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Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich

( poet, a famous translator 'Iliad')

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Biography Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich
photo Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich
Born in 1784, Mr.. Poltava. His parents, poor descendants of the ancient noble family, died early - and already in his childhood the poet knew the loneliness that has become the lot of his life. As a child, also Gnedich visited pox and not only disfiguring his face, but deprived of the right eye. All this left the nature of the poet's seal is closed, and if it is not hardened in selfish grief, it is only thanks to an innate energy, and early awakening love for intellectual work. At sixteen he entered Moscow University, where he stayed for three years. Here he is thoroughly acquainted with the Latin and Greek literature, a passion for Shakespeare and Schiller, and found a large declamatory talent, playing on the stage of university theater. Moving from Moscow to St. Petersburg for priiskaniya place Gnedich managed to publish two translations of the tragedy ( "Abyufar" Dyusisa, and "Conspiracy Fiesco in Genoa," Schiller) and one of the original novel of Spanish life, filled with monstrous villainy and adventure. In St. Petersburg Gnedich determined to serve in the Department of the Ministry of Education. His poems, original and translated, as well as skillful reading, opened before him the house of Count Stroganov and A.S. Venison. Thanks to the patronage of the latter, Gnedich in 1811, Mr.. was elected a member of Russia's Academy and was appointed librarian of the public library, where he served until 1837, living in the neighborhood and close friendship with Krylov. Thanks to the glory of a superb narrator, he met with the famous beauty, actress Semenova, which held all the roles of its extensive repertoire and for which reworked the tragedy of "Lear" and translated "Tancredi" Voltaire. This friendship was joy and pain of his lonely life. Of the original works Gnedich best considered idyll "The fishermen, which has a classical description of the White Nights of St. Petersburg, Pushkin, quoted in a note to" Eugene Onegin ". Sincere and deep sadness emanates from some of his lyrical pieces, are as follows: "to the Peruvian Spaniard," "Hostel," "Beauty of Ossian," "The mother's coffin," "other". Prose works Gnedich find a great education and taste, and made them translated modern Greek demotic songs remarkable for the purity and power of language. But thank Gnedich is based mainly on his translation of the Iliad. Before Gnedich "Iliad" was translated into prose twice: Yakimov in 1776, and then Martynov at the beginning of this century. Moreover, in 1787, Mr.. were printed in the first six songs "Iliad" in verse transcription Kostrova made Alexandrine. Gnedich decided to continue the case Kostrova and in 1809, Mr.. issued in the light of the 7 th song "Iliad," translated the same size. In 1813, when Gnedich finishing for 11 th song, SS. Uvarov approached him with a letter in which he argued the superiority of the hexameter Alexandrine. This letter raised objections Kapnist, . Voeikova and others, but still were in dispute, . possible or impossible Russian hexameter, . Gnedich, . in his own words, . had the courage to get rid of the pillory verse of Homer and Virgil, . attached to it Trediakovskij,
. He destroyed the translated lyrics, which cost him six years of hard work. Only in 1829. come complete edition of the Iliad "in the size of the original. The translation was warmly welcome by our best writers, especially Pushkin. Subsequently, he wrote that "to grasp the spirit, divine simplicity, and the plastic beauty of the ancient Greeks were destined for Russia, while only one Gnedich", and put it above hexameter hexameters Zhukovsky. But other reviewers were not so favorable for Gnedich. Ordynskij found that in the translation Gnedich lost tenderness, playfulness and simplicity that are so characteristic of Homer. Similarly, in the opinion Galakhova, "said Gnedich Homeric songs kind of solemnity, tuned them to the rhetorical tone, which particularly contributed to excessive and not always legible use of Slavic forms and turns". In fact, the translation Gnedich marked not only significant advantages but also serious defects. Benefits will be owned by Gnedich: the power of language, reverent attitude to the original, so that none of the Homeric image of the translation is not lost and is not decorated (the latter often occurs in Zhukovsky). Disadvantages of translation due to the era in which he lived translator. Members of the "Conversations", . defenders of the "old style", . Shishkov, . KHERASKOV, . Sokhatsky, . Merzlyakov not yet been defeated by Karamzin and his followers; Slavic turnovers still regarded as a necessary condition for the sublime style, . so natural in the literature, . almost half consisting of odes and dithyrambs,
. And what nobler Homer and all the ancient pisateleyN feelings inspired by the classic poets, attributed to themselves, as if the ancients themselves seem old and exceedingly respectable. Hence the exaltation of tone, we note in the translation Gnedich, and corresponding to this tone Slavic turnovers. Can not be called successful epithets like "all day" dogs, "konnodospeshnyh" husbands, "zvukonogih" horses, "yasnoglagolevyh" death, "hitroshvennyh" belts. Equally strange expression: "commanding obedience," "Men kosnyaschie the battle," "Oh, Atreidai not true," "Trojans, bodateli horses," to cherish them, "in omrake feelings". All this, indeed, difficult to read the translation Gnedich, especially if we remember that the Iliad is read by most in adolescence. But all these shortcomings will swim with sincerity and strength of poetry veyuschimi Gnedich. Enhanced training weakened an already painful body of the poet. In 1825, Mr.. he unsuccessfully went to KMV. In 1831, Mr.. doctors persuaded him to go to Moscow on artificial mineral water. February 3, 1833, Mr.. Gnedich died, and his ashes buried at the new cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, near the Krylov. The grave of his monument with the inscription: "Gnedich, enriched Russian literature translation of Homer. Speeches from the lips of his prophetic lilisya sweeter than honey "(" Iliad ", I, p. 249). Works Gnedich and in particular the "Iliad" published many times. The most complete "collection" - St. Petersburg., 1884, edited. NM. Minsk. Literature on Gnedich cm. y Vengerov Sources Dictionary of Russian Literature ". - Wed. and op. Tikhonravova and Zhdanov


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Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich, photo, biography
Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich, photo, biography Gnedich Nikolai Ivanovich  poet, a famous translator 'Iliad', photo, biography
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