands passive toy and he went to meet her strokes, . quietly keeping his usual cheerfulness, . reflect, from the same clarity in his literary work,
. It is after several weak experiments began (1819) aptly. Bestuzhev quickly became a prominent member of a number of periodicals, became close to Pushkin, Griboyedov Ryleeva Bulgarin, Grech, brothers The field. In 1821, Mr.. He published the book "The trip to Revel", . placed in magazines (mostly in Sorevnovatele education and charity "and" Son of the Fatherland ") verses, . critical articles and stories, . and in 1823 and 1824 respectively, together with Ryleev issued the famous anthology "Polar Star", . discovered this kind of collection of twenty-year course,
. "Polar Star", in which, except for publishers who participated Pushkin, Baratynsky, Voeikov, Vyazemsky, Grech, Davydov, Delvig, A. Izmailov, Krylov, Dmitriev, Zhukovsky, Senkovsky, Glinka, had unprecedented success and consolidated the position of Bestuzhev in literature and in literary circles. The Court and the reference to time interrupted his literary career, but quickly recovered, he continued it, and for ten years wrote a greater and better part of his works made him one of the most popular and beloved writers of the time. Biographer Bestuzhev N.A. Kotlyarevsky, . divides its main, . fictional heritage into four groups: "The Tale of a sentimental, romantic in style and design, . in most cases, historical, . plot which is taken either from the distant past, . either closer times, novel or essays with a strong predominance of ethnographic, . - Stories from the Siberian and Caucasian life, . imaginary part, . part written from life, the story of everyday modern life, or very close to the present; autobiographical stories with a very intimate pages, . a sort of diary or sheets of note-book author ",
. In his first stories, with historical, quasi-historical and the fantastic content, Bestuzhev revealed himself as sentimentalists and romantic. They are rich in plot, a variety of carefully written out the details, right-thinking patriotic enthusiasm and moralism. Here he was still far from reality ( "Gideon", . "Traitor", . "Attacks", . Roman and Olga ", . "Revel'skii tournament", . Castle Neuhaus ", . Castle Eisen), . but much closer to her, . when it came to him years of creative maturity, . expedited disaster befell him,
. Bestuzhev one of the first in Russian literature began to describe the Russian nature of Russian society, the life of ordinary Russian people. He lost impressions, which gave him the Siberia and the Caucasus, and on the background of a luxurious, morose or stately nature drew people with a vibrant, energetic spirit, which for many years, until the triumph of naturalism reigned in Russian prose. Since the late twenties to late thirties appeared in magazines "Military antiquaries", . "Test", . "Evening on the waters of the Caucasus", . "Lieutenant Belozor", . "Ammalat-bey", . "The red veil", . "Story officer, . former captive by the highlanders ", . Mullah Noor; the last four are devoted to the life of the Caucasian,
. He was particularly attracted by the military and civilian heroism, which he painted in the novels "Mullah Noor" and "Ammalat-bey". They are many unnatural and affectation, . due in part ekzotizmom heroes, . but a lot of loyalty to the local color and a lot of domestic undoubted psychological truth, . making them in comparison with the works of the previous period, a significant step forward, . to realism,
. Another big victories Bestuzhev were his observations on it surrounded by Russian military types (the "Letter from Dagestan", "Test", the outline of what was intended for the novel "Vadim"), the actual paintings and pieces of wartime life. Bestuzhev first to discover that world, . where Lermontov subsequently found its Maksim Maksimovic, . Leo Tolstoy - Plato Karataeva and gray heroes of Sevastopol and the same Caucasus; here visual reality as if she held the unbridled imagination Bestuzhev and had his work the most expensive service,
. For this political offenders-genre painter Bestuzhev manifested itself in those stories ( "Fregat Nadezhda", . "Povolzhskii bandits"), . where he satirically depicted the great light and life of the nobility, . as well as those, . where he painted simple people ( "the policeman-he", . "Sailor Nikitin"), in which he led several successful types and, . although they have subsequently been better clarified and complicated by major artists-realists, . for Bestuzhev is great merit prolagatelya path,
. An innovator in the Russian art, . rightly complaining, . that "can not live neither with the old, . nor with the novelty and must guess all-in-all ", . Bestuzhev instinctive loyalty to guess the needs of the era and made possible the brilliant flowering of Russian prose and Romanticism (Gogol), . and realism (Pushkin, . Gogol, . Lermontov),
. Clearly aware of childish nature of literature of his time, the absence of the well-established principles, he said that if "for Russia is not yet possible geniuses, then that's the clue of my success. I confess that I consider myself above Zagoskina and Bulgarin, but this child heights on the shoulder ... Today fashion Padalinski, Marly tomorrow, the day after some Nebylinsky, and that's why I have little joy, my hodyachest ". A hodyachest "Bestuzhev was outstanding. Each new novel "Pushkin's prose", . as named Marly, . caused a sensation, he was the most widely read author of his era, . and compete with him in popularity could only Pushkin, . who called his Russian Walter Scott and thought, . that he was in Russia will be "first in all meanings of the word" (Bestuzhev influence on Pushkin sealed in a "fire", . "Dubrovsky"),
. Liked it Griboyedov, Kiichelbecker, Senkovsky; high opinion of him was H. Field. In society Bestuzhev strongly influenced by the characters he created, . passionate, . passionate, . not knowing any action in good, . nor evil, . spectacular situations, . in which he had put his heroes, . game of contrasts, . sharp clarity color, . which are dominated by white and black,
. No wonder his favorite author was spectacular, bizarre Hugo, the head of a young French romanticism Bestuzhev wrote of him: "Before Hugo, I am down, it is not a gift, a genius in the whole growth". In Hugo's heroes, he found his prototypes burnoplamennyh heroes with their demon-furious passion, impulsive movements, theatrical poses, eternal pathetic elated, pompous language. They say, for example: "all that poets are so fond of talking, than so lightly played by women in what way are trying to pretend to be lovers - like melted copper, and on which most couples do not find the source, lit the flame ... Passionate and powerful passion rolled like lava, it draws and burns all the counterclaim, destroyed itself, destroying obstacles in the ashes, and even for a moment, but it makes a bubbling cauldron, even the cold sea. "The fiery blood flowed in my veins," - says one, another is "ready source of blood to drop and the heart torn into shreds ... No matter how stilted these passions, no matter how high-sounding expressions - they affected the soul of the writer, who in a sense the question of his characters put the full force of its own pathetic quality. He is not only justified its psychological extremes and stylistic excesses, but more expensive than the exuberance and proud of his writing style: "My pen bow unauthorized, witches broom, horse rider ... I throw reason and not look back, not anticipating what lies ahead. Not want to know, whether the wind sweeps up next to me, straight or pattern next to me. Jumped over a fence, swam across the river, well, not - too well ... I'm sick of broken edicts your literary theories chaussees, your eternal road from pine stumps, your cast iron belt and hanging bridges, your ride on a wooden horse or a broken horse ... Raging, bryklivogo horse here! Barrens me - a storm! Easy I dream - flying in the skies, heavy thoughts, - dive into the depths of the sea "... For Bestuzhev in these words not only shaped the canon of Romanticism, . and direct language of the soul (so much for it and in his letters, . up to the most intimate), . sincere and natural in its own, . only have imitated him to turn in that ridiculous "marlinizm" (a sample of his poetry gave Benedict), . which attacked, . himself at one time was under the influence of Marly, . Belinsky, . crushed literary fame Bestuzhev,
. Belinsky had risen to "external" romanticism, "pseudo-romanticism" Bestuzhev, but for all his antipathy to Bestuzhev great critic could not but admit that he was "first, our narrator," "assailant Russian novel". In the most uplifting of its author's psychology and style of SA. Vengerov rightly sees "a protest against the vulgarity of the environment, prepared a formulation that disdains worldly reality of free personality, which became the basis of the new Russian social thought". Of equal importance was Bestuzhev as a critic. "You deserve a criticism," he wrote (1825) Pushkin, who had dreamed all his life, once in Russia will be a "true criticism". Belinsky himself talked about Bestuzhev: "A lot of bright ideas, often revealing a true sense of the elegant, all expressed a lively, fiery, exciting, original and witty - are an integral and important to merit. He was the first who said in our literature a lot of new ... Marly is not much acted as a critic, but many did - his achievements in this regard to remember "... In his criticism of it, with all the natural dislike of abstraction, with romantic hate preconceived theory, guided by the immediate aesthetic intuition. Criticism Bestuzhev viewed as the "cornerstone of the literature". Realizing, . that young society, . in which "literary name can sometimes buy and Breakfast, . be "driving under the handle", . Bestuzhev, . standing since the early twenties on the critical guard, . "cried like a goose Capitol", . not scruple to use, . as subsequently Belinsky, . and the most trifling occasion: "whoever and whatever dismantled, . Still early, . late?, . this benefit; disputes critically taste, . and rules of language shall firmness ",
. Elementary to criticism of his views have evolved rapidly and become more complex, and already in the "Polar Star" in 1823, Mr.. published his great and important article: "Looking at the old and new literature of Russia". After many fragmentary, . mostly, . komplimentnyh reviews of contemporary writers, . Bestuzhev came to the conclusion, . that Russian literature is, . despite the many writers, . still in its infancy, . proved that poverty and the prevalence of prose poems - this "child gremushki; causes of this phenomenon, he saw in the territorial vastness Russia, . interfering "consolidating opinions", . t,
. e. create centers of education, as well as neglecting the society to the native language, in the writers' circle. In the following review: "A Perspective on Russian literature during 1823" ( "Polar Star" in 1824), stated Bestuzhev general stagnation in the literature, which was caused, in his opinion, after a period of war (1812 - 1814), and lack of creative thinking. Much more valuable was his third article "A Perspective on Russian literature during 1824 and early 1825 years" ( "Polar Star" in 1825) and in it he stated bluntly that "we have no literature" (followed by a repeated Nadezhdin H. Field, Belinsky), because there is no education, no social life, where would the field intelligence and character. Tools to combat the status quo Bestuzhev indicated in their published in 1825, Mr.. translated article on the poetry of the XIX century., which must certify that the literature has already manifested a tendency to realism, which can satisfy the nation: "... we need people's content. Our people remain outside literature ... Let us be the same age in our time, we are original and distinctive and aggregate together all points of view, all together in a system. In this formula is visible attempt to create an eclectic relationship between realism and romanticism. Building on several years later ( "The Moscow Telegraph, . 1833) their thoughts on the latest, . Bestuzhev again took to him all the original, . organically folk, . original, in this definition, . which, . I noticed Belinsky, . all the talented writers - romance, . and romanizm - the key to all wisdom, . expressed theoretical weakness Bestuzhev, . but said, and true practical sense, . vlekshee him to artistic freedom and independence from the chains of pre-canon,
. This instinct, however, would be enough for more or less correct leadership of the steps Bestuzhev as criticism, but they gave the relative firmness of his social views. Systematic expression found in a letter to Nicholas I, signed at the fortress. King Bestuzhev pointed to the same phenomenon, referred to in the critical articles to the reading public - that Russia has no social life. The country has little money, oppressed peasantry, the bourgeoisie does not give to evolve: "Philistines, class venerable and significant in all other states, we have worthless, poor, burdened with duties, deprived of means of subsistence". The troops operate and just rob. Rural clergy, impoverished and devoid of moral authority, has no good effect on people. Nobility is ruined in idleness and chicanery. In the civil service and patronage unheard-of development kapralstvo; prevails in the courts of extortion. This grim picture is not in itself a new and broadly convergent with the testimony of many other members of the secret society, shows how a careful study of the environmental life-guardsman brilliant writer, how much there was in him a sense of civic. It permeated his critical experiments; they breathe his reviews of Pushkin, . we must accept with some reservations, . for Bestuzhev and thirties optional, but they clearly show, . what public demands were being made Bestuzhev writer,
. He was "ready to grab the collar of Pushkin, . raise it above the crowd and say to him: "Shame!" You Do, . a lapdog, . sleep in the sun by the window, . on pillows child uspehaN Do you worship the golden calf, . which the Germans call "Mammon", . and we, . babes, . "light" N "..,
. "Tell him from me - he once wrote H. Polevoy, - do you hope for Russia, not to betray her without changing his lifetime, not swamp her in a pool of talent, do not sleep on our laurels "... In all his writings, especially in critical articles, one senses a journalistic vein, and some reviews have given Bestuzhev Minister SS. Uvarov grateful material for the indictment against the Moscow Telegraph ". Not only the philosophical and historical side of his criticism, but also the journalistic Bestuzhev prepared the way criticism Belinsky. That heightened sense that Bestuzhev invested in his characters and his style, native to him with wholehearted optimism, enthusiasm, and close to the passion he has no place for pessimism or passive quietism. Bestuzhev was convinced, . What if one nation stagnates in barbarism, . if the other dropped in ignorance, . but ten others are going forward on the path of education, . and mass prosperity grows with each passing day, it pours a balm to the soul of an honest man torn, . consoles citizen, . wronged by society ",
. The generation of the thirties and forties drew in the works Bestuzhev moral courage and the will to live, with whom he was easier to tolerate and cope with harsh social conditions. - Works Bestuzhev were published several collections: "Russian novels and short stories", . 8 parts, . 1832 - 1834 years, 2 edition, . 8 parts, . 1835 - 1839 years, 3rd edition, . 9 parts, . 1838 - 1839 years, "Complete Works", . IX - XII parts (continued 2-nd edition of the story), . 1838 - 1839 years, the complete edition 2-e (general, 4-e), . 12 parts, . 1843,
. The biographical and bibliographical information collected from SA. Vengerov ( "critical-biographical dictionary of Russian writers and scientists", III, T., 147 - 177, and "Sources of literature of Russian writers," t. I). The best biographical sketch and a full evaluation of the literary activity Bestuzhev owned N.A. Kotlyarevskogo ( "Decembrists kn. AI. Odoyevski and AA. Bestuzhev-Marly ", St. Petersburg., 1907). N. Lerner.

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