Boretsky Martha( The head of Lithuania pariah in Novgorod)
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Biography Boretsky Martha
mayor's wife of Isaac A., who after the death of her husband, headed the Lithuanian pariah in Novgorod, and therefore better known under the name of Martha-Governor's Wife. Personality her on monuments, drawn with a rather pale, it is evident that she was a woman, intelligent, energetic, and fond of freedom. The history of the fall of Novgorod chronicler begins with 1471, since the first campaign of John III of Novgorod. In explanation of this fall he cites, among other things, the story of Martha's relations with Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, which he calls a betrayal of not only the Prince of Moscow, but the Orthodox Church. In Novgorod, being made up of supporters of the party alliance with Casimir, and the head of the party in the beginning of the reign of John III were Boretsky. Feeling a force, the party Boretsky often insult Muscovite governors and rudely responded to the demands of John, who sought to meet. In 1471, when selecting the archbishop, it fell not on the Senior Priest Pimen, Martha's favorite, but on Theophilus, stretches to Moscow. This circumstance Boretsky advantage for the final break with Moscow: the turbulent, . legend of the Moscow chronicler, . Chamber of party prevailed, . and Casimiro sent an embassy to the proposal to be the head of Novgorod on the basis of the ancient precepts of his civil liberty,
. John went to campaign against Novgorod and in several battles completely dispelled Novgorod army, not backed up by the Casimir. Novgorod was supposed to submit to Moscow and to swear allegiance to John as his supreme judge, but the political freedom of Novgorod and to the right of self-government in domestic affairs of its John not invaded, but it is not reassured Martha and her party. In addition, new promises of assistance from the Casimir did not stop. Party Lithuanian again intensified and take precedence over Moscow. There were clashes between one and another, and complaints of the oppressed called John in Novgorod (1476). After many resentful of the Novgorodians themselves began to travel to Moscow and to seek there the Grand Duke council. In one of these trips Podvoisky Nazar da deacon Candlelight Zahar, bowing to John, called him not the master, as is usually called him Novgorod, and the emperor. John, who knew about the dealings with the party Boretsky Casimir and their preparations, and reshivshiysya end veche community, sent an ambassador to Novgorod to ask: what states want Novgorod, t. e. not whether they wish to have the Grand Duke as an autocratic monarch, the sole legislator and judge. Such a question on top of Novgorod in great confusion: the universal fear seized Marfa, . raised anxiety, . during which were slaughtered many of the more ardent supporters of Moscow, . and reiterated its appeal for help to the Casimir, . was obtained when folding charter of John (1478),
. Casimir, as before, further promise not go, and Novgorod, despite all the efforts of Martha and her party to protect his identity, without a struggle let the troops of John. The day after the entry into the city, February 2, 1479, John, Martha, with orders to arrest her grandson, and many nobles and sent to Moscow, her estate became the property of John. From Moscow, Martha was taken to the Nizhni Novgorod, with postrizhenii a nun to name Mary and lies in there the Nunnery. Year of death unknown. - Activities of Martha Boretsky associated with the fall of Novgorod and giving rise to its own destruction, seemed to many writers, beginning with NM. Karamzin, who wrote the story "Martha-Governor's Wife, or The Fall of Novgorod (in 1808), an excellent plot for the novel and drama. V. P-in.