Mikhail Grabovski( outstanding Polish critic of the Polish-Ukrainian school)
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Biography Mikhail Grabovski
(1805 - 1863). After teaching in Uman went to Warsaw, where friends with a circle of romantics. Not sympathizing with the impending insurrection, Grabowski retired to his estate in Ukraine. In 1834, Mr.. Grabowski published an article on folk poetry, which had a huge success. Since then, as Grabowski importance of literary criticism kept growing. The greatest glory achieved by printing of Grabowski (1837 - 1838) the first two volumes of "Literatura i krytyka", dedicated to the poetry of the XIX century., Ukrainian songs and modern French literature. Less successful were two other volumes: "O szkole ekrainskiej poezyi" and "Literatura Romansu w Polsce" (brought to the first story Kraszewski). With half of the 30-ies Grabowski adjacent to the conservative camp of the Catholic reaction, declares war skepticism XVIII century. Recognizes the aristocracy needed in the life of the people, moving closer to the formulation of semi-official "Tygodnik Petersburski". Polish society did not like and Ukrainian sympathies Grabowski, and in general all the "Ukrainian school", with its local "zastenkovym" patriotism, which rebelled against Mickiewicz, Kraszewski, etc.. In 1841, Mr.. A new Polish critic. Tyshinsky pointed out that many of the views Grabowski, given up the original, in fact borrowed from Wilma and Guizot. This led to a loss of popularity Grabowski, especially among youth. Since then, the critical performance Grabowski falls, although he continues to publish his article in "Tyg. Petersburski "and" Pielgrzym'e "(left separately:" Korrespondencya literacka ", 1843, and" Artykuly lnterackie, krytyczne, artystyczne ", 1849). Increasingly converging in Kiev with Ukrainian leaders, . Grabowski permeated Slavophile Ukrainian-Slavic ideas about the great significance of Kiev and expresses the conviction, . that "Ukrainian folk" is a separate branch of the Russian people, . preserved in the purity of native tribal characteristics and identity,
. Under the same influences that are imbued with the famous "St. Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood Kostomarova and Shevchenko, Grabowski seeking to become an apostle of the Slavic unity. He wants to publish in Kiev panslavisticheskom direction of the newspaper "Slowianin" and to that end presents a detailed program for future publication Kiev governor-general. She became well-known Polish society and the environment caused in the Polish general indignation; former friends of him recoiled Grabowski. From this time begins rapprochement with Grabovsky Kulish, on which Grabowski had a strong influence. Grabowski was convinced that all charges against the Polish gentry in the oppression of the Ukrainian people are greatly exaggerated, and that in fact the Polish landowners were in the Ukraine planter of high culture and created its welfare. Grabowski also wrote literary works. The first story Grabowski: "Koliszczyzna i stepy" (1838; 2-ed. n. W. "Opowiadania Kurennego", (1860). The second story, "Stannica Hulajpolska" (in 1840 - 1841), written under the strong influence of Walter Scott, provides a picture of the manners and customs of Ukraine and the mutual relations of Poles and Cossacks, lords and serfs at the end of the XVIII century. Later story: "Pan starosta Kaniowski" (1856), "Pan starosta Zakrzewski" (1860) and "Zamiec w stepach" (1862). In 1862, Mr.. Grabowski received from the Marquis Veleplskogo invitation to occupy a prominent place in the "Commission of National Education and Religion", and in 1863. took place in her director, but two months later died. Critical judgments Grabowski thoroughly and tags. He first identified the importance of many Polish writers, the first clearly formulated the principle of nationality in literature, even more important as a figure Grabowski Ukrainian revival. - Wed. Tadeusz Grabowski, "Michal Grabowski, jego pisma krytycznei poglady polityczne" (Krakow, 1901).