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Fyodor Volkov

( The first Russian professional actor)

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Biography Fyodor Volkov
photo Fyodor Volkov
(1729 - 1763). Behind it was confirmed the name of the founder of the Russian theater. Formally, this is not entirely true, but really only with Volkov our theater on the right path. Information about him and about his case are neither fully nor reliably. In all likelihood, the birthplace Volkova - Kostroma, Yaroslavl and not, as suggested earlier. His father, a merchant from Kostroma, died when he was still a child. His mother has entered a second marriage with Yaroslavl Polushkin merchant, who had a good influence on stepson. While studying in Moscow, Volkov, according to Shakhovsky, differed at Christmas in providing spiritual dramas and comedies translated, which has long been famous for Zaikonospassky Students. Volkov stand out among their peers intelligence, diligence and knowledge, "a jaundiced view of adjacent, - according to Novikov, - to the knowledge of sciences and arts". He soon began to participate in the affairs of his stepfather, perhaps even control their. This caused a number of his visits to St. Petersburg, where he saw for the first time and the Italian opera and German performances of the troupe Ackerman, and Russian amateur theatricals. After the death of Polushkina (1747), Volkov has decided to start a theater in his Yaroslavl. The first attempts at it in this direction belong to the 1750 - 1751 he. Not exactly set the place and the first performances, as happens even in the little room adapted and transferred already in a theater. Only about known and repertoire of performances Yaroslavl. Undoubtedly, . that Volkov and his companions, . among which was Narykov, . later become famous by the name Dmitrevsky, . played in Yaroslavl comedy Dmitri of Rostov, . Gregory and the comedy opera "Titus Mercy", . Metastasio, . with the libretto was, . probably, . translated by Volkov,
. There is a suspicion that it was in the repertoire, and several pieces Volkova, written in Yaroslavl manners. The rumor about the theater of Yaroslavl boys reached the Empress Elizabeth. Was an order to bring the Yaroslavl in Russia. In January 1752, Mr.. Yaroslavl were already in St. Petersburg, Smolny fit in the yard, and 18 of February, in the presence of the Empress and some notable people, "" sent "comedy" The repentance of sinful man, Dmitri of Rostov. The experiment was successful; Volkov's troupe left in St. Petersburg and placed in the cadet corps, where the future actors engaged in literature, foreign languages, gymnastics, as well as declamation and stage tricks. Volkov began to study with enthusiasm, spending the last to be discharged from abroad "theater and prospektivicheskih books". Probably, given and performances, not only closed but open. August 30, 1756, Mr.. place an order, beginning with the words: "we are now ordered to establish a Russian for the submission of tragedies and comedies of the theater, for which he gave Golovinskaya stone house, which on Vasilevsky Island near the Cadet house". This decree opens the official history of Russia's theater. "Directorate of the Russian theater was requested from us, - says further in the decree - Brigadier Alexander Sumarokov". Approximately a month Sumarokov up troupe, which, as its main core, entered Yaroslavl, then seven people, four singers and actresses: Yaroslavka Musin-Pushkin, Zorina, and two Anan'in. This period of life Volkova, we have only less accurate. Volkov, isolated and their preparedness, and their development, and his stage skills, was invested with the title "the first Russian actor". He was also an actor and director, according to some reports - and playwright; any of his plays, original or translated, has survived. Attributed to him, among other things, translations of Moliere, of all his name is associated with about 15 works composed by them, or only converted or transferred. As an actor, Volkov gave the impression of a very large. In "Frankly recognition of my doings and thoughts" Fonvizin conveys the impression of what he had seen them in St. Petersburg, when he was 14 years old, show. About Wolkow, he writes: "My husband deep mind, full of dignity, which had great knowledge and could be a man of state". Novikov, also speaking about "the vision and obymchivom mind" Volkova, admits it "rare talent, decorated with many scientists and diligence". "Theater - adds Novikov - Volkov knew in the highest degree". Apparently, in the game it was easy and great passion, at least one of his contemporaries shows that it is best go well the role of the mad. In the recitation of his were, apparently, defects, and she was far from perfect, which has Dmitrevsky. Volkov, read poems, one witness, a long and chanted, but harmonious and sonorous voice, and "passion-filled game attracted and compatriots and foreigners". In 1759, Mr.. Volkov, along with actor Shumsky, was sent to Moscow to arrange, and there's public theater. Theater Locatelli, which at that time were played Italian opera and Russian drama, came to the disorder; Volkov, apparently engaged in bringing it into order, sent to the theater a few actors from St. Petersburg. He attributed a prominent role in the coup that put on the throne of Catherine II. Legend tells that he read at a critical moment, holding in front of a clean sheet, not a manifesto written by a former. People say further that the First Lady, king, proposed to be Volkov cabinet minister conferred upon him the Order of St. Andrew, but the wolf seemed to be all these honors declined, while retaining access to the office of the sovereign without report. P.O. Morozov makes probable conjecture that all these stories belong not to the actor Fyodor Volkov, but to the cabinet secretary Peter III, Dmitry Volkov. Remains outstanding and award Yekaterina Volkova seven hundred of the nobility and serfs. During the coronation of Empress Yekaterina Volkova was charged device masquerade festivities in Moscow, who bore the title: "Triumphant Minerva, the program, written Kheraskov, with choruses, written Sumarokov. Description of this grand masquerade gives borrowed it from an old pamphlet, and. Gorbunov, in his "Sketches from the history of the theater". Volkov is a walk worth not only of hard work, but also life: during the masquerade, he caught cold and died soon. He is buried in Moscow, at the cemetery of the monastery Androneva. No trace of his grave was left. In the middle of the nineties at the cemetery memorial plaque installed. N. E.


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Fyodor Volkov, photo, biography
Fyodor Volkov, photo, biography Fyodor Volkov  The first Russian professional actor, photo, biography
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