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Pavel Ivanovich Walden

( famous chemist, ordinary academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences)

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Biography Pavel Ivanovich Walden
Born in 1863. in the province of Livonia, graduated from the course in the Chemistry Department of the Riga Polytechnic, where he worked under the guidance. Ostwald, continued his studies at Leipzig under the leadership of Ostwald, D. Wiedemann and Vislitsenusa. He received his Ph.D. for a thesis: "Ueber die Affinitatskonstanten organischer Sauren" (Leipzig, 1891). Protection in Novorossiysk University Dissertation "The experience of the study of osmotic phenomena" (Riga, 1893), received a Master of Chemistry. In 1899, after defending his dissertation "Materials for the study of optical isomerism (St. Petersburg, 1898) received his doctorate in chemistry. Consisted assistant at the department of physics at the Riga Polytechnic in 1888. assistant in chemistry in 1892. approved assistant professor and professor of analytical chemistry at Riga Polytechnic. Walden Numerous scientific papers published in Russian in Izvestia of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and the Journal of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society, . foreign languages in many major chemical and physical journals in Europe and mainly relate to the stereochemistry, . Electrochemistry, . as well as the history of its,
. His first works (1887 - 88), devoted to identify the molecular weight of salts by electrical conductivity, have led to the so-called rule of Ostwald Wald, developed later Bredigom ( "Zeitsch, fur phys. Ch. ", 197). Then Walden examines the phenomenon of osmosis with the sedimentary composition of the films special, extracted from the data, he concludes, . that no ions, . and salt, . se, . as well and nonelectrolytes can diosmirovat through solid colloidal membrane, . The author examines how the body, . forming with the solute "solid solutions",
. In 1893, Walden, together with Bischoff published the first detailed guide to the stereochemistry ( "Handbuch der Stereochemie", 2 volumes, Frankfurt, 1893). In particular, Walden has taken an experimental verification of the theory of van't Hoff on the asymmetric carbon and a hypothesis about a piece of asymmetry Kyu. In these studies (1893 - 1900), . of which entered the doctoral dissertation, . Walden eliminates existed before that time, the contradictions, . opens the optically active, . amber halogen-substituted phenylacetic and propionic acid and in connection with the phenomenon of "avtoratsemizirovaniya", . studying the physical properties of active and racemic isomers, . supports the arguments against the law of the Pasteur optically active and gemiedrii, . states of uranium salts in a new way to increase the rotational ability of hydroxy acids,
. Along with these new facts Walden opened in stereochemistry particular phenomenon, which is known as "the transformation of Walden" (Waldensche Umkehrung, Inversion de Walden), provides a way to jump directly from one optical isomer to its antipode. Recently Walden gave an overview of this phenomenon in "Journal de Chim. phys. "(IX, 160 - 97, 1911). In 1903, Mr.. Walden, first drew attention to the optical activity of oil and stressed the importance of this fact when deciding on the origin of oil from the organic world ( "Naturw. Rundsch. ", XV, 1903, N 16). From the study of solvent in the optical active bodies Walden moves to another large group of his research to the study of solvents in general and the ability to ionize the dissolved electrolytes. This series of works concerns the Arrhenius theory of electrolytic and its application to non-aqueous solutions. In 1899. Walden introduces a new ionizing solvent - liquid sulfur dioxide, distinguishing features, a description which is given in several papers published in "Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1901. In addition, Walden opening and exploring still other non-organic solvents by means of which establishes a special class of "abnormal electrolytes". In 1903, Mr.. Walden begins his study of organic solvents and ionizing means, . gives the experimental data on the number of new solvents, . their dielectric constants, . internal friction, . solubility, . conductivity, . degree of dissociation, . molecular weight, . heats of dissolution and dissociation, and t,
. d. These studies represent the first attempt to systematically study the non-aqueous solutions. Along with the facts supporting the theory of electrolytic, were found facts and relationships, not foreseen by its. The continuation of these studies on the role of solvents in the electrical dissociation and causes, . causing the dissolution of all, . Walden is the study of the expansion, . the specific adhesion, . heat of vaporization, . internal pressure, . dielectric constant and r,
. d. Walden establishes new relations between the expansion unit Mendeleev and the critical temperature, temperature coefficient of adhesion and the critical temperature, the molecular heat of vaporization and molecular adhesion and T. d. Development of the theory of solutions dedicated to the major work Walden: "Losungstheorien in ihrer geschichtlichen Aufeinanderfolge" (Stuttgart, 1910). V. K.

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