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Sergei Witte Yulievich

( statesman)

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Biography Sergei Witte Yulievich
photo Sergei Witte Yulievich
Born June 17, 1849, Mr.. Tiflis. His father, a member of the board of governor of the Caucasus, was married to the sister of the famous writer, General R.A. Fadeev. Upon completion of the course in the Novorossiysk University with a degree of candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, . Witte joined the service in the management of the Odessa branch of the current South-Western Railways, and soon became one of the closest co-director of the Russian Society and the shipping trade NM,
. Chikhacheva, which is in charge at that time came and Odessa Railroad. The Chief of the movement, which played in the Witte continued throughout the last Turkish war, gave him the reputation of the preliminary screening Administrator. In 1879, Mr.. Witte took the place of head office operation in the management of South-Western Railways, and took part in the works of the railway commission, chaired by Earl Baranova, . was the originator of one of the volumes of the Proceedings of the Commission "(" History and activities of the congresses of representatives of Russian Railways ") and the project currently in force" General Rules of Russian Railways ",
. From 1886 to 1888. was manager of the South-Western Railways. The idea of granting loans on grain shipments for the first time applied in practice in South-West Road on the initiative of Witte. When the Ministry of Finance in 1888. formed were the establishment of new tariff, Witte was appointed Director of the Department of Rail Affairs and Chairman of the tariff committee in February 1892. designed to manage the Ministry of Railways, and on August 30 the same year, he instructed the Ministry of Finance.
Witte as Minister of Finance. Eleven years in whom Witte headed the Ministry of Finance, marked by the huge increase in the budget, the extensive development of state economy and major reforms in the financial legislation. Overall balance the state budget during Witte increased from 965303066 rubles in 1892. to 2071667472 rubles in 1903, ie 114.5%. The average annual increase in the budget for the period - 10,5%. How this budget increase is large, can be judged by comparison with the preceding and subsequent decades. From 1883 to 1892. budget increased from 778.506 million rubles to 965.303 million rubles, or 24%, the average annual total of 2.7% from 1903 to 1912. budget increased from 2071667 to 3001919 thousand rubles, or 45%, ie, the average annual increase was determined only 5%. The greatest cause of particularly rapid growth of the budget to the Ministry of Witte was the expansion of the treasury at the expense of the private sector, what happened in the railway business and in the liquor trade. Excluding the cost of maintenance of railways and wine monopoly of the matched budgets, the balance of the outcome is determined, for rounding: for 1892. - 907 million and for 1903. - 1.462 billion rubles, that is the second result will exceed the first only by 61% and the average annual growth of the budget will be determined about 51 / 2%. This latter comparison, and expresses more accurately the actual budget increase under Witte, for the cost of maintenance of railways and at public sale pitey the essence of nature are negotiable, offsetting the respective income. Budget 1892, Witte was adopted by his predecessor, was a deficit of 74.268 million rubles, even on ordinary department income and expenses foresaw a deficit of 25.124 million rubles. When Witte ordinary income has always been based in amounts far exceeding the results of ordinary expenses, although the classification of public expenditure has been changed, and the Department of ordinary expenses increased due to emergency. Thus, since 1895. from the emergency department in the ordinary budget expenditures have been transferred to rearm the army, the special harvested food reserves, according to port facilities, to enhance and improve the existing railways, and from 1901. in the ordinary budget were also charged the cost of rolling stock for the state railways. How important were these changes to the budget classification, can be judged from the fact that in the painting 1903. alone rail costs, up to 1895. falling into an emergency budget, reached 100 million rubles. With regard to the emergency budget, which in 1901. preserved only the costs of construction of new railways, . the purchase of rolling stock in the amount of emergency, . early redemption of loans, . and costs, . caused by war and national disaster, . some of these costs covered by the same extraordinary income and surplus of ordinary revenue over ordinary expenditures,
. To cover the other part of the extraordinary expenses had to resort to other kinds of sources. For 1893. such source was the government loan for 1894. - Residues from previously implemented a loan, and for all subsequent years - borrowing from the free cash flow of the Treasury. These borrowing in total reached staggering 1078652 thousand rubles. The explanation gives the performance of murals. Already in 1892, painting on which reduced the deficit, revealed a surplus of funds in 43.388 million rubles in 1893. excess was determined to 159.534 million rubles. Over the following years painting performance, compared with the estimates produced the following results:

Years. Estimated actual
zhennoe excess
pozaimst-cost revenue
over the coexistence of income over expenditure.
to rub in the RUB. in rubles
. 1894 59013309 - 77573524
. 1895 69421024 102725445 --
. 1896 119876299 10044793 --
. 1897 91795936 22121989 --
. 1898 106291706 82451577 --
. 1899 98604443 - 84102802
. 1900 160641423 88477227 --
. 1901 56886000 - 144924092
. 1902 143987494 29103345 --
. 1903 172134794 - 127461829

. Thus, . except 1895, . when borrowing from the free cash flow exceeded the estimates, . all the remaining years of borrowing or had to resort to a smaller size, . than expected for paintings, . or even instead of handling cash costs to add an excess of income received,
. For some years, these surpluses were so large that not only have covered all the real borrowing of cash, but even given a large excess. So inexhaustible free cash to government coffers due to the fact that it is not so much to spend, how much accumulated. This was achieved by a kind of order and budgeting. The actual receipt of ordinary income at Witte far exceeded their estimates Calculus. Total paintings 1892 - 1903 period was assumed ordinary income 16408630 rubles, . but in fact received 17909518 rubles, . or 9% more, . to do with the excess of income over the estimates occurred for all individual years the period under review,
. Ordinary expenses, by contrast, were estimated fairly accurately. For some years, they made it in a smaller size, . than expected for paintings, . then a larger, but for the entire period the difference between the assumptions of paintings (16146781 rubles) and executed by ordinary expenses (16242670 rubles) does not exceed 95.889 million rubles, . or 0, . 6%,
. It should also be borne in mind that previous estimates of inmates each year remained fairly large credit balances, which in their paintings did not include. During 1892 - 1903 пЁп+п¦п¦ such balances accumulated 277,201 thousand rubles. If these remnants, according to the records of state control, to add to earnings, the overall outcome of their reach, for rounding, 18,186.7 million rubles, and would exceed the cost of 1.944 billion rubles. Execution of emergency budget for all the time, Witte was not consistent with the estimates. Except for 1893 and 1894, when the department of emergency resources have been included income from credit operations (forthcoming in 1893. and earlier - in 1894), extraordinary income calculated on budgets from 1500 thousand to 4.449 million rubles a year, and come in dozens or hundreds of millions of rubles. Results for 1892 - 1903 пЁп+п¦п¦ sight of paintings in extraordinary income - 185.613 million rubles, and received, with the accession to the remnants of the prison emergency budgets, 1.623223 billion rubles, or almost 9 times more. A very large discrepancy between the extraordinary expenses, the assumption of paintings, and the expenditure to be met in reality: the outcome of the first - 1522370 thousand rubles, the second - 3194075 thousand rubles, or 110% more. Such a large discrepancy in the estimates due to the execution of emergency budget, . mainly, . so, . that in the painting were made only income from credit operations, . which were needed for its balance, still other operations, . made for conversion, . currency regulation, . purchase of private railways in the treasury and t,
. subsection, the paintings were not foreseen; likewise in painting has not been amended and those needs that are met by these operations. The total size of the deficit on an emergency budget is determined, according to data cited above on emergency income, million rubles in 1571, who were and were supplemented by an excess of ordinary revenue over ordinary expenditure. Due to the same source grown and maintained free (ie not linked specific purpose) the existence of the State Treasury, which is January 1, 1892. not exceed 25.433 million rubles, as of January 1, 1903. reached 381.346 million rubles. Such a system of budgeting and management of the state economy and aroused the theoretical and practical objections to which Witte was not turned a deaf ear. In the most humble report on the murals on the 1901. Witte argues that Russia, with its large debt, placed abroad, an increase in debt to cover the extraordinary costs would be dangerous. This implies that the ordinary budget revenues should provide the means to perform not only the ordinary, but extraordinary expenses. As for the accumulation of free funds of the Treasury, it must be referring to the vastness of space of the Russian empire and the extraordinary diversity of conditions some of its locations. In Russia it is always possible local troubles. "Where do you find the means to help people, . if you run the economy just enough, . without saving for a rainy denN 'need for precautionary savings and for spending, . caused by the course of events in other countries, . the more so that the needs, . caused by political events, . arise unexpectedly,
. In the absence of reserves would have to be credited, . but "the state, . as individual, . often received favorable offers loans, . when he does not need them, . and, . contrary, . for all its credit, . sometimes finds capital on appropriate terms in the time it was real and, moreover, heightened the need to ",
. Comparing, . furthermore, . those surcharge, . which are made by payers to the state treasury for stockpiling, . with premiums, . Witte points, . that reserve funds allowed to finish the construction of the Siberian railway, . strengthen the fleet and re-equip the army, . twice to support the people in poor harvest, . tidy monetary system, . Finally, . cover the major costs in the Far East,
. These considerations are not sufficient, however, to justify the system of the state economy, which kept Witte. If stockpiling of public funds was necessary, it could be done openly, and not be the result of deliberately improper preparation of painting. If needed those costs that are covered by reserves, the need for these costs out of the general budget of the order remains unproven. To explain exactly how the accumulation of stock and the order to cover some extraordinary expenses, which existed under Witte, need other considerations. Of no small importance, I suppose, was the fear Witte interferes with their plans by the State Council, if the latter was initiated into all the details of these plans and intended to discuss them. The large increase in the budget during Witte attaches particular importance to issues, . where funds were taken to increase public spending and what needs these funds upotreblyalisN answer to the first question gives the following table, . which are compared to the main sections of murals ordinary income on the records of state control over the 1892 and 1903,
. This data for 1892, . for ease of comparison, . accepted for listing as adopted by this painting course at the rate of 1 ruble gold = 1 ruble 50 kopecks credit., . and income from sale of treasury pitey (for 1903) from the Department of regalia is listed in the department of indirect taxes, . to what in essence he is,

Name Received in thousands. p. In 1893, Mr..
more (+)
Income in 1892. In 1903, Mr.. or less
. (-) In%
. Direct
. tax 91330 135231 + 49
. Indirect
. taxes 466899 982906 + 110
. Fees 66526 107291 + 61
. Regalia 37376 64191 + 72
. Treasury
. property
. and capital 142698 570655 + 300
. Alienation
. Assets 1109 658 - 41
. Redemption
. payments 77088 88785 + 15
. Reimbursement
. costs
. of gosudarst -
. vennogo
. Treasury
. 73852 75171 + 2
. Miscellaneous
. income 7808 7281 - 0,6
. Total 964687 2031801 + 111

. A cursory glance at this table to ensure that budget growth depended mainly on increasing revenues from state property and the increase in indirect taxes
. Direct taxes have increased and absolutely, and relatively little. Their growth depended: from the introduction (from 1894) a new tax - Apartment, . appears before a very unfortunate substitute for income, . both on neuravnitelnosti its, . and by a negligible performance (at Witte - less than 5 million rubles), . increase the tax on urban real estate (relatively significant only in the Polish kingdom, . where former, . very neuravnitelnaya podymnaya lodge was replaced with 10% collecting net income of urban real estate), . and the collection of revenue from money capital (available on deposits in banking institutions), . but, . mainly, . conversion of trade tax,
. Until 1898. in a system dominated by commercial levies taxes for the right to trade and crafts, paid by sampling a certain value documents. Taxation of profits, first introduced in Bunge, bore additional, little relaxing neuravnitelnost fees for the right to trade. By law, 8 June 1898, Mr.. tax on commercial and industrial enterprises on their profitability devoted much more space, for companies as obliged public reporting (stock companies, mutual associations and t. etc) it is given precedence, and collect the profits set progressive. In general, the transformation in 1898, . achieving greater equalization of taxation of trade and crafts, . has, however, a significant increase in treasury income: Income in 1900, . when the law is fully entered into force, . reached 69840 thousand rubles against 48.167 million rubles in 1898,
. Other direct taxes or were left without any increase, or even lowered. The decrease was subjected to land tax, . average gubernia salaries which were, . on the basis of the manifesto 14 May 1896, . reduced to 10 years half, . and for those provinces, . where half the salary of more than 5 cents per acre, . - Until this last limit,
. A corresponding benefit is given and the land tax payers in the Kingdom of Poland. Providing this benefit was motivated by cash agricultural crisis, however, it was a political measure, aiming to maintain the landed gentry. Been a slight decrease and redemption payments, which, although recorded in a special department of painting, but essentially different from direct taxes only by his sense of urgency. When Witte, measures were taken, first, to resolve the fate of arrears in the payment of redemption, in a huge backlog of bad harvests after 1891 and 1892 years, and secondly, to reduce their salary. Act Feb. 7, 1894, Mr.. ordered local authorities to understand the causes of origin of arrears on individual villages and set for each village that portion of the arrears, . which could be repaid with an annual salary, for the same cases, . when the salary increases will be recognized not possible, . allowed to defer payment of the arrears to the time, . when the payment of salary expire,
. Assumptions of local authorities to be approved by the Ministries of Interior and Finance. Laws 13 May 1896, Mr.. and 31 May 1899. had to reduce the burden of redemption payments of salary. This was achieved by peresrochki, the petitions of the peasants, the outstanding balance of redemption of debt on the new date - in 28, 41 and 56 years. Made, thus, the conversion of debt redemption, which led to a decrease in the annual payment by lengthening the redemption period. Given the weak enforcement of laws in 1896 and 1899 years, . size of benefits was increased: peresrochivat allowed only part of the redemption of debt, . leaving the fate of the second part of the open until the end of the redemption period, and allowed to resign altogether from the accounts of the redemption of debt, . but the decision is not published,
. Laws 1894, 1896 and 1899 years have given local and central administration of the enormous work that lasted for many years, but he was pretty worthless. Studies of purchasing power and tax arrears of individual settlements were made, in general, bad, check them at the central office was impossible. Conversion of debt redemption was not clear to most of the peasants, and elongation of redemption period, they are not smiling. The case resulted in only a location of a vast correspondence. The known benefits for the peasants, however, still achieved, since they got rid of the unbearable and uncertain amount of recovery of arrears, and on request could reach and lower salary. By 1900, Mr.. installment of arrears was nearly finished, but as the arrears arose again, it was to be constantly renewed. As peresrochki redemption of debt, it is because of this measure to the salary of 1904. decreased by only 6.729 million rubles, or less than 7%, which, of course, was not enough. Great importance was the position June 23, 1899, Mr.. on how to recover the accountant charges allotment of land, supplemented by the law 12 February 1903, Mr.. abolition of collective responsibility. These laws were laid down certain rules for layout charges village meetings and the exact order of their recovery, as well as facilitated and simplified the procedure for granting exemptions to the payment as salary and arrears. Application of collective responsibility was first weakened and ordered, and since 1903. and completely abolished. Supervision of the collection of fees from the peasants of the accountant was dismissed from the police and the responsibility of the assessor and inspection of rural chiefs. Bringing to tax-paying bodies to two different departments were weak side of the law in 1899 that slowed its application and creates confusion and bickering. However, the former shaking stopped and taxes under Witte was not renewed. If it is replacing capitation fees on land previously been circulated to Siberia and the Caucasus. Both the outskirts of the reform was not carried out a fiscal nature, pursuing the only goal of a more just and egalitarian taxation. Lightly used Witte direct taxes to increase revenue of the treasury due to his dislike to this form of taxation. Payments of this kind, - he said in the most humble report on the murals in 1897 - in general to be the most shy to the public, as subject to enforcement proceedings in predetermined salary. Indirect taxes, for all their shortcomings, provide taxpayers an opportunity rather broad soobrazovaniya not only with the general level of its economic prosperity, but also with temporary fluctuations in the revenues. This is a very precious property does not have direct taxes and duties ". Referring further to the bulk of the income volatility of our population, Witte concludes: "it is impossible not to acknowledge that indirect taxation should have the utmost importance in our fiscal system". Already from this citation, which, together with direct taxes and duties are convicted, we can conclude that this type of government revenue is not done a great service in increasing the budget. Indeed, under Witte was made only one serious attempt to increase state revenue through taxes, it is - the reform of stamp statute. The new law (June 10, 1900) pursued the only fiscal goals without making a levy of any improvement. On the technical side the new statute is worse than the old, distinguished by an extraordinary confusion and inconsistency of its decisions. The increased income, he began to give only when it somewhat sorted out and the public, and agencies in charge of its application. Other measures taken by Witte in fees were intended to facilitate the fiscal burdens. On his initiative was canceled (in 1897), passport fee, which gave the Treasury about 41 / 2 million rubles. Law of 10 April 1895, Mr.. established exemption from estate duty land, . transition to the next of kin, . and the calculation of the serf duties with selling land commanded to calculate the duty not to complete the sale price, . but with the difference between it and the mortgage debt land,
. Further duties were lowered from the insured against fire property and the abolition of duty on the insured capital; reduced to collect the passengers and cargo high speed; repealed tax on the value of goods, following the waterway lowered taxes and T assay. d. If, despite all these measures, income from fees grew, it took place due to increasing population and the development of economic life. Significantly different picture gives a review of activities Witte of indirect taxation: taxes on all items without exception, are subjected to an increase in indirect taxation. The difference between the individual items is only in the fact that some of them were subjected to increased taxation once in 11 years, others - two or more times. The first category includes excise taxes from petroleum oils and phosphorus matches, the first of which in the end of 1892. increased by 20 kopecks per pood (to 50 and 60 cents against 30 and 40 cents), the second at the same time increased twice. To this same category belongs to the sugar excise tax, which under the law January 12, 1893, Mr.. increased from 1 ruble to 1 ruble 75 kopecks per pood of sand, with a simultaneous lifting of additional (to 40 cents a peck), excises with refined sugar. Twofold rise were: potatory excise tax in 1892. raised from 91 / 4 to 10 kopeks per degree, and in 1900. increased to 11 cents; tobacco excise taxes, increased twice (in 1892 and 1900) at 2 rubles per pood with all sorts of tobacco, except tobacco, the incidence of way in 1900, Mr.. was increased to 40 kopecks per pood; patent fee from institutions, curry and selling tobacco products, rising at the same time as the tobacco excise tax. Three times varied with the beer excise tax in 1892 and 1900, an increase of 10 cents a bucket capacity mash of dishes, but with 1902. converted into a collection of pounds of malt consumed for brewing. Finally, the rise was subjected to repeated imposition of customs duties, with the increase of customs duties, or terms of the specific items of import - tea, cotton, cotton yarn and T. etc., - or spread to many categories of goods (the law of 11 June 1900, Mr.. imposition of customs duties increased by more than 100 articles), or, finally, was the nature of the overall measures, what was the Customs Tariff January 13, 1903, gave a series of increases in rates of taxation, but does little to prevent them from lowering the. However, in the customs duties were allowed individual incentives for agriculture. Increased indirect taxation is dated, mostly to top management Witte's Ministry of Finance (the end of 1892. and the beginning of 1893) and 1900. The first series of promotions is like Witte's legacy from its predecessor and the result of poor harvest years 1891 and 1892, . greatly weakened treasury funds, the second - caused by events in China, . povedshimi to large excess expenses and threatening to further complication of international relations,
. Except for changes to the excise tax collection from the brewing container with utensils in the collection of quantities consumed malt and increase tariff rates, . associated with the system of protection of domestic industry, . all others, these measures did not pursue the objective of improving taxation, . having only fiscal importance,
. This objective was fully achieved by taxation of sugar, tobacco and petroleum oils, the consumption of these products continued to grow, despite an increase in their cost. Excise duty of sugar increased from 27.525 million rubles in 1892. up to 75,542 rubles in 1903, tobacco excise tax - from 26,993 to 49.029 million rubles, oil - from 12879 to 28.617 million rubles. Smaller fiscal success has been increasing excise taxes on alcohol: over the period from 1892. by 1901. population increased by 13,2%, the tax rate increased by 18,9%, and the receipt of excise has increased by only 24,6% (from 241,955 to 291.507 million rubles). Most significantly increased during Witte customs revenue, increased to 122.579 million rubles to 241.466 million rubles, or 97%. This increase depended mainly on the increase in the import, but partly also due to the increase in tariff rates, the ratio which the value of the import for 1892 - 1900, defined at 34% versus 27% for 7 years from 1885 to 1891. The greatest significance was the imposition of fiscal tea, which gave in 1892. - 36.688 million rubles, and in 1903 - 57.405 million rubles, ie 56,5% more. During the same time brought the value of tea has increased by 38,5%, an increase of taxation is far outstripped the growth of the import. Consideration of indirect taxation are commonplace nature of the measures used in abundance in our country as to the Witte, and after him, and little is characterized by its financial management. Other important Witte carried out with the replacement of excise taxation of alcohol and wine state monopoly of trade pityami: here Witte is an innovator. Drinking reforms aimed to, . one hand, . increase the revenues of the treasury, . turning in her favor those profits, . previously there were wine merchants, . on the other - to give the government an instrument "to combat the harmful aspects of the liquor business, . in order to maintain good morals, . prevent economic decline of the population and the protection of public health ",
. This last idea is repeated several times in the reports and notes Witte. Reform was to declare a liquor trade monopoly of the treasury and its production through state-owned wine stores and shops. Complete financial results of official sales pitey was determined after, . Witte, left his post as Minister of Finance, . when the price of a treasury of wine has been raised much higher than the original size: consumption, . which sharply reflect even slight increment of excise, . not decreased, . and the actual state revenue from the monopoly (excluding excise) rose to 200 and more rubles per year,
. With regard to non-financial results of the reform, but now no one talks about the impact of official sales pitey to reduce alcoholism and to uplift the people's morals. The above table, comparing the state revenue for 1892 and 1903, shows a significant increase in income from the regalia and another of state property and capital. The department regalia greatly increased monetary income, . result associated with the currency reform into circulation a large number of silver coins, . and in particular the postal and telegraph revenue from the phone: first increased from 21,892 rubles in 1892,
. up to 36,677 in 1903, the second with 11.311 million to 21.597 million rubles. Departmental government property and capital greatly increased revenues obrok articles - from 13533 rubles in 1892 to 24.419 million rubles in 1903. (80%) and forest revenue, up from 18.769 million rubles to 62,051 rubles, or 230%, but particularly large increase (4 times) occurred in the income of state railways. The major tasks of Witte in railway sector were: the expansion of railway network, the concentration of the most important part of it in the hands of the Treasury and the subordination of the private railway economy rukovoditelstvu States. Railway construction was carried out both by the Treasury - partly through loans, but mainly from obschebyudzhetnyh funds - and by private rail companies. The length of the railway network, consisting of operation, has increased over time, Witte from 29157 to 54217 miles, or 86%. Of the total stretch of the newly aligned lines (25,060 miles) at the expense of the treasury building includes 10,910 miles, at the expense of the private - 14510. Treasury built roads for the most part in the Asian part of Russia (the Great Siberian Route), . as well as strategic and never promised income in the near future to the device the same road, . from which one could expect in the near future income, . had been hired by private enterprise,
. This was achieved through a kind of impact on the already existing private railway company. Until the end of the eighties we had a fairly large number (41) private railway companies, most of whom possessed a very small stretch of railway track. These societies, with few exceptions, carried on his work rather poorly, and pursued a very unequal and inconsistent with the interests of the state tariff policy. When Vyshnegradsky was started for redemption of private railways in the treasury, with ten companies ceased to exist. Continuing the policy of his predecessor, . which he, . as director of the Department of Rail Affairs, . took an active part, . Witte admitted, . however, . exceptions for individual companies, . whose activities are relatively entrepreneurial and economic: he was a member of these societies in the agreement and refused to buy into the treasury of their roads, . under the condition of construction of new lines, . during which many times greater than the length of the railway, . the society was originally owned,
. Thus, society Rybinsk-Bologovskij railroad, which owned only 275 versts of railroad tracks, has become a society of Moscow-Vindavsky railway line (at 1903. - Part of another in the construction) reached 2,446 miles, a little Ryazan-Kozlovskaja road (199 miles way) into a 1899. in Ryazan-Ural Railway network in 1600 miles, which subsequently has increased significantly. As a result, the number of private railway companies declined by more than tripled (to 9), but each of the remaining proved to be the owner of a complex network of railways. Compelled private railway company to expand the rail network owned by them, Witte at the same time vigorously continued begun by his predecessors buy private railways in the treasury. At Bunge was purchased in 1344 a mile, with Vyshnegradsky - 5858 miles, under Witte - 14116 miles, nearly as many miles of railway track was re-built by private companies. The motive for purchase of private railways was the desire to lead the economic development of the country. Saving some roads in the hands of private companies was only a concession to the need. Effort, . primarily, . to the possible expansion of the early Russian railway network, . Witte did not consider it possible to achieve this goal, provided, . that the only builder of railways will be the treasury, . the disposal of which there are no sufficient personal power, . no material,
. Last statement is as if in contradiction with the fact, . that funds for construction of private railways were obtained through loans, . or be placed in a fund of public savings banks, . or concluded abroad through the Ministry of Finance, thus, . private railway company did not find the money themselves, . but acquired them from the Government,
. Undoubtedly, . however, . that the receipt of foreign capital in the name of private companies represented the well-known convenience, . for, . one hand, . guarantee foreign creditors in, . that loaned them the money will be employed with a productive purpose, . on the other - eliminates all sorts of criticism from the government for the use of borrowing for budgetary purposes,
. As, . Finally, . subordination of the economy private railways government leadership, . a solid foundation that the case was put at Vyshnegradsky, . when the government undertook the production of railway tariffs, . depriving the private company the right to establish such autonomous,
. Witte actively continue and develop this policy. By combining the tariff in the hands of the government, the tariffs have won a lot of well-known, clarity and consistency with commercial and industrial interests. However, the Government has become the most influence on the direction of trade and, in particular, to enhance the export of goods abroad, the value of which is critically important to maintain our currency. Without limiting the trade tariffs, Witte subjected to processing and the passenger fare, which they have been greatly reduced, especially at long distances. This was achieved by replacing the uniform tariff poverstnogo waist, with a consistent decrease in rates with increasing distance. Reform of the passenger fare led to rapid growth in passenger traffic and to reduce losses from this movement for railways: since 1894. by 1900. These losses have decreased from 0.40 cents to 0,20 - 0,18 cents per passenger-mile. Accounting for the financial results of railway economy seems to be rather difficult. Easiest, . Although not undisputed, . accounting method can serve as a comparison of all the real income of the treasury from the railways to the fact it has made the cost of the railway industry, . except the cost of the device roads, . accounted for only in the form of payments of the treasury on railway loans,
. This comparison shows, . that in 1892, Treasury has received from the state-owned roads - 74.408 million rubles, . from private (mandatory part of their payments and treasury income) - 36694 rubles and the collection of passenger and cargo - 9.066 million rubles, . of 120.168 million rubles, and in 1903 the same income determined in 453,345 14,639 16.739 million rubles, . only 484,093 rubles, . that is increased fourfold,
. With regard to costs, . which include payments on loans, . eskpluatatsionnye costs of state-owned roads, . surcharge for the guarantee of return of private, . costs to enhance and improve the state-owned roads and the acquisition of rolling stock, . as well as the content control, . that their total amount of 142,231 rubles in 1892,
. to 1903. increased to 565.916 million rubles, that is also increased almost fourfold. It can therefore be recognized that during the Witte rail industry, significantly increasing the state budget, has not produced great results in terms of profit or loss of the treasury. Not quite successful financial result in the correct basis of railway economy is partly dependent on the shortcomings of the practical application of the system. Railway construction often were built poorly, resulting in the newly-built roads accounted for in the near future to improve and strengthen. While the device railways were costly, exceeding estimates and calculations, and that the yield of roads, which at first could count. Depended on it, among other things, from the fact that the rail line was connected with the promotion of Russian industry, for products which had to overpay more expensive than their cost in foreign markets. There were no overpayments of the treasury and in the redemption of its private railways, due to the excessive leniency of the treasury to the demands of shareholders. But the main cause of low profitability of the railway sector in the Witte was the rapid growth of the railway network, the newly discovered lines lowered the overall profitability of the rail network. This occurred partly because the roads were built not on the financial and the overall economic and strategic reasons, partly because of newly discovered lines of movement in the early stages is generally weak. The first reason responded primarily on a government farm, the second - on the private. Lucrative private roads, as the Moscow-Ryazan, Ryazan-Kozlovskaja etc., overgrown in extensive networks have become unprofitable at first, requiring the Treasury to guarantee surcharge. However, . not to mention the beneficial effect of expanding the rail network in the country's economic life, . can not ignore, . that with rare exceptions railway construction time, Witte was quite justified later: not only private roads become, . as a general rule, . profitable, . but state-owned steel line to pay off and even yield a profit before, . What could count on it,
. Review sources, . which expanded at the expense of ordinary state budget, . foreshadowed answer to the second question, . posed at the beginning of this article, . - Requirements, . to the satisfaction of which went to increase the funds of the treasury: the expansion of expenditure has occurred, . mainly, . for the conduct of the treasury management,
. This conclusion is illustrated by the table, based on data from State Control.

Office, Ordinary In 1903.
productivity state more than
divshie costs in thousands. p. in 1892.
costs. 1892. 1903. in%
institutions 2865 3662 28
Synod 11466 28517 130
M-in Imperial.
yard 10525 15941 52
Affairs 4753 6116 29
"" Military 236159 352420 49
"Sea 48186 113937 136
"Finance. 120178 366382 205
Earth. and State.
Them. 24154 51843 114
"Ext. Minister 67624 100145 48
Pros. 21745 39353 81
communicated. 67407 456427 577
"" Justice 24506 33112 35
14493 16000 part 10
Control 4277 8383 96
Horsebreeding. 1266 2077 64
Loan 251078 288714 15
Total 910684 1883026 107

Increase under the Ministry of Finance and in particular to the Ministry of Railways is far ahead of increasing costs for other departments. If expenditures on the two ministries excluded from the totals for both years being compared, the increase in other costs will be determined only in 47%, or about 4,3% per year. However, this growth is higher than for the preceding and subsequent time. A little less than half the grand total expenditure of the Ministry of Finance for 1903. accounted for breech sale pitey. If these costs are excluded from the total cost of agency, it remains 195270 thousand rubles, and an increase in 12 years will be determined only 60%, that is only slightly more than in other departments. However, this increase does not apply fully to the Ministry of Finance, as well as to his estimate includes some rail costs (surcharge under warranty), as well as costs related to all departments (eg, pensions). It can therefore recognize that the increased costs by the Ministry of Finance was roughly equal to the increase costs for other departments. The principal measures of financial management, require increased allocation of funds were: 1) Strengthening of the fiscal inspection and introduce it on the outskirts. Was caused by a gradual complication of the tasks of the local tax-paying management in general and in particular the conversion of commercial taxation, reform of charging accountant fees from the peasants and giving them benefits of redemption payments. 2) Strengthening the excise supervision over treasury wine sales. This measure required up to 11 million rubles of additional appropriations. Objectives of the excise department became more sophisticated only temporarily, during the organization of new businesses, strengthening the same excise supervision took the form of a permanent measure. Subsequently, the Ministry of Finance itself has realized that the composition of the excise supervision exaggerated, and has begun to reduce its. 3) Transformation customs guard at the border. It was caused by insufficient numbers and poor organization of the old guard and smuggled the increased due to higher customs tariff. Border guards were given a military organization, significantly increasing the costs. 4) Measures to improve the conditions of merchant shipping, . reflected in the establishment of special management and the provision of significant funds, . part in the form of allocations from the treasury, . part in the form of special funds for the improvement of ports and the promotion of sailing,
. 5) Measures for the dissemination of commercial and maritime education. To obtain for in 1894. law of the subordination of commercial schools to the Ministry of Finance, Witte bothered as the elaboration of regulations governing commercial entity (the most important of them - the situation of 15 April 1896, Mr.. of commercial and educational institutions), and active use of them for life. Before 1894. there were only 8 commercial colleges, and from 1896 to 1902. they opened 147. In addition, the three were established commercial institution - in Kiev, Warsaw and St. Petersburg. Witte is also concerned about the spread in the environment of practical technical information about the device rural artisan establishments, of Industrial Art and Women's Vocational Education. He drew to the case of commercial education means provincial, municipal and class institutions and individuals. Of the 31 million rubles, . spent on the construction and equipment of educational institutions of the financial department, . Treasury fell to only 11 million, out of 4, . 3 million rubles annual cost of these institutions treasury carrying only 1, . 4 million rubles; other costs were covered from other sources,
. This extensive work on the development of commercial education is in sharp contrast with the stagnation of academic affairs at the Ministry of Education. When Witte received extensive development, special facilities, largely off-budget, due to credit operations. Within this economic transformation occurred Witte in monetary and credit system of public. Monetary reform Witte was to restore in Russia, rather than maintained since the Crimean War of inconvertible paper money, metal treatment on the basis of the gold standard. Reform of this was somewhat prepared predecessors Witte, in which the finances of the country gradually streamlined appeared trade surplus, and had accumulated reserves of gold needed for dispensing banknotes. Accumulation of gold began in Reytern, continued with Bunge and has made great strides in Vyshnegradsky that increase the gold reserve of 309 million rubles. The means for the accumulation of gold is gold, the collection of customs duties, . protective system of customs duties, . caused by the preponderance of exports, . Finally, . credit and stock transactions, . of which the latter received extensive development in Vyshnegradsky,
. Witte's predecessors have done and any further attempts to restore the metal treatment, raised the question of settlement of commercial transactions on a gold currency as a means to pour the gold into a popular treatment, but these attempts were not successful. Witte moved the impasse. Stopping after a brief hesitation at the thought of fixing the credit rate of the ruble, he undertook a series of measures designed to strengthen the course. For this purpose he entered into active and successful struggle against speculation. He started with the impact on Russian credit institutions, . warning them, . that every, . even indirect support from their side to play the ruble recognized incompatible with the data they produce a resolution of commercial operations, and with the support, . these institutions benefit from the government in all their legitimate needs,
. Whereupon, in order to obtain information about the send abroad and imported from there credit rubles, Witte claimed was up to 1894. (later extension to 1897) Law (19 March 1893) on the taxation of credit cards when exporting and importing their "static" duty of 1 penny from 100 rubles. That same year, Witte has requested authority to supervise credit institutions, to remove from the Russian stock exchange agents of foreign firms and bankers for the Prohibition of certain transactions in gold, designed solely to obtain foreign exchange differences. These measures have facilitated Witte systematic stock-keeping course, which began to acquire resistance. Stronger commitment, Witte went on to further action and prepared metal treatment. Recognizing, . that it is not conceivable without, . that gold has not been spread in the private back, . Witte entered the State Council with a proposal to permit commercial transactions on a gold currency, . with payment or gold, . or credit notes at the rate,
. This view was, incidentally, said that the projected measure "does not prejudge the issue of confirmation we have gold treatment". Under this condition assumptions Witte were approved by the State Council, whose opinion was approved by the Highest 8 May 1895, Mr.. This law, in order to eliminate the idea of monetary reform, was not resolved the issue of payment of the treasury gold coin. Meanwhile, it was necessary, because the free cash coffers made of gold and could not be spent, so to cover the cost of the treasury in the near future would have to re-issue credit notes. Therefore, the Minister of Finance has decided to take action on his own authority to issue gold in circulation. Allowed by the state bank to buy and sell gold at, . as well as taking gold in the current account, . He gave some of the booths of the Ministry of Finance is authorized to issue treasury creditors, . "in case their consent", . Part of the following payments in gold at the rate of 7 rubles 40 kopecks credit for 5 rubles gold,
. This measure gave the Ministry of Finance treasuries rise to the imposition of public gold, but in case of refusal to accept it - silver, receiving large sums of which was accompanied with great inconvenience. On this basis between officials of the Ministry of Finance and the public often lead to misunderstandings. November 6, 1895, Mr.. passed a law on the admission of gold at the rate established by the Minister of Finance, in all government payments. The course was set at 7 rubles 40 kopecks for 5 rubles gold, but since this was inconvenient for calculations, the order of the state bank was changed to 7 rubles 50 kopecks. Since 1896. This course has since been applied to payments made to the treasury. March 14, 1896, Mr.. Witte came, finally, the submission to the Committee of Finance for the correction of circulation of money "on the basis of the credit ruble peg at 1 ruble 50 kopecks = 1 ruble credit gold. Finance Committee regarded this as very sympathetic, but the state of affairs changed when the question turned to discussion of the State Council. It plans to the Minister of Finance met with opposition from two points of view. On the one hand, the assumption that the Minister of Finance on the devaluation of the ruble loan amount to recognizing the state's bankruptcy, and, moreover, the wicked - in a good condition of public finances. From this perspective, exchange is possible only at a nominal price of the ruble, and to seek exchanges need by increasing the ruble. Another objection to the reform was based on fear that the gold that was released into circulation, will go abroad because of the adverse balance of payments in Russia; reform, therefore, should be postponed temporarily maintaining the status quo. The case was postponed, but the second time on the merits and was not discussed by the Council of State. Outlining the most loyal in the report on the murals on the 1897. course of preparatory measures for monetary reform, . Witte said: "Fundamentals of the bill gradually have already entered the life of the country and do not represent anything new to the national economy, . as the convertibility of banknotes for gold at the rate of 1 ruble 50 kopecks credit for 1 ruble gold actually exists,
. So, now expected only to consolidate what is essentially already been done, and that change would be extremely harmful, if not impossible ". Accordingly, the exposition of the views, Witte has 3 January 1897, Mr.. requested an Imperial decree, which rules over a gold coin minted previous weight and dignity, but with a symbol on it the prices of 10 and 5 rubles, 15 rubles and 7 rubles 50 kopecks. August 29 was held Imperial decree, . governing the issuance of credit cards: up to $ 600 million rubles credit notes are issued with the provision, . at least, . half gold production, . and further issues are made under a provision of the gold ruble for ruble,
. In addition to these decrees of 27 March 1898, Mr.. Decree limits are imposed on the coinage of silver and compulsory admission among its individuals. Thus, the most important reforms implemented even without discussing it in law. Number of gold in the national circulation increased rapidly, reaching in 1903. 750 million rubles. At the same time, the number of credit cards has been reduced to 630 million. Witte fully achieved its goal: the reform was not introduced changes in the course of economic life, she had already been implemented, but her company and did not notice. This should explain that the reform led to fierce criticism in the ruling circles, and in the literature at the time of its preparation, after the summit meeting was much more favorably. There remained only indication of the fragility of reforms, but they were refuted by subsequent events: no war with Japan, nor the internal troubles are not taken to stop dispensing. To implement monetary reform took a major means. They were required to repay interest-free debt of the Treasury State Bank, formed in the old days of the issuance of credit cards to strengthen the means of the treasury. In 1892, Mr.. debt, the number of 636.9 million rubles. As a necessary condition for the strength of the reform is to issue credit cards exclusively for the needs of trade, and not for the needs of the treasury, the Witte found it necessary to pay the entire interest-free debt. This was done gradually, and repayment was completed in 1901. Since the calculations of the treasury of the State Bank made mostly in gold, they made it possible to increase bargaining Fund, which provides issuing credit cards: to 1897. He was brought up to 500 million gold rubles, or 750 million rubles in the new currency. Generally, in the Witte as Minister of Finance prominent place credit operations. Earlier in his career, he resorted to the loan balance for the painting of public expenditure and revenue. Later Witte had not negotiate loans for budgetary purposes, . but it is widely used public credit: 1) to implement monetary reform, . 2) to replace some loans to other state, . less burdensome in their conditions, . and 3) for the construction of state railways and redemption penalty private,
. Total State (% aqueous) of debt for a time, Witte increased from 4.649 billion rubles to 6.652 billion rubles, . that is, to 2.003 billion rubles or 43%, . but payments on the debt has increased only by 15%, . because of how successful conversion operations Witte, . and relatively low-interest loans, . they concluded,
. Significantly changed during this time and the ratio between debt at the State and the railway needs. On January 1, 1892. the first category of debt was 2.948 billion rubles or 63,4% of the total debt, second - 1700 million rubles or 36,6%. On January 1, 1903. debts of the first category were 3.462 billion rubles or 52,2%, the second - 3190 million rubles or 48,8%. Loans to national needs Witte were mainly for the conversion of public debt. It Witte had in mind as a decrease in payments on a credit system, and the union, the consolidation of state debts. Witte has significantly reduced the diversity of state loans earlier time. The predominant type of public debt under Witte make 4%-s government annuity. The overall results of the conversion, exchange and redemption of loans under Witte expressed in the following figures. The newly emerged loans - 2695 million rubles, . repaid - 2.561 billion rubles, . debt has increased by 134 million rubles, or with a small 5% at the same time was saving in payments to 36.958 million rubles, . representing 26% of payments on the converted debt,
. Railroad loans, . regardless of the conversion, . issued for the construction of new state-owned roads, . to improve and enhance their, . for grant of loans to private rail companies (mainly, . Society of China Eastern road) and, . Finally, . to purchase private railways in the treasury,
. Most of the newly emerged under Witte railway debt was due to move into the treasury of private railways, for the other specified requirements in large part covered obschebyudzhetnymi means. In connection with the currency reform was subjected to the transformation of the State Bank. The new statute differs from the previous one was technically designed and make a partial improvement in the management of the bank, but still leaves the bank subordinated to the Minister of Finance, although the bank had been entrusted with new and expanded tasks. Activities of the Noble Bank has increased, among other things, due to the lower 31 / 2% of the payments to borrowers. Activities of Farmers Bank to Vyshnegradsky and early management Witte almost a standstill, but in 1895. for it was issued new regulations eliminate a number of restrictions that existed under the old statute, and to allow banks to the new operation - the purchase of land for its own account for resale to farmers. This operation is allowed, but only temporarily and not otherwise than through their own bank's capital, to strengthen that were set annual allocations of purchase payments. Were lowered (up to 4%) and payments of borrowers Farmers Bank. - When Witte Ministry of Finance was, however, and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, support that Witte believed one of its most important tasks. He took several measures for the organization of trade and industry, contributed to the improvement of the respective departments of our legislation, but his most significant activities in the area of customs protection of domestic industry. Protectionist system we have firmly established ever since Bunge. When Vyshnegradsky in 1891. issued strictly protective tariff. Witte kept the same system, but even more to develop and strengthen its. Considering the favorable balance of foreign trade in first prerequisite for the implementation and then to enhance the success of monetary reform, Witte, by all means to encourage the importation of foreign goods into Russia was following its removal. His efforts in this direction for a long time did not have complete success due to the relatively weak development of export. Russia could export, . mainly, . products of their agriculture, . but in the last 90 years of the last century was in a difficult position because of frequent and repeated crop failures, moreover, stood at the time of low grain prices paid poorly exported grain,
. The balance of trade was favorable for Russia, . except 1899, . but the usual preponderance of exports ranged from 100 to 170 million rubles, . that was not enough to cover the overseas fees and expenses of the state border of Russian travelers,
. Only in 1901 and 1902 the export advantage over We import reached large sizes - 2261 and 320 million rubles. With a weak successful measures to increase Russian exports, especially Witte insisted on measures to reduce the import. Repeatedly referring to an official memorandum reports on the paintings of the question of customs duties, Witte acknowledged the whole burden of it for the empire's population, but considered patronizing system will inevitably continue until the capacity of Russian industry. Witte fought against government contracts abroad, insisting that those orders were made Russian factories. Strictly following this early in the railway sector, . Witte reached this, . in connection with the customs protection, . significant development of the Russian metallurgical industry, . major growth is largely dependent on the tide of foreign capital, . especially Belgian, . seduced by high altitude in Russia percentage of profit compared with Western Europe,
. But this industry has grown up on government contracts are costly to the state, increasing its spending on railway construction, and require the continued support. During the industrial crisis of the late XIX and early twentieth centuries, this support led, among other things, the broad issue of the State Bank loans battered businesses, these loans, bringing large losses to the bank, did little to cause. Despite, . however, . some negative aspects of policies to promote domestic industry, . She gave a rather big results: from 1892 to 1900, production of pig iron and coal increased in the 21 / 2 times, . Oil - 2 times, . production of steel and iron - and 2-fold, . production of cotton - in 11 / 2 times and t,
. d. Customs policy of Russia under Witte complicated the post-trade treatises with foreign nations, in which the contracting parties to make reciprocal concessions to each other on the application of the customs tariff. In 1893, Mr.. agreement was concluded with France, that Russia had provided favorable conditions for the importation into France of petroleum oils, but for many French goods (total of 52 articles) Russian tariff rates lowered by 10 - 25%. In 1894, . after which lasted for several months, the customs of war, . contract with Germany, . which were downgraded Russia's taxes on grain and other agricultural products, . imported into Germany, . and for the latter made a number of concessions on the import into Russia of works of Germany's industrial,
. In homogeneous base was in the same year concluded a trade treaty with Austria-Hungary, and then with a number of other states. The most important trade agreements expire in 1903, and Witte bothered to review at this time in force of the customs tariff, in order to create the ground for future agreements. Tariff January 13, 1903, Mr.. characterized by very elevated rates of many of them so high that the importation of foreign goods is only possible on the basis of separate agreements. Publication of this tariff has not, however, a significant impact on the content of future trade agreements, which served as the basis for a trade treaty with Germany, signed in 1904,. for political reasons, because of the unfortunate war with Japan. Taking to heart the interests of Russian industry, Witte at the outset of the financial department has not devoted as much attention to Russian agriculture. He looked at agriculture as the activities of a lower order compared with industry. Arguing that Russia has already grown beyond the framework of an agricultural state, Witte believed that her return to the type of agricultural country would be tantamount to disaster. But later, . apparently, . under the influence of the industrial crisis in Russia, . Witte acknowledged, . that the successful development of manufacturing industries need a broad market, . and to create the latter should raise agriculture and welfare of employees of the masses,
. To resolve questions about how to achieve this goal, the initiative Witte, was formed of representatives of ministries, and particularly of persons appointed special meeting the needs of the agricultural industry, and Witte appointed Chairman of its. This meeting is not given, but almost no practical results because of the difficulties encountered on the peasant question. This question occupied Witte from the very beginning of his administration of Russian finance, when (in 1893) he made at the Council of State defender and community measures for its protection. But the debate in the State Council and in particular the objections N.H. Bunge Witte shaken confidence in the correctness. Later, he increasingly deviated from the original point of view. With complete clarity Witte expressed his new views on the peasant question in the most humble report on the murals on the 1899. Repeated crop failures and disasters experienced by peasants forced - he said - to draw attention to the slow consolidation of the economic life of the peasants. Material their insecurity is not dependent on the agricultural crisis, which has more significance for private-sector. When different combinations of crops and grain prices peasants alike failed to strengthen their economic situation. Not weak to explain the success of peasant farming and disutility of taxation: even the total of all fees paid by farmers, . state, . rural and worldly, . not exceeding an average of 2 rubles 20 kopecks per, . does not constitute a large proportion of peasant costs,
. As regards indirect taxation, then, without a coercive nature, it can not prevent the peasants to achieve basic welfare. Lack of education, . sure, . very important, . but he - not an obstacle to the elementary economic success: in the late XVIII and early XIX centuries, farmers in Western Europe, . allowing the very same economic problems, . which is now to our farmers, . not superior to them on education,
. Thus eliminating the different explanations of economic failure of the peasants, . Witte points, . that the reason it "must be sought in the uncertainty of property and social relations of the peasants, . generate multiple difficulties in the routine management of individual holdings, . in the best available forces and means, and in the accumulation of the past ",
. Referring then to the instability of custom as the legal basis of life of peasants, Witte insists on the need to resolve the legislature by the principal questions of agricultural equipment. To, . to have benefited other measures, . concerning the economic life, . as: vosposoblenie land shortage, . organization of rural credit, . improving the marketing of farm products - you must first strengthen the foundations of the general conditions of rural life,
. In subsequent notes Witte and his statements at the meeting the needs of the agricultural industry provides a further development of these views. Witte agreed to several measures of economic nature: the reduction of redemption payments on the arrangements for small loans, to change the terms of the lease of land and t. village, but insists on the general revision of the statutes of the peasants, believing that without that other measures will have serious success. In this way, Witte faced with obstacles. Social class isolation of the peasants, . patriarchal nature of their life, . dependence of peasants on the discretion of the administration - all this was considered, . with a conservative point of view, . stronghold of the Russian state and all this varied transformative plan Witte - Witte and not only not achieved its plan, . but lost his Treasury,
. Witte sought to harmonize the activities of local authorities with their plans, but did not allow a basic condition for the success of self-government - its independence. Therefore, measures undertaken under the influence of Witte to zemstvo, were restrictive in nature, hindering the independence zemstvo, and met resistance zemstvo, therefore had no success. Thus, according to the law 1895. transferred to the treasury lying earlier zemstvos maintenance costs of the local administrative and judicial institutions, . to liberate themselves in zemstvo budget amounts were converted to the preparation of road capital, . consumed on the device and capital improvements of local roads wheeled,
. This attempt to make Russia, with zemstvos, driving with no success: Zemskov road infrastructure has developed very poorly. In the constant growth zemstvo charges Witte saw an obstacle to its plans to facilitate direct taxes. On his initiative was undertaken law imposing the limit Zemsky (1899), with the coffers were again shifted, some active in rural spending, and Treasury has committed to issue zemstvos benefits in the event of depletion of their funds. But this law has made only constraint in the activities zemstvo and administrative interference in it, not stopping the growth of taxation Zemsky. Witte has also sought to correct the inequalities Zemsky taxation, and for that, to accelerate work on the assessment of real estate. But these attempts were unsuccessful. Activities Witte as minister of finance in his time aroused sharp criticism and criticism, sometimes partisan and unfair. Another important reason for the negative attitude Witte as many dignitaries as well, in large part, and society, were the methods and means of action Witte, often too harsh and sometimes illegal. He was cramped even those conventional limits within which was placed ministerial activities in Russia until October 17, 1905. He was not considered a form prescribed for legislative. His main reform - currency - was carried out almost entirely by administra

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