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HERTZ Alexander

( Political activist)

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Biography HERTZ Alexander
illegitimate son of a noble Russian gentleman Yves. Al. Yakovlev and Germans Louise Hague, which Yakovlev, returning after many years of traveling in Europe, he took with him to Moscow. March 25, 1812, Mr.. She was the mother of the child, which gave the name Yakovlev Herzen (from the German word "Herz" - the heart). The first years of the boy were sad and lonely, but unusually richly endowed his nature began to develop very early. His mother, he learned the German language, in conversation with his father and tutors - French. We Yakovlev was a rich library, consisting almost exclusively of works by French authors in the XVIII., And the boy had been rummaging in it quite freely. Such reading aroused in the soul of the boy many issues requiring resolution. With them and treated the young Herzen to their teachers, the French, . among them was involved in the French Revolution, the old man Byusho, . and Russian, . especially students from the seminary Protopopov, . which, . noticing the boy's curiosity, . introduced him to the works of new Russian literature, and - as he wrote later Herzen - began to wear his "finely copied and very worn notebook of poems of Pushkin -" Ode to Freedom, . "Dagger" - and "Duma" Ryleeva ",
. Herzen all copied and memorized. Events December 14, 1825, Mr.. determined the direction of thoughts and aspirations, likes and dislikes Herzen. Stories of the perturbation, . the trial, . terror in Moscow, . - Herzen wrote in his memoirs, . - Greatly impressed me, I was a new world, . which is becoming more and more the focus of my entire moral existence, I do not know, . as it happened, . but, . little understanding or very vague, . what it, . I felt, . I'm not on the side, . with which the canister and the victory, . prison and chain,
. Execution of Pestel and his companions finally awakened childish dream of my soul ... Ended and lonely boy. He met and soon became close friends with the son of a distant relative Yakovlev Ogare'v. This proximity then moved to the very close friendship. Kind, gentle, dreamy, ready to give himself entirely to serving people, Ogarev perfectly complements the living, vibrant Herzen. Friends see each other very often, read together, made long walks together, during which their thoughts and dreams rushed to fight the injustice surrounding Russian life. In one of these walks, in 1828, the Sparrow Hills, Herzen and Ogarev vowed eternal friendship and unalterable decision to give life to the service of freedom. What does this door "freedom" was understood, for them it was still unclear, but the imagination painted and heroes of the French Revolution, and the Decembrists, and Charles Mohr, and Fiesco, and the Marquis Posa ... Overcome the obstacles from his father, who wanted to arrange for the son of a military or diplomatic career, Herzen entered Moscow University, and plunged into a new, noisy world. Distinguished by a very lively temperament, Herzen lot of learning to read a lot, but even more said, arguing, preaching. "Life at the university - he says - has left us the memory of one long feast of ideas, the feast of science and dreams, sometimes stormy, sometimes dark, dissipated, but never vicious". In Ogarev, Herzen became friendly at that time with NI. Sazonov (later known emigrant), NM. Satin (translator of Shakespeare), AN. Savich (astronomer), N.H. Ketscher. This group is sometimes asked "feasts hill", but feasts were inspired by profound content. Participants conducted their conversations and debates about science, . literature, . art, . Philosophy, . politics; been born if not a "union of Pestel and Ryleeva", . which he dreamed of, . enrolled in the University, . Herzen, . then the germ of opposition against the three famous "dogmas" of Russian political life,
. July Revolution, the Polish uprising that occupied Europe, political and literary matters - all this is a good response in the student circle, the center of which was Herzen. And then make out in a circle with domestic terror "that" in Europe, especially France, where waiting for the password policy and slogan - things are not right ". In 1833, Mr.. Herzen graduated with a degree candidate and a silver medal. However, he clearly understood that more study must be many, many, and in one letter, written a few days after his university career, he wrote: "Although I graduated from the course, but has collected so little that it is shameful for people to watch". Even at the university he became acquainted with the teachings of Saint-Simonian, which made a very strong impression. His thoughts already turned to the study of socialist writers of the West, but certainly not to say that since that time, Herzen became a Socialist. Herzen was not only early but also late 30's - the man who passionately seeking, rather than something completely stopped, although the direction of his thoughts and sympathies were well-defined and expressed in a quest for freedom. A year after the course Herzen, Ogarev and several others were arrested. The arrest was the existence in Moscow "nesluzhaschih", . always something interpreting, . kipyatyaschihsya exciting and young people, . a reason - one student party, . which sung contained the "insolent rebuke" song, . and was defeated by a bust of Emperor Nicholas,
. Inquiry found out, . that song was Sokolovsky, . Sokolovsky was familiar with Ogarev, . with Ogarev friendly Herzen, . and while at a party or Herzen, . not Ogarev were not even, . unless, . on the basis of "circumstantial evidence" about their "mindset", . they were involved in the case of "missed, . by arrest, . conspiracy of young people, . devoted to the teachings of Saint-Simonism ",
. Ogaryov was arrested before his friend. In the last days of his life in freedom Herzen met his cousin Natalia Zakharina, a young girl, very religious and who loved already Herzen, although he did before and did not notice. With her Herzen joined in the conversation "for the first time after many years of dating". He was indignant at the arrest Ogarev, expressed outrage at the conditions of life in which the possibility of such facts. Natalia pointed out to him the need to struggle with the test, mindful of Christ and the Apostle Paul. Once again in prison after he wrote there, and then as a reference, letter, full of prayerful mood. "No, in the chest is burning faith, a strong, alive, - he wrote in a letter dated December 10, 1834 - There is a Providence. I read with delight the Lives of the Saints - that is where the divine examples of ". In prison Herzen spent nine months, . then, . he said, . "We read, . a bad joke, . sentence of death, . then declared, . what, . moved so characteristic of him, . impermissible kindness, . emperor ordered to apply to us only a corrective measure, . in the form of links ",
. Herzen appointed place of exile Perm. "What I Perm and Moscow, and Moscow-Perm, - then wrote Herzen. - Our life is solved, the die is cast, the storm was fascinated. KudaN not know. But I know that there will be good, there is rest and reward "... In this spirit, Herzen arrived in the link. He lived with him for a long time, but in it he sought - to freedom. Natalia brought him the words of the Apostle Paul: "Who lives in God, that can not pin down" - and in this Herzen saw a way to freedom, inner freedom, attainable for everyone, and through it, and due to the freedom and the universal. Here begins the second time in their lives Herzen. In Perm Herzen spent only three weeks and then, by the authorities, was transferred to Vyatka, from enrolling as a "clerk" at the service of the governor Tyufyayev, a typical representative of the pre-reform administration. Tyufyayev took Herzen very unfriendly and do not know what would have ended his harassment and persecution, if it had not happened, some favorable to the circumstances of exile. Minister of the Interior planned to establish in all of Russia's Regional Committee and demanded that the governor sent him on this occasion your feedback. For the response to this unprecedented 'Inbox' had to go to the "scholar candidate at Moscow University". Herzen had promised not only to make the desired "tip", but also the desire to do the actual implementation of the minister, so that it was freed from needless daily stay in the governor's office and allowed to work from home. Tyufyayev had to agree with. Soon there is a sharper form of confrontation with Herzen Tyufyayev and exile would probably make a journey to places far more distant, if fate once again did not come to the aid of Herzen. At that time, traveled to Russia, accompanied by Zhukovsky and Arseniev, who was then heir to the throne, Alexander. Tyufyayev received from St. Petersburg to arrange the order in Vyatka, to familiarize with the natural heir to the wealth of the region, an exhibition of having their exhibits "on the three kingdoms of nature". Had to turn again to Herzen, who gave an explanation and heir. Surprised by the abundance of knowledge on the young man in the depths of Vyatka, Zhukovsky and Arseniev have detailed questioning of Herzen, who he is and how he got to Vyatka. Hearing what had happened, they promised to intercede on his return from exile Herzen. Complete success petition is not crowned, but thanks to Zhukovsky and Arseniev, soon took an order to transfer the Gertsen from Vyatka in Vladimir. Meanwhile, it was made available from St. Petersburg to start in all provincial towns, "Provincial Gazette", with an application to them so-called "non-Department". Replaced Tyufyayev Governor Kornilov proposed Herzen superintendence this department. Hertzen have traveled the province to gather material for newspapers, became acquainted with the people's life, placed in the "Provincial Gazette" a number of papers the economic and ethnographic content. When the activities of his involvement in Vyatka was founded the first public library, in which he delivered a speech that was incorporated later in his collected works. In Vyatka same Herzen became friends with be there in exile famous architect Vitberg and felt the very strong influence of his. "Natalie, - wrote Herzen - barely showed me God, and I began to believe. Flaming is the soul of an artist to cross the border and lost in the dark, but the grand mysticism, and I found in the mysticism of life and poetry more than in philosophy. I bless the time ". At the same time Herzen began to write "the legend of St. Theodore," and "Thought and Revelation". On the last article Herzen responds thus: "In it I describe my own development, to reveal how the experience has led me to a religious view". At the same sentiments are Herzen and in Vladimir, where the most important fact of his life was his marriage to N.A. Zakharina. "From the family for the first time today, I confessed - Herzen wrote March 13, 1838 - a victory achieved with the help of Natasha on his soul". But that came and crisis. "After all, my dear friend, - he wrote the same to Natasha - and I can not force himself to that heavenly meekness, which is one of the main features of your character, I too inferno". Strong mind Herzen, . huge amount of collected data, . disorder still lying in the minds, . restless spirit and eager nature of, . - All this has been shrouded in a thick shroud Vyatskiye Vladimir's sentiments, . but already bursting to break their, . waiting for a jolt, . to give that Herzen, . hallmark of which was not a "resignation", . a thirst for combat,
. This impulse was to Herzen's study of Hegel, whose works were read then all my friends in Moscow Herzen. The study is led Herzen to conclusions opposite to those made from Hegel Belinsky and others "gegeliantsy" of the time. Belinsky preached the famous "reconciliation"; Herzen found that the philosophy of Hegel is the "algebra of revolution". On this ground, and the collision occurred shortly Herzen and Belinsky, ending with their temporary break, then, when Belinsky recognized their views are wrong, between him and Herzen establish friendship that lasted their entire lives. After Vladimir Herzen was allowed to live in Petersburg, but then again he gave himself to feel the "vile reality of Russia". In St. Petersburg policeman killed a passer-by, this story told everywhere, and it is, as one of the St. Petersburg news, Herzen said in a letter to his father. The letter was intercepted, and Herzen was again appointed link to Vyatka. Only through much trouble could change the link to Vyatka on the link in Novgorod, where Herzen had been sent to the service advisor to the provincial government. There he had to superintend the affairs of the landlord abuses of power, the affairs of the dissenters and ... cases of persons held under the supervision of the police, and among such persons has been and he. In parallel with the accumulation of lessons drawn from life itself, Herzen continuously working on theoretical. Soon he was able to get acquainted with the book of the "left" of gegeliantsev: Ogaryov was abroad and brought out The Essence of Christianity Feuerbach. Reading this book made on Herzen's a very strong impression. In Novgorod, Herzen, and began to write his famous novel: "Who is to blame". Thanks to efforts of friends Herzen managed to escape and from Novgorod, to resign and move to Moscow. There he lived from 1842 to 1847, Mr.. - The last period of his life in Russia. This period is filled with the most intensive work. Constant communication with Belinsky, Granovsky, Chaadayev and others, disputes with the Slavophiles, literary activity is the main content of life Herzen. He grew more and more in such a prominent force that Belinsky prophesied him a place not only in the history of Russian literature, "but also" in Karamzin's History ". As in many other cases, Belinsky was not mistaken. Literary work Herzen not put him in the ranks of Russian classical writers, but it is nevertheless a highly remarkable. Here and in the development of philosophical problems, and questions of ethics, and Russian life at that time, with its depressing effect on the living forces of the country, and a passionate love for his native land, native people. Like all the best Russian people "forties", . Herzen saw very good, . that Russia is a major scourge of serfdom, . but the fight in the literature is the scourge, . is recognized, . along with the autocracy, . "dogma of political religion" in Russia, . was especially difficult,
. Nevertheless, in the story "Thieving Magpie" and in the famous novel "Who is to blame" Herzen, as far as possible, and touched this forbidden topic. Gazed Herzen and the other question is even more complex - in the issue of relations between the sexes. This question constitutes the main theme of the novel "Who is to blame"; to him as Herzen returned repeatedly in his other works, especially in the article: "On a drama". This article was written under the influence of "the most ordinary play, but that is where the power of intellectual and moral personality of Herzen that his eyes have seen the most" ordinary "things such parties, by which thousands of people are completely indifferent. Equally stared Herzen and the role of abstract knowledge, theoretical ideas, abstract philosophy. This theme was dedicated to the article "Amateurs in Science", "Dilevantl-roantiksh", "Dshlhtanty0i0tshh0uzeeyh" "0" in Buddshz eaukh, yarshchhm0pyud "science" Herzen understands all the theoretical work of human thought and in particular - the philosophy. Herzen calls from a man at the same time and the breadth and depth. A specialist in any area, he brings a claim and respond to all requests from real life, in other words - be a citizen. Same as it presents and to "amateurs", insisting that the thoroughly studied even one single question. Deeply involved Herzen also the question of the relationship between individual and collective. In the ancient world identity was completely sacrificed to collective. "Middle Ages, put your question, - have made significant personality immaterial res publica. But neither the one nor the other solution can not meet the perfect man ". "A rational, conscious combination of the individual and the state will lead to the true concept of the person in general. The combination of this - a daunting task, set a modern way of thinking ... If we add these works of Herzen, . as "Letters on the Study of Nature", . are essays outlining the history of philosophy and philosophical views of the Herzen, . it becomes clear to all of multilateralism, . which stirred him back in the forties,
. And over all these subjects breathed a living feeling, which determined the content and the life Herzen. This is the content, he described himself, already in the sunset of their days, in these words: "the dominant axis around which was our life - is our attitude toward the Russian people, faith in him, love him, the desire to actively participate in its destiny". When those conditions under which flowed Herzen's life in Russia, he could express in print only a small fraction of the ideas on which he worked intensively. His intellectual interests and needs were enormous. He was watching the development of socialist doctrines in Europe, studying the Fourier Considerant, Louis Blanc, pays tribute to them, but preserves the autonomy and their own thoughts. He speaks of them in his diary: "good, very good, but not a complete solution. In the broad light phalanstery their cramped, this device one aspect of life, another embarrassing ". This entry is for 1844, but it is already heard Herzen period of his life in Europe. The most complete impression on Herzen Proudhon, . known work of which, . "Qu'est ce que la proprieteN", . Herzen replied in his diary: "The excellent work, . not only not less than, . but higher than, . what they said and written about it ..,
. Development of fine, straight, strong, sharp and permeated with fire ". At the same time studying the history of Russia, Herzen, the life of the Russian people, filing his mental life. He comes to the question: what power has kept many excellent qualities of the Russian people, . in spite of the Tatar yoke, . German drill and domestic knutN - This is the power of orthodoxy, . - Said Slavophiles: only comes out of it, . as a derivative, . spirit of catholicity of the people, . and the external expression of that spirit is the communal life of Russian peasants,
. Educated segments of society out of touch with the people in the St. Petersburg period "of Russian history, in which all our misfortune. The whole question is now to return "to the people", to merge with. Russian people in their everyday life decided that same task that West put only in thought. Herzen did not agree with the premise of which proceeded views Slavophiles, but no doubt that their views on the "singularity" of economic life in Russia they were largely assimilated and took place in the later his views. This he admitted himself. Despite the feverish intellectual life, Herzen felt that the cases of permanent investigation for its forces in Russia at that time there, and that thought brought him sometimes almost in despair. "We argued and argued - he wrote in his diary - and, as always, come to nothing, cold speeches and jokes. Our condition is hopeless, because it is false, because the historical logic indicates that we are outside people's needs, and our business - the desperate suffering ". Herzen was drawn to Europe, but at the request of the Gertsen issue a passport to treat there wife Nicholas put the resolution: "no need". Conditions of Russian life terribly crushed Herzen; meanwhile Ogaryov was already abroad, and from there wrote to his friend: "Herzen! But to live at home can. I am convinced that we can not. Man is alien to his family, obliged to break with his family ... I'm tired of all be inside, I need action. I, - weak, indecisive, impractical, dem Grubelenden, - need action. Well after you more than me silnymN "Herzen and he felt his whole being that" can not live at home, but a lot of hard days he suffered before the longed-for opportunity came, and before them the doors of the stuffy Russian Prison 40-ies. The joy of liberation, the novelty of sensations to breathe freestyle breast and she elevated the atmosphere that was different in Europe, and especially in France, the eve of the storms in 1848 - all this filled his soul with joy Herzen. Arriving in 1847, directly to Paris, he was entirely absorbed in the opportunity before him a new life. He quickly made friends with the leaders of the French social movement of that time and was therefore able to observe unfolding events very closely. "Herzen House - recalls the then Annenkov and abroad - has become something like Dionysian ear, which clearly reflected the noise of Paris, the slightest movement and emotion, which takes on the surface of its streets and intellectual life". But through the external decorations of this life soon spotted Herzen and its dark sides. Already in "Letters from the Avenue Marigny" find the line, clearly indicating that dissatisfaction, which he then felt. "France at no time does not fall so deeply in the moral sense, as now," - he wrote on Sept. 15, 1847, Mr.. The whole system of French life, the life of France, which Herzen called "petit bourgeois", roused in his heart more and more deep antipathy. "Depravity, - he wrote - has penetrated everywhere: in the family, the legislative body, literature, media. It is so usual, that no one notices, and notice does not want. This depravity huckster ". As leaders of the movement, then and there the first impression from conversations with them, equal to, as he jokingly remarked, "some way rank, promotion, quickly replaced by skepticism toward them. "I have all the experiences of idolatry and idols do not stay long and soon give way to a complete denial". He was drawn to Italy, where at the time of the liberation movement was, apparently, other than in France, the channel. "I am morally recovered - Herzen wrote, - crossed the border of France, Italy, I have to update the faith in themselves and in the strength of the other, many hopes have been raised again in the shower, I saw a person, the tears, I heard the hot words ... All Italy woke up before my eyes. I have seen the King of Naples, made by hand, and the Pope, humbly begging the people's love ". The news of the February Revolution in France and the proclamation of the Second Republic there again attracted Herzen in Paris, . where the events of fever seized him very much, but the impression, . made on him by France in his first visit there, . has not diminished and now,
. Clearer and clearer he saw that the Revolution did not rely on that and that Paris irresistibly tends to crash. It happened in the "June Days", which Herzen lived through in Paris. They made a terrible impression on him. On the evening of June 26 we heard after the victory over Paris right shots, with some arrangement ... We all looked at each other, all faces were green. "It is a shot" - as we said in unison and turned away from each other. I pressed my forehead against the glass window and silent ... "followed and then the scene features the same character:" Arrogant National Guard with blunt anger at the person took care of their shops, . threatened with a bayonet and butt, cheering crowds of drunken mobilization walked along the boulevards, . singing, boys 15 - 17 years boasted the blood of their brothers,
. Cavaignac took with him some kind of monster who killed a dozen Frenchmen ... Doubt swerved his heavy foot on the last possession, it is not shaking the church sacristy, not a doctor's gown, and the revolutionary banner of "... Soon had Herzen, in order to avoid arrest, to escape from Paris to Geneva, although on paper in France persisted Republic. Even in Paris Herzen matured decision not to return to Russia. No matter how awful it was all his experiences in Europe, but Herzen had to get used to such conditions of life, after which return to their homeland seemed downright beyond human power. Fight with the conditions of Russian life - and Herzen decided to fight them by direct attack on them in the press in Russian and foreign languages - could only remain in Europe. In addition, he wanted to give and Europe with Russia - Russia does indeed, and not the one that Europe often bribed painted feathers. But before the situation Herzen, as an exile, was defined definitively, in his life occurred a few more events. Hiding from Paris to Geneva, he became acquainted there with many people from different countries and, incidentally, with Mazzini, deepest sympathy to which he retained for life. Ibid he received a letter from Proudhon, to assist him in the publication of the newspaper "La voix du Peuple" and become the closest of its staff. Herzen sent Proudhon needed to bail 24 000 francs, and began to write in his newspaper. But not for long: the newspaper was a series of fines imposed, from the pledge is nothing left, and the newspaper ceased. Then Herzen finally naturalized in Switzerland. To exacerbate the reaction has joined a number of heavy blows in the personal lives of Herzen. All this resulted Herzen in most gloomy mood, and when there was the December coup d'etat, Herzen wrote an article entitled "Vive la mort!" ... He then lived in Nice. At one time it seemed to him that "everything had collapsed - general and particular, the European revolution and a home shelter, freedom of peace and happiness". The state, in which he was, he called "the edge of moral destruction," but from him he had won: he says, saved his "faith in Russia," and he decided to give himself entirely to her service. Living in Nice, . he published a number of his works: it had appeared first in German, "Letters from France and Italy", . then the brochure "On the development of revolutionary ideas in Russia" (originally the same in German in "Deutsche Jahrbucher", . then a separate edition in French "Du developpement des idees revolutionnaires en Russie") and, . Finally, . "Le peuple russe et le socialisme" ( "Letter to Michelet),
. Both of these pamphlets were banned in France. At the same time appeared in the press and Herzen's famous work "On the Other Shore" (also originally in German: "Von andern Ufer"). In this famous work Herzen posed the question: "where is the need, . that the future we played contrived program, . - In other words, . what are the objective nature of the surety in the, . that the ideals of socialism osuschestvimyN parted long ago with teologizmom, . Herzen took the same negative attitude to any philosophical system,
. Had stated in Moscow Khomyakov, . it can take "terrible results ferocious immanentsii, . because the conclusions of mind regardless of, . whether a person wants to or not ", . Herzen called on the tribunal of reason and religion of the earth, . religion of humanity, . religion of progress,
. "Explain to me please - he asked - why believe in God is ridiculous, and believe in humanity is not funny, believe in the kingdom of heaven stupid, and believe in earthly utopia umnoN - The goal of each generation, according to Herzen - it is itself. It must live, and live the life of a human - to live in a social environment in which the individual is free, and at the same time, society was not destroyed. But creating such a relationship between the individual and society depends only partly on our own - principally the same way, on the terms already given by past history. Exploring the living conditions of European countries, Herzen comes to the conclusions for these countries is very pessimistic. He finds that Europe is mired in a swamp impassable "philistinism". It is, perhaps, from the autocracy of private property and get rid of, to realize the economic side of the problem of socialism. This will be the best case, but even then it does not wash off middle class, socialism is the socialism it will be middle-class. In the worst case does not happen and so - while Europe is stagnating in a terry-color middle class and finally it decomposed. With this turn of affairs is not impossible and that it will become a victim of the Eastern peoples with more fresh blood. The objective conditions for other opportunities in Russia, Herzen saw the communal life of its people and free from prejudices thought good layer of Russian society, of what later became known as the intelligentsia. The same conclusion was attracted Herzen and his ardent love for Russia. He wrote that the belief in Russia that saved him then, "on the brink of moral destruction". This belief has resurrected all the forces of Herzen, . and in the same work, "From the Other Shore" he wanted to talk about the people of Europe, Russian, . "powerful and enigmatic, . who secretly founded the state of 60 million, . which is so hard and surprisingly grown, . without losing the community began, . and carried it through the initial public coups development that preserved stately features, . a lively mind and a wide orgy of the rich nature under the yoke of serfdom and the Petrine order form - answer a hundred years a huge phenomenon of Pushkin ",
. This theme takes hold Herzen quite, . He varies it in various ways, . finds opportunities for Russia other, . non-Western path of development, . considers the community and gang as the basis for such development, . sees in the worldly gathering embryo, . from which there should be a very broad public, . lays the foundation for the later Russian Populism, . - Word, . imposes stamp his personality on the movement of the Russian intelligentsia, . lasted for decades and then the whole,
. While living in Nice, Herzen hardly saw Russian. He lived there at the same time, too, as an exile, Golovin, there is even a newspaper editor of "Le Carillon" (peal); perhaps, is the name of Herzen and prompted the idea to give his Russian agency later name "The Bell". Since Golovin Herzen any close relationship is not established. Was in Nice and more цTngel (later the officer "Polar Star"); with Herzen's relations were closer than with Golovin. He was buried in Nice wife, Herzen moved to London. There, he set the first free Russian press machine. This machine printed leaflets and brochures ( "St George's Day," "Poles pierce us," "Baptism of property, etc.) then log" Polar Star "and, finally, the famous" bell ", the first issue of which was July 1, 1857 g. The "Bells" contained in it are three specific provisions: 1) emancipation of the peasants by the landowners, 2) the release of speech from censorship and 3) the release of the tax-paying class, battered. In outlining the program, Herzen, of course, looked at it as a minimum program, and, calling himself in his famous letter to Alexander II "an incorrigible socialist," wrote the following lines: "I am ashamed of how small we are ready to settle. We want things, the fairness of which you just as little doubt, as all. In the first case you and that is enough ". Broad-mindedness, coupled with the ability to put questions to the workable soil, attracted to Herzen warm sympathy of the best elements of Russia in the late 50's and early 60-ies. Shevchenko noted in his diary that he wanted to redraw the portrait of Herzen, "honoring the name of this holy man" and that, after seeing the first time, "Bell", he "respectfully kissed him". Cavelin Herzen, wrote: "When you denounced all with unprecedented and unparalleled courage, . when you throw in brilliant articles and pamphlets thoughts, . who ran for the century ahead, . and for the current day requirements put the most moderate, . most immediate, . standing in the queue, . you seemed to me so great man, . to begin a new Russian history,
. I wept over your articles, knew them by heart, chose from them epigraphs for future historical studies, studies of political and philosophical ". "With tears in his eyes - says in his memoirs P.A. Kropotkin, - we read a famous article Herzen: "You have conquered, Galilean" ... Such opinions on Herzen and his magazine could be cited a lot. "The Bell" and the role played by the "Bell" in the resolution of the peasant question and generally in the social movement in Russia in the late 50's and early 60's, will be devoted to a particular article. With the onset of reaction and especially after the Polish uprising of Herzen's influence fell heavily, "Bell continued to appear until 1867, Mr.. inclusive, but it is far have had no previous value. The last period of life Herzen was for him the time of separation from Russia and loneliness. "Fathers" backed away from him for the "radicalism" and "children" - for "moderation". Herzen's mental state was, of course, very heavy, but he believed that truth will triumph, believed in the powerful spiritual forces of the Russian people and firmly bear its position. All who saw him at the time, unanimously testify that, despite all the experienced and tested, it was still the same lively, charming, witty Herzen. Still, he was interested in the course of events in Russia, continues to closely observe and in a state of affairs in Europe. As a penetrating look at the Herzen everything happening around him, seen from such a striking example: living at the end of 1867, Mr.. (after the end of the Bells ") in Genoa, Herzen wrote an article about Napoleonic France, which can be called prophetic. "Holy Father, this is your business" - these words from Schillerov "Don Carlos" (Philip II conveys the life of his son in the hands of the Grand Inquisitor), taken as an epigraph to the article by Herzen, Herzen, and would like to repeat Bismarck. Ripe pear, and without his excellency not cost. Do not stand on ceremony, the Count. I am sorry that I'm right, I like to touch on the fact that in general terms, it foresaw. I'm annoyed at myself as a child annoyed at the barometer, indicating the storm and spoil the ride ... Count Bismarck, now's your business! "Those were the words of the seer. A year after Herzen wrote this article (it appeared in the latest issue of "Polar Star"), he came to Paris, where 9 / 21 January 1870. died. He was buried first at the cemetery Pere Lachaise, and then his ashes were transferred to Nice, where he rests far. Above the tomb stands a beautiful, depicting Herzen standing upright, with face turned toward Russia, a monument of Zabello. March 25, 1912, Mr.. All cultural Russia said the day-century birth of Herzen. Many newspapers devoted to the memory of the glorious day citizen of the Russian land hot articles, which are read by hundreds of thousands if not millions, of readers, and thus began the "spiritual return" Herzen's home. With the change of existing conditions in Russia's political life is the "return" will, without doubt, done much more complete way. Then not only the spirit of Herzen, in the form of his complete works and letters, but, hopefully, and the ashes of the great exile will be returned to Russia and the rest in so passionately he loved his native land. Literature. The main source for the study of Herzen are primarily his own writings, available in two editions, foreign and Russian. Both publications are not. They do not include many works of Herzen, not to mention having great importance for the study of Herzen's life and work of his correspondence with various persons. Biographies Herzen: Smirnova (EB. Soloviev, 1897); Vetrinskogo (1908) and Bogu (1912). Herzen also devoted to: Article Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky (characteristic); book Baturyn "Herzen, . his friends and acquaintances; Gershenson "Socio-political views Herzen"; Plekhanov, . article in the 13 th edition of the History of Russian Literature of XIX century. ", . etc.,
. By Vetrinskim written biography of Herzen attached thorough bibliography on Herzen Herzen, and, compiled A.G. Fomin (shared with 1908). V. Bogucharsky.

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