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Bulgakov Sergey Nikolaevich

( Famous Writer)

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Biography Bulgakov Sergey Nikolaevich
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Born in 1871. in the showers, the family priest, he studied at the seminary and Orel Yelets school, he graduated the Law Faculty of Moscow State University. After passing the MA exam, Bulgakov became a teacher of political economy at Moscow Technical School, in 1901. defended his thesis at Moscow State University Master's degree and was elected professor of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, in 1906. returned to Moscow, assistant professor of the University. In 1911, Mr.. lodged with many other retired. Bulgakov was a member of the 2nd State Duma, but the prominent leadership role in it is not played, however, a few times mainly for the condemnation of terrorism from the bottom and top of terrorism. Bulgakov's popularity stems mainly from his public lectures connecting the brilliant artistic quality with the ideological content and sincerity of tone. Bulgakov perhaps the most brilliant and most militant representative in Russia of the critical-idealist philosophical movement. Fundamental reforms, produced by the founder of critical philosophy in the theory of knowledge, it seems, and Bulgakov, the central event of the history of European spiritual culture. Knowingly "kantologiya" is, in his opinion, an indispensable preparatory school for a critical review of cognitive tools and categories that make up the dogmatic domain of empirical science. Critical work Bulgakov on some traditional assumptions and methods of positivism is all the more interesting that the first steps in his scientific career he was a staunch supporter of the mechanical world. Bulgakov has come a long way "from Marxism to idealism, and with great sincerity reproduced from the readers and listeners of all moments of his philosophical quest. In extensive thesis of his "Capitalism and Agriculture" Bulgakov set out to show on the history of the evolution of the agrarian law of general applicability of Marxian concentration of production, but came to opposite conclusions. The economic scheme of Marx was not correspond to historical reality, and connected with it a positive theory of social progress - unable to feed ineradicable belief in human goodness historical justification. After unsuccessful attempts to use for Marxism epistemological precepts of Kant, . Bulgakov stopped thinking, . that the strong support of guiding principles for personal and public life is possible only through the development of unconditional Meryl in the benefits, . Truth and Beauty,
. Positive science is his theory of progress want to absorb and metaphysics, and religious faith, but, leaving us about the future of mankind in complete obscurity, gives us only the dogmatic theology of atheism. Mechanical world view, all subordinating fatal necessity, in final body is at rest on faith. Marxism, as the brightest kind of religion of progress, encouraged his supporters believing in a close and a logical arrival renewed social order, he was not strong scientific and utopian elements of his. Bulgakov came to the conclusion that progress is not an empirical law of historical development, and the task of moral, religious absolute ought. Social conflict seemed to him not only the hostile clash of class interests, and the implementation and development of moral ideas. Being unable to justify "must"; ideal can not be inferred from the fact. Doctrine of the class of self and class solidarity were sealed, according to Bulgakov's conviction, the nature of the surface of hedonism. From the moral point of view of fighting because of the worldly goods of the Party is quite equal, because they managed not religious enthusiasm, do not search for the unconditional and enduring meaning of life, and everyday selfishness. Evdaymonistichesky ideal of progress, as the scale in the assessment of the historical development, leads, according to Bulgakov, to the anti moral conclusions, and recognize the suffering of generations, only a bridge to a future bliss descendants. From about 1900. the problem of religious and philosophical foundation of human progress becomes a central issue for Bulgakov's vision, as if the resultant criticism of his tireless efforts idealist. Modern philosophical system must, . his belief, . absorb and process all of the final conclusions of modern positive science, . clarify its relationship with the real-time tasks and set them certain fundamental attitudes, . inscribing, . thus, . and the overall program of practical politics,
. The greatest sympathy Bulgakov uses the kind of philosophical idealism, which leads a moral problem in organic connection with the fundamental questions of metaphysics. Hence the philosophy of Vladimir. Solovieva, making the beginning of Christianity vital organizing principle of public works, Bulgakov is the last word in the world of philosophical thought, the supreme synthesis. The different stages of philosophical development Bulgakov found himself clearly reflected in the ten articles of his, from which a compilation of "From Marxism to Idealism" (St. Petersburg, 1904). In the realm of political economy in the narrow sense are primarily following his work: "The markets in capitalist production" (1896), "What is the value of labor" ( "Compendium of Law and Public Knowledge, t. VI); "Classical School and the historical trend in political economy" ( "New Word", October, 1897), "On the evolution of agriculture" ( "Start", I-III, 1899); "Ralohoynsky experiment" ( "Peace God ", 1900, February). The basic conception of modern political economy, in which growth of material needs is a fundamental principle of normal economic development, met with severe condemnation of Bulgakov. It recognizes economic progress is essential for spiritual progress, but cautioned against the inclination to replace the progress of all mankind and general culture, only one economic progress. Moral and spiritual materialism of the bourgeois, who ruined the once Roman civilization, are, in his eyes, a disease of modern European society. Inability to meet intensification of external wealth and reconcile with established forms of social injustice, . commitment to universal ideals, . insatiable need for conscious and effective religious faith Bulgakov recognizes the most characteristic and the happiest features of the Russian spirit,
. That's all it reveals the growing belief in his last two major books: "Two Cities. Studies on the nature of social ideals "(2 vols., Moscow, 1911) and" Philosophy of Economy "(2 vols., Moscow, 1912). As for his philosophical beliefs direct student of Vladimir. Soloviev, Bulgakov, however, is critical of his church and the political and economic program. The problem of the philosophy of management - about a man in nature and of nature in the man never came out of the writer's outlook Bulgakov, . but in his last big book, he first set out to "understand the world, . as the object of labor economic impact "and reduced to one harmonious whole all the results of their previous ideological pursuit,
. For a new logical architecture, he rejects the now nothing in the philosophical arsenal Kantianism. The vital truth of religious materialism is forgotten or obscured, by conviction Bulgakov, modern "kantiziruyuschim" theology. It seems necessary to "translate" the immortal cosmological and economic precepts of the Church Fathers into the language of modern philosophical thinking. True to the old traditions of historical Christianity, Bulgakov covers the basics of the economic process, highlights the peculiar problem of the relation of flesh and spirit and the ultimate goal of world history. In modern Western philosophy Bulgakov recognizes now more akin to a spirit of Schelling and makes hardly grateful attempt to combine the naturalistic pantheism German thinker with church theism Vladimir Solovyov. In Bulgakov's philosophical observation, "the revival of nature works tirelessly, her son and slave, lover and lord, master and working as long as only a master ... Thus, paradoxically, he outlines the foundation pillars of his religious and economic outlook. Reconciling disparate elements of the historical process and raznotsennyh started doing the moral drawn Bulgakov distant but attainable promised land of mankind. In understanding the social side of Christianity Bulgakov is close to the right wing of the official theologians. Gospel, according to his interpretation, did not require the immediate release of Christian slaves from the Christian owners, do not touch the existing economic system, giving it his renewing work in the history of. Bulgakov never spoke about the fundamental incompatibility of war and criminal punishment with the teachings of Jesus. The essential point of true Christianity, he sees in the dogma of the universal resurrection of the flesh, and seeks to historical and philosophical justification of the whole mystical ritual of church tradition. Harshest critics can not deny him a rich education, creative soulful introspection, a brilliant literary talent and sincere love for all mankind the truth. Valentin Speranski.


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