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Bukharev Alexander Matveyevich

( Religious activities)

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Biography Bukharev Alexander Matveyevich
(Archimandrite Theodore, 1822 - 71) - a unique phenomenon in the history of Russian church. Currently, he again began to attract attention to the most sensitive representatives of the modern God-seeking. Bukharev educated in Tver Seminary and the Moscow Theological Academy, graduating in 1846, Mr.. Master. In the same year he was tonsured a monk and received the chair of biblical history, and then the Holy Scriptures. In 1854, Mr.. transferred to the Kazan Academy inspector in 1858. appointed member of the St. Petersburg Committee of spiritual censorship, and in 1861,. discharged to the brethren of the monastery Perejaslavskogo Vladimir province. In half of 1863. he took the San, married, and before the end of life led miserable existence, somehow interrupting the literary earnings. - A lot of strong feelings befell Bukhareva. Thinly organized nature of the noble young monk at the cost of their suffering as if redeemed the sins of the whole dark era. Bukharev in general can be understood only in connection with the situation in which he began his work. Grim Nicholas regime stopped life in all directions. Church under the influence of the press is particularly noticeable showed disruption. Suffice it to view these, such as books, as a priest Moroshkina, "Materials for the history of the Orthodox Church in the reign of Emperor Nicholas I" (ed. only in 1902. Imperial Historical Society), "On the Orthodox white and black clergy in Russia" (published. in 1866. in Leipzig), "Religious censorship in Russia 1799 - 1855" AN. Kotowicz, to feel the need to hear the moaning, wailing against a completely intolerable situation created by the church to half of the XIX century. If ever, it is precisely at the time, our hierarchy of all the forces trying to "serve the interests of the state, which connects it with the church". The gap between the advanced part of society and the church took the form of irreconcilable. The horror of this gap experienced Bukharev and brought his noble life as a sacrifice of atonement. Severity carried with him and other representatives of the church - Nicanor Brovkovich Innocent Borisov - but none as much as Bukhara. That's why he was almost alone. Appreciate its not always been able to even people undeniably clever and fresh as Gilyarov-Platonov. Filaretovschina and Protasovschina so accustomed to keep up, that the slightest attempt to break free of this spiritual shagistiki seemed to them eccentricity, almost madness. - Bukhari spiritual well established in the Moscow Academy. We can say, and almost everything he published later, and thought it was written here. Bukharev closely followed the secular literature. Particularly fond of it Gogol. To him he wrote in 1848. three letters of which have already caused the first severe reprimand by Filaret. Can not say that Bukharev created a new or substantially rebuilt the old theological system. The main thing was not in these constructions, and in the mood, which they dictated. Bukharev read in the Moscow Academy of the Holy Scriptures. It is easy to predict who the authors of the saints shall possess them. The explosive, fiery Paul always conquer the most powerful religious nature in history - John Chrysostom, Augustine, Luther - and inseminated their minds. Bukharev sucked into itself to such an extent Pauline theology, as none of the Russian church leaders. This would inevitably lead him to where he came. The main thing for a man: "communion in Christ's passion, participation in the spirit and the location of the Lord's love for sinful and misguided, by which he lay down his life for them, as if he alone was responsible for all". All the prominent figures of Orthodoxy in the past "were not the dead letter of the faith, but for most people because union with God in Christ. The force in the alienation of which was lost to a man not only for the future life, but in the present ". So it was against the Arians, which was "an assault on the very meaning of Christ as superior to us early - as all true, good, beautiful, open in Christ stopped the man for the last". It also threatened Nestorianism, . who insisted, . in the very Christ, . "Based on the connection of grace with God, . human with the divine connected only by chance, . that Christ was born from his mother a simple man, . which for His holiness has subsequently joined the Word of God, . staying in his personality is always separate from humanity of Christ, . from which the very basis of the union of men with God was broken to inwardly in the Christ ",
. Besides the resolution led and Monophysitism. "In Christ humanity is engrossed by the Divine, as a drop of the sea, on which are sinful people must have lost the very Savior, Christ the availability of, or akin to their nature the way to its connection with the Divine". Then Monothelitism "intensified dug fertile opportunity for Christians to live with his personality and all parties of his being on earth and in heaven". But this dogmatic struggle that cost so many victims, not ended and now. And now there Arianism poluarianstvo, Monophysitism. "Let us say our feeble human intellect, imagination, especially this mortal corporeality; will trample and destroy our moral personality, spirit ascended to heaven and divine. Okay, but we should not forget that in Christ, and humanity as a soul, and with the physicality not absorbed by the Divine, but for the salvation of our minds and our other spiritual forces as well as our physicality, left whole, in his very personal. Suppress the spiritual direction of the human mind or other spiritual forces, . instead of disclosing their versatile in Christ, . eliminate most of our physicality of any participation in the spirituality of grace, . would be to put up with the spirit evtihianstva, . which recognized the absorption of the human in Christ Divine, . and Monothelites not recognize in Christ, together with the divine and human will and action ",
. From this point of view Bukharev declares himself an ardent opponent of the papacy. The same basic attitudes dictate his soft humane treatment of the Old Believers and all sorts of dissidents, . allow him to bless the western education, . deny the simplicity of faith, . which is worse than stealing, . deny action, . that "from piety make a bogey for sinful people",
. - In general Bukharev anything not in the least departs from orthodoxy, as understood him Filaret. But this complex system he wants to engage in actual construction and improvement of living. This was supposed to foment deep and dark the interests of many prominent members of the then hierarchy. They are accustomed to read in the Catechism of God the Spirit is good, but in life remain indifferent to "the crushing jaws neighbor". Bukharev said that because life means "iudeystvovat in Christianity". This protest could not forgive people, laziness which was agitated, and Bukhara have been killed. Metropolitan Filaret very excited that the monk, the professor tends to secular literature and modernity, but could not find fault with and fused it to Kazan simply for the fact that he was a "useful". In Kazan Bukharev left many of his indelible memory as Inspector Academy. His government has shown that the highest order in the seminary can be maintained without the outrageous discipline, which until recently turned the students of our academy in bogadelenok. Here Bukharev could not come together with the rector of St John, later bishop of Smolensk, a man of great, but mind the cold, arrogant and dry. Bukhari was vyzhit in censorship committee. In essence, this appointment was outrage: the least, this gentle, talented and loving monk could serve in the gendarmerie Print. This service pushed Bukhareva with his literary executioner, the editor of "Home Talks" Askochenskaya. As a censor Bukharev detained several obscene articles "Home Talks". Hence the hatred and ruthless persecution. Dobit Bukhareva not had great difficulty. He, incidentally, worked with the first years of his life studying the Apocalypse. This Filaret knew and saw in the "flickering light", but objected to its publication. During the entire follow-up of his life Bukharev invested in the interpretation of this mysterious book their inner thoughts and observations. In the capital, on freedom, he prepared a book for publication, and held it through the censor. It has already recruited a few sheets. But Askochensky fuss. Synod suspended the printing of books and set out to review. In February 1862. the book was banned. Then Bukharev decided to lay down the San. In a letter to AV. Gorsky in July 1862. Bukharev wrote: "My work on the Apocalypse, which could arouse any reasoning to serious thoughts and concerns about the current spiritual difficulties and dangers, stopped. What zheN And I go to the rest of the moral usypleniyaN Others do not want to, well, so I myself, nothing prevents to experience the service of Christ, God and the mundane title of ". In June, 1863. Archimandrite Theodore was again Alexander Matveyevich, and in August he married. His mood and lifestyle have not changed. Only add distress. He wrote a lot, but magazines for various reasons, were closed to him. Publication of pamphlets and books demanded money, and they could get to work. He died in poverty and consumption,. Neither the prosecution nor illness, nor the deprivation is not poisoned by the loving mood of gentle but persistent knight of Russian church. Next to the emancipation of the people he tried to go to the emancipation of the religious. But the chains were tight. Case Bukhareva, however, can not perish. He proved to be the successors. Solovyov often spoke of his tongue. Representatives of the new religious consciousness once again put forward his ideas. Society begins to death to appreciate him more than valued in life. - Bukhari published: "On the basis of principles or in the affairs of everyday life or civilian" (St. Petersburg, . 1858), "Appearance of Christ to the people (Painting Ivanova) (St. Petersburg, . 1859), "On the Orthodoxy in relation to modernity" (St. Petersburg, . 1860), "The Apostle Paul" (St. Petersburg, . 1861), "Three letter to Gogol, . pisannye in 1848 (St. Petersburg, . 1861), "The New Testament of our Lord Jesus Christ" (St. Petersburg, . 1861), "Job-suffering" (M., . 1864); "explanations I chapter of Genesis (St. Petersburg, . 1862, . 1864), "Techniques and impartiality in the critical editor to" Home Talks "In,
. Askochenskaya (St. Petersburg, . 1862), "The Holy Prophet Jeremiah" (M., . 1864), "The Holy Prophet Ezekiel" (M., . 1864), "The Holy Prophet Daniel" (M., . 1864), "On the authenticity and integrity of the sacred books of the prophets Isaiah, . Jeremiah, . Ezekiel and Daniel "(M., . 1864), "Investigation of the dignity, . integrity and origin of the 3 books of Ezra "(M., . 1864), "The Sorrow and joy on the word of God" (M., . 1864), "Letters on the grace of the sacraments of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Church" (M., . 1864), "On the spiritual needs of modern life and thought, . especially the Russian "(M., . 1865), "On the repose of the deceased and the spiritual healthier living" (M., . 1866); "book for teaching reading and writing" (M., . 1867) and many articles in various journals,
. In 1906, Mr.. in St. Petersburg, the most important articles are reprinted in the book "About Orthodoxy in relation to modernity". All the best on Bukhareva came from the pen of his pupil at the Kazan Academy Professor PV. Znamensky: "The history of the Kazan Theological Academy in the first period of its existence" (in. 1 - 3, Kazan, 1891 - 92); "The sad twenty-five years" ( "The Orthodox Interlocutor, 1896)," Orthodoxy and Modern Life. Controversy 60-ies of the relation of orthodoxy to modern life "(Moscow, 1906). The aforementioned collection 1906. Professor Znamensky written biography Bukhareva. In these studies indicated almost all works Bukhareva and sources of information about him. - Wed. since. Smirnov, "The History of the Moscow Theological Academy to its transformation" (Moscow, 1879); A.S. Bukhareva, "п-.п°. Bukharev. From the materials to the biography, in the 1 st book of literary and philosophical book "free conscience". The Moscow publishing house "Path" has announced the forthcoming publication of the monograph on Bukhareva SS. Rozanov. I. Andreev.


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