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GOLITSYN Vasily

( Prince, the predecessor of Peter I)

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Biography GOLITSYN Vasily
photo GOLITSYN Vasily
Golitsyn, Vasily was born in 1643. He was a descendant of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, whose genus is traditionally (though wrongly) was built in Polotsk princes to Rurik ... Of her youth spent in court circles of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, where the age of fifteen and joined Chashnikov stolnik.

In 1676, after the death of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, was declared heir Tsarevich Feodor Alekseevich. Novoyavlenny king was very weak and painful - like all the sons of Alexei Mikhailovich of Mary Miloslavskaya, from childhood he suffered from paralysis and 'scurvy' (scurvy).

. One of the most illustrious people in "the fatherland", Golitsyn was the most prominent figure in government circles under Tsar Fyodor, standing out from the rest of the boyars erudition, humanity and all of its warehouse in the West European fashion life
. He belonged to that part of society, which was under the influence of the Polish-Catholic.

Golitsyn knew Latin, German and Polish languages, he had a diverse library. In his Moscow home, . one of the finest in Europe, . in the opinion of foreigners, . retracted into a foreign fashion, . always waiting for their hospitable meeting, . same as Europeans: the owner threw them questions, . interested in contemporary political life of Europe.,

. In the reign of Theodore Alekseevich were convened by the commission with the participation of delegates - one to develop a new system of tax-paying levies, one for the reconstruction of selfless cause
. Both operated under the guidance Galitzine. The first did not come to a positive outcome. The second introduced a new painting of servitors to their companies and took various other measures to improve the drill part..

In 1676 Galitzine reached boyar ranks and was sent to the Ukraine to take measures for the preservation of Ukraine from the raids of the Turks and Crimeans. Participated in the famous Chigiryanskih hikes.

Direct acquaintance with military affairs put Golitsyn face to face with the shortcomings of the then Organization of Russian troops. He became convinced that the root of evil lies in localism, and returned to Moscow, managed to hold its destruction.

April 27, 1682 Theodore A., died childless at age 20, without making an order for succession. His brother 16-year-old Ivan, physically weak, was removed from the throne. Patriarch Joachim and nobles proclaimed king of 10-year-old Peter.

Boyars Miloslavsky led by Sophia decided to challenge the power. In May 1682, Mr.. they were able to instigate a rebellion Streletskii and Sofia came to power, September 15, 1682 became regent for young brothers Ivan and Peter.

As a politician - Golitsyn inevitably compromised and tricks. As a professional diplomat - had contact with many different people. Including women. And so long for him to achieve his goals, which people with similar ambitions are not separated from the public interest, it took be carried away by special royal blood - he did not hesitate.

The author of "Notes on Muscovy" French envoy F. De La Neuville no doubt in the nature of the prince's feelings: a regent he "loved only for his own benefit". But Sophia, according to observers, was "passionately in love" in Golitsyn.

. After a long seclusion in the mansion 24-year-old princess with all the ardor of his soul gave herself a nice, intelligent, educated and courteous man, a 40 th year of life experienced not only in the clerks affairs
. I think, and Duke led at first not one naked calculation. Sophia was not a beauty, which called her later, Voltaire, familiar only with the portraits of the princess. But was not ugly, and what its apologists have tried to present Peter. She drew the freshness of youth, irrepressible life force, a clear mind, finally, the magic of his name, which court theologians directly connected with the divine wisdom.

So, the ambitious prince became a favorite power-loving princess. But we face an unusual case of Favorite: the pinnacle of power Sofia Romanova and Gediminians Golitsyn went up hand in hand.

. Although, . that the death of King Theodore Golitsyn alienated from the affairs of government and the fact, . that he belonged to the party Miloslavskys, . with the head of which, . princess Sophia, . was connected to a cardiac affection, . Golitsyn was not involved in the conspiracy, . Sofia leading up to the authorities,


. But to love the princess is no longer mattered - after the May coup in 1682 it set Golitsyn headed the embassy of the order.

. The rank of governor of the Novgorod and Boyar, Golitsyn, but relations with foreign powers, in charge of the orders Reitarska vladimirskim vessel Pushkarsky, Little Russia, Smolensk, Novgorod, and Galicia Ustyug quarter.

. In 1683, awarded a "kingly large print and public affairs of the great embassy protector" - a title which before him were only Ordin-Nashchokin and Matveev
.

Actual ruler of Russia carried out its policy, carefully verifying each step. All more or less serious decisions had to made as royal decrees, agree with the patriarch and approve the Boyar Duma, deftly maneuvering between its warring factions.

. Bright trace in the internal administration of Russia in Golitsyn himself left no
. But foreign policy is marked by his imprisonment, April 21, 1686, eternal peace with Poland. In this world, Kiev, that Russia possessed hitherto only actually passed to it and de jure.
. The obligation of the Polish government not to harass their Orthodox subjects created a foundation for the subsequent intervention of Russia in the internal affairs of Poland.

. Signing of "Eternal Peace" with Poland was the finest hour of Vasily Golitsyn
. But nothing is given freely. The conclusion of the treaty conditional on Russia's entry into the "Holy League" against Turkey, which meant war with its vassal - Crimean khan. Fearing the increasing influence of Golitsyn, his opponents have tried to commander of Russian troops was appointed it was he. Thus, he was removed from Moscow and made a hostage to the wrong military success.

Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 period benefited Russia's allies, shackled at the time the forces of Crimean Khan, but for Russia ended with little success. And for the credibility of Golitsyn - and altogether lamentable. With great difficulty, managed to persuade Sophia to appoint Peter Golitsyn and his comrades awards for these campaigns.

Long absences favorite Sophia had another consequence. Gradually the first place in the heart of the ruler took her other colleague - Okolnichy Fedor Shalkovity, the head of Archer's orders, in whose conduct, in addition to the capital musketeers, was a political inquisition.

Okolnichy quickly mastered the role of the courtier and shared the concerns of Prince Vasili in support of the royal ambitions of the regent. In order Shalkovity winter 1689 was issued another panegyric to Sofia, where it was argued that power and strength the Lord has given equally Tsars Ivan and Peter, and their sister, a princess, but Wisdom - only Sophie Alexeyevna. At the direction of the same head musketeers were created large prints with the coronation portrait of Sofia - in royal robes, with a scepter and orb in his hands.

. The military failure of the first favorite could not be concealed by ideological shares second
. Moreover, outright propaganda has caused irritation. Marriage and the majority of Peter invalidate custody regent over him, and her claim to the crown seemed altogether unheard. Popularity of Sophia fell - both among the common people, and in the circles of the Moscow nobility and clubs serving its "creative elite.

. The first four years of Sophia and Golitsyn were successful: to strengthen the internal situation in Russia, its position in Europe
. But quietly leave the scene when the crisis erupted, to return voluntarily to the tower, the regent could not. A Golitsyn could neither stop nor betray Sophia ...

. After the overthrow of Sophia and Golitsyn opals his closest collaborators on Posolsky order - Emelyan Ukrainians, . Procopius Voznitsyn, . returned from Nerchinsk Fedor Golovin and several other diplomats - to escape repression, . included in the new government and later occupies a paramount position,
. So to ensure the continuation of Russia's foreign policy.

Expressed their loyalty to Peter and foreign experts invited to the service Golitsyn. These claims by the new government, too, was not. But Prince Vasili Peter's entourage did not forgive. Too tied he was with Sophia, with the clan Miloslavskys, the figure was too dangerous.

The charge of treason he did not show what took care of his cousin, Prince Boris Alekseevich Golitsyn, who was in the investigative commission. Limited to that charged in the abuse of power, unlawful titles of Sofia, in secret talks about her coronation, in evasion of active action in the second Crimean campaign. They have deprived nobility, ranks, titles, property (but not the princely dignity), and was exiled with his family in Kargopol where transferred to Yarensk (at that time - blank Zyryansky d).

Izvet Shalkovity, if Golitsyn was actively involved in the conspiracy musketeers on the night of 8 August 1689, supported by new izvetom on Relations with Golitsyn Sofeyu after the exile, even more hardened his fate. He was ordered to carry Golitsyn Pustozersky with his family in jail, on the lower reaches of the Pechora.

Bad weather at sea prevented to go further Mezen (1691). The difficulty of the path and petitions Golitsyn had their effect: the disgraced the family was allowed to remain in Mezen. Last points of transit links Golitsyn - Voloka Pinega parish (Arkhangelsk Province), where (in the village Kologorov), he died April 21, 1714.

Golitsyn was buried in the Krasnogorsk Mother of God Monastery, near Pinega. The death of his family Golitsyn was returned from exile.

. Family

. Golitsyn was married twice: Princess Fedosya Vassilyevna Dolgorukoi, who died childless about 1685, and the second time in Evdokia Ivanovna Streshneva, from which had 4 sons and 2 daughters.

. Next in history

. Golitsyn clearly understood the basic task of the century - a closer rapprochement with the West
. As an adherent of Sophia, for a long time in the eyes of the progeny carried with her unfairly-low score. Seeing Golitsyn among the enemies of Peter, most are accustomed to look upon him as the enemy of the reform movement and retrograde.

In fact, Golitsyn was a Westerner and a supporter of reforms in the European spirit. He patronized foreigners, . sympathized with the formation of Russian youth, . wanted to liberate the peasants from serfdom, . send noblemen abroad in military schools, . create a permanent embassy in European courts, . grant religious freedom, etc.,

. Difference Golitsyn from Peter - the sympathy of the Western Catholic culture, while Peter was a supporter of Protestant Europe.

.

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Golitsyn, Andrei V.
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Valerian Mikhailovich Golitsyn

GOLITSYN Vasily, photo, biography
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