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Baudouin de Courtenay, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Ignatius-Netsislav, Baudouin de Courtenay)

( eminent linguist)

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Biography Baudouin de Courtenay, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Ignatius-Netsislav, Baudouin de Courtenay)
Born March 1, 1845, Mr.. It comes from the old French aristocratic family, which owes its inception by King Louis VI and considers in its ranks crusader Baldwin of Flanders, later Emperor of Constantinople. In France, the kind of Baudouin de Courtenay became extinct in 1730, but his representatives nekotoroye moved to the beginning of XVIII century in Poland, where naturalized. Enrolling in the "preparatory courses" to the Warsaw central school Baudouin, under the influence of a professor's methodology and encyclopedia of academic science Plebanskogo, decided to devote himself to studies linguistics and especially Slavic languages. The historical-philological faculty of the primary school he chose Slavic Philology Department, where he had a special influence professors F.B. Quett AND. Prziborowski and V.YU. Khoroshevskii. He can not, however, considered valid student of any of these scholars, as required by their scientific views predominantly own initiative. From the works of European scholars of the time he had a great benefit Steinthal and writings of other philosophers, linguists, . piqued his interest to the general problems of linguistics and later led him to believe in the psychic nature of language exclusively,
. After graduating from primary school to the degree of Master of History and Philology, Baudouin was sent overseas, he spent several months in Prague, studying Czech language at Jena he attended lectures Schleicher, in Berlin, was engaged in Vedic Sanskrit in A. Weber. Later he studied in St. Petersburg, mainly under the leadership I.I. Sreznevsky, which, however, not being a linguist, but only a philologist, he could not bring him much good. He also attended lectures KA. Kossovich in Sanskrit and Zend. In 1870, Mr.. received in Leipzig Ph.D., . after he defended his master's thesis on drevnepolskom language before XIV century ", . preserved and is still scientific value, . and was admitted to the St. Petersburg University, lectures on the comparative grammar of Indo-European languages as a privat-docent, . appearing, . thus, . the first teacher of this subject at St. Petersburg University (п?.п?,
. Minaev was chosen an assistant professor in the department named after Baudouin de Courtenay). In 1872, Mr.. Baudouin de Courtenay was again sent abroad, where he stayed for three years. In 1874,. He was elected in Kazan University professors in the department of comparative grammar and Sanskrit, there is not occupied by anyone since its inception in 1863 the university statute. In 1875, Mr.. Baudouin defended his doctoral dissertation "The experience of phonetics rezyanskih dialects," topped the Uvarov Prize of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and represents in our time as a model dialectological phonetic characteristics of. At the end of 1875. he received in the Kazan University professor. Around him formed a group of young linguists, which initiated the so-called Kazan school of linguistics. At its head stood NV. Krushevsky, the first successor of Baudouin de Courtenay in the department of comparative linguistics, and beside him VA. Bogorodickij, the successor to Kruszewski, who is called the department and on this time. For younger members of the circle belong to SK. Bulich and AI. Alexandrov. From 1876 to 1880. Baudouin de Courtenay was also a teacher of Russian language and Slavic dialects in the Kazan Theological Academy. In 1883, Mr.. he took the chair of comparative grammar of Slavic languages at Tartu University and stayed there for ten years. In 1887, Mr.. elected as a member of the Krakow Academy of Sciences. In 1893, Mr.. retired, he moved to Krakow and began to lecture on comparative linguistics at the University of Cracow. In 1900, Mr.. was forced to leave the lectures, not land the Austrian Ministry of Education their independent way of thinking, and then moved to St. Petersburg, where he received a professorship. Since 1907, Mr.. reads and the St. Petersburg Higher Women's Courses. During this second Petersburg period of Baudouin de Courtenay among his pupils moved senior lecturers of the St. Petersburg University L.V. Scherba and M.R. Vasmer. Scientific and literary activity of Baudouin de Courtenay embraces a variety of departments of linguistics, philology and journalism in general, focusing primarily on the scientific study of living of the Slavic languages. The first work of Ivan Aleksandrovich still refer to the time of its students in the primary school Warsaw. They were followed by a series of individual studies and monographs, critical articles, reviews, and opinion / op-ed articles in magazines, newspapers, and separately. Of these, besides those mentioned above, are issued by: Leipzig doctoral thesis "Einige Falle der Wirkung der Analogie in der polnischen Declination" (Kuhn und Schleicher, "Beitr. z. vgl. Sprachf. ", . VI, . 1868 - 70), . which is the first time a model of consistent and widespread use of psychological methods in the field of morphology, . subsequently received a development in the works novogrammaticheskoy schools, "Some general remarks on linguistics and language" ( "Journal of the Ministry of Public Education", . CLIII, . 1871, . February); "Glottologicheskie (linguistic) Notes (" Notes of Philology ", . 1876 - 77), . containing, . incidentally, . ostoroumnoe and correct explanation of the so-called insertion evfonicheskogo "H" (in forms such as: "with it", . "to him", . "listen", . "withdraw", . "hold", . "raise", etc.); long article "Rezya and rezyane" (Slavic Collection ", . 1876, . III); "Samples Friulian dialects of the Slavs" (in the book "Friulian Slavs, . Article I,
. Sreznevsky and Applications, . Petersburg., . 1878); "Lithuanian Folk Songs, . written by Anton Yushkevich around Pusholat and Veleny "(three volumes, . Kazan, . 1880 - 82) - the most valuable language and folklorists material; "Wedding ceremonies Welensky Lithuanians, . written by Anton Yushkevich (Kazan, . 1880); "Lithuanian wedding songs, . written by Anton Yushkevich and published by Yves,
. Yushkevich (St. Petersburg, . 1883, . edition of the Imperial Academy of Sciences), "Brief historical information, . on speaking machine Faber "(" The minutes of the Section of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Society of Naturalists of the Imperial University of Kazan ", . 1883); dialectological sketch "Der Dialekt von Cirkno (Kirchheim)" (Jadic, . "Archiv f,
. slav. Philologie ", . 1884, . VII); "Sprachproben des Dialektes von Cirkno" (ibid., . VII, . 1885); "Z patologii i embryjologii jezyka" ( "Prace philologiczne", . I, . 1885, . 1886); "O zadaniach jezykoznawstwa" (ibid., . III, . 1889); "O ogolnych przyczynach zmian jezykowych" (ibid., . III, . 1890); "Piesni bialorusko-polskie z powiatu Sokoskiego gubernii Grodzienskiej" ( "Zbior wiadomosci do Antropologii Krajowey", . Cracow, . Volume XVI, . 1892), "Two questions from the doctrine of" mitigation "or palatalization of sounds in Slavic languages" (Studies of the University of Tartu ", . 1893, . N 2); "Piesni bialoruskie z powiatu Dzisnienskiego gubernii Wilenskiej zapizal Adolf Cerny" ( "Zbior wiadomosci", . Volume XVIII, . 1893), "From the lectures on Latin phonetics" (Voronezh, . 1893, . excerpt from "Philological Notes" 1884, . 1886 - 92 years); "Proba teorji alternacyj fonetycznych,
. Gzesc Iogolna "(" Rozprawy wydzialu filologicznego Akademii umijetnosci w Krakowie ", . Volume XX, . 1894 and separately), . also in German: "Versuch einer Theorie phonetischer Alternationen" (Strasbourg, . 1895) - a valuable material to establish the precise concept of the so-called sound laws; "Z fonetyki miedzywyrazowej (aussere Sadhi) Sanskrytu i jezyka polskiego" ( "Sprawozdania z posiedzen Wydzialu filologicznego Akademii umijetnosci w Krakowie", . 1894, . March 12); "Einiges uber Palatalisierung (Palatalisation) und Entpalatalisierung (Dispalatalisation)" ( "Indogerm,
. Forschungen ", 1894, IV);" Materials for the South Slavic dialectology and Ethnography (St. Petersburg, 1895); "Melodje ludowe litewskie zebrane przzez s. p. ks. A. Juszkiewicza etc. "(Ed., . with Noskovskim, . Lithuanian national melodies, . representing a very large musical and ethnographic value, Krakow, . 1900); "Szkice jezykoznawcze" (Volume I, . Warsaw, . 1904) - a collection of a number of separate articles, . including many of the above,
. For several years (since 1885) Baudoin was one of the editors published by the Warsaw linguistic journal "Prace filologiczne" and the large Polish Dictionary, supplemented and edited the third edition of the "Explanatory Dictionary" Dahl (St. Petersburg, . 4 volumes, . 1903 - 1909),
. A detailed list of his scholarly work, driven to 1895 cm. in his autobiography ( "critical-biographical dictionary" SA. Vengerov), where he was and his own summary of the scientific profession de foi. The main feature of the personal and scientific nature of Baudouin de Courtenay is the desire for spiritual self-reliance and independence, aversion to routine and pattern. He always tried to "take the investigated object such as it is, without imposing never suited him categories" (his own words Baudouin). This enabled him to give a series of original and apt observations, make a lot of brilliant scientific ideas and generalizations. Of particular value are the foundations of the theory of the reduction in favor of the endings and the two main genera of phonetic alternations. The first theory has become the disciples of Baudouin de Courtenay, . professors Kruszewski and the Mother of God, . and follower of Baudouin de Courtenay Appell, . the theory of so-called morphological absorptiometer and secretion, the second, . expressed first in general terms, . was developed subsequently by Kruszewski and Baudouin de Courtenay in a consistent theory, . contained them in the argument: "Proba teorji alternacyi fonetycznych" (Krakow, . 1894),
. Having started his independent scientific activity in psychological research on language, Baudouin de Courtenay is always assigned the psychological moment the widest place in the life of language, driving, ultimately, all the problems of linguistics to psychology. Never, however, he did not forget and phonetics. One of the first he had planted in our familiarity with modern scientific phonetics or antropofonikoy how he liked it is sometimes called, followed by Merkel, passing it its inclination and all his disciples,. Coinciding its fundamental scientific principles with the main representatives emerged in the mid 70-ies in the West, so-called "mladogrammaticheskogo" direction, . Baudouin de Courtenay came to them regardless, . by independent parallel development, . escaped with a number of methodological errors and inaccuracies of their Western supporters, . often giving substantial amendments and additions to their general linguistics theories and doctrines,
. The main area of study is his family of Slavic languages, of which especially the love and attention enjoyed numerous Slowinski dialects of northern Italy and southern Austria. Multiple Dialectological his excursions in the area of these dialects have given him excellent knowledge of all their features and allowed to collect a wealth of material, which is still waiting for his scientific processing. Thus the study of living languages - one of the principles mladogrammaticheskoy schools - has Baudouin de Courtenay, one of the most zealous followers, . involving him even more unilateral neglect of historical material and strictly comparative study, . although here they made a lot of original and valuable ideas,
. S. Bulich.


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Baudouin de Courtenay, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Ignatius-Netsislav, Baudouin de Courtenay), photo, biography
Baudouin de Courtenay, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Ignatius-Netsislav, Baudouin de Courtenay), photo, biography Baudouin de Courtenay, Ivan Aleksandrovich (Ignatius-Netsislav, Baudouin de Courtenay)  eminent linguist, photo, biography
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