Vladislav III Varnenchik( In 1434 - 1444 years King of Poland, in 1440 - 1444 years of Hungarian King)
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Biography Vladislav III Varnenchik
son of Vladislav Jogaila from his fourth wife, a Russian Princess Sophia, was born in 1424, Mr.. By contract, . prisoner gentry with his father, . he latter's death (1434), was elected to the Polish throne and crowned, . with his mother and famous dignitaries were to give a solemn pledge in, . what, . adulthood, . He confirms all the privileges of the nobility,
. At this time in Poland a struggle of two parties - the so-called Hussite, . which would support the Czech Hussites, in their fight against the Germans and she was partially penetrated Hussite tendencies, . and strogokatolicheskoy, . not wish to help the heretics,
. In the first chapter standing pan Spytek Melshtynsky and Abraham from Zbд-szyеL, headed the second - the Bishop of Cracow, Zbigniew Olesnitsky. The hostile parties unable to agree about the choice of regent, gave the country's administration in the hands of the royal council and the governors of special-splints in each land. In the early years of this government was strengthened relationship with Lithuania, where Sigismund Keystutovich, with the help of Poles, defeated Svidrigailov, and was entered into eternal peace with the Teutonic Order, renounced all claims to Polish territory. Immediately after party feud erupted with full force. The death of the Emperor Sigismund, joined under his rule the kingdom of the Czech and Hungarian, in 1437, Mr.. was succeeded in the Czech Republic and Hungary, his son, Albrecht of Austria. Part of the Czechs refused to recognize him as their king and offered the crown to his brother Vladislav Casimiro. At Novokorchinskom Diet (1438) advocates a connection with the Czech Republic won, and Casimir was sent with troops in the Czech Republic. This expedition was unsuccessful, as the Poles did not take care of the serious support of its. At the end of that year, Vladislav was declared an adult and confirmed the oath all the rights of the gentry. So, in fact, continued to rule Zbigniew, then his opponents were a confederation, he resorted to the same means. The resulting civil war ended in 1439, Mr.. battle of Grotnikami, on the River Nida, which killed Melshtynsky, and supporters of the bishop, under the leadership of the king, won a decisive victory. In late 1439, Mr.. Albert died, and the Hungarians offered Vladislav his crown. He had the choice, intending to join forces in Poland and Hungary to fight the Turks, and in 1440, Mr.. Hungary joined. Here he met a rather strong resistance from the widow of Albert, Elizabeth. He was an ally of Pope Eugene IV, . before it has concluded with the Byzantine emperor John Paleologus Florentine union, . for which he promised to help the western rulers against the Turks, . while in Poland the government was preparing itself - through the Metropolitan Isidore - union with the Russian Orthodox Catholic Church,
. Between Elizabeth and Vladislav, through the papal legate, had concluded a truce, during which the war with the Turks. Polish-Hungarian army, predvodimoe king Ladislaus and sedmigradskim voivod Jan Guniadi, came to the Balkans to the Morava River, won several victories, but with the onset of winter was to retreat. From the Polish Embassy were requesting that the king was satisfied success and returned to his homeland. Vladislav, all delay his return, made in the new crusade against the Turks in 1444, Mr.. Towards, . in Segedine, . he was met by the Turkish ambassador, . offering world: the Sultan agreed to cede all of Serbia (Despotate) and part of Albania, . undertook to release all prisoners, . pay 100,000 ducats for war costs and stand 25000 soldiers on each trip King,
. Conditions were so favorable that Vladislav agreed to make peace. But soon his decision was shaken under the influence of reproaches the Pope, the more so from the head of the papal fleet and the Emperor John Palaeologus at the same time news came of the full weakness of the Turks. Vladislav, under the influence of the papal legate Cesarini, declared invalid the inmate world and moved on. His army, he met with Sultan Amurat November 10, 1444, Mr.. near the city of Varna, suffered a severe defeat. The king himself was killed in battle. Nickname given to him, recalls the place of his death. - See. Zakrzewski "Wladislaws III Erhebung auf den ungarischen Thron" (Leipzig, 1876); A. Sokolowski "Elekcya czeska po smierci Zygm. Luxemburczyka "(" Rozprawy "Academy of Sciences, 1875); A. Prochaska "Konfeder. Spytka z Melsztyna "(Przew. nauk. i liter., 1887); Kwiatkowski "Ostatnie lata Warnenczyka" (in "Przewodnik naukowy i literacki", Lviv, 1883, I); J. Grzegorzewski "Grob Warnenczyka" (1910); St. Crabowski "Sprawa grobu i szczatkow Wl. Wanenczyka "(Warsaw, 1911).