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Grigoriev Apollon

( One of the most prominent Russian critics)

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Biography Grigoriev Apollon
photo Grigoriev Apollon
Born in 1822, Mr.. in Moscow, where his father was secretary of the city magistrate. Having a good education at home, he graduated from Moscow University, the first candidate for law school and immediately got the position of Secretary of the university board. Not so, however, was a nature Grigorieva, to firmly settle wherever they were. Having failed in love, he suddenly went to St. Petersburg, was trying to get a job and at the office decorum, and in the Senate, but, quite artistic relation to the service, quickly lost its. Around 1845. He strikes up relations with the Fatherland Notes', which puts a few poems, and with the repertoire and the Pantheon ". In the last journal, he wrote a series of little exciting articles in all kinds of literary labor: poems, critical essays, theatrical records, remittances and m. d. In 1846, Mr.. Grigoriev issued a separate book of his poems, encountered criticism as no more than a condescending. Subsequently Grigoriev bit already written original poetry, but a lot of translation: from Shakespeare ( "Midsummer Night's Dream," "The Merchant of Venice," "Romeo and Juliet"), from Byron ( "Parisina", excerpts from "Childe Harold" and others .), Moliere, Delavigne. Lifestyle Grigoryev for the entire stay in St. Petersburg was the most violent, and ill-fated Russian "weakness", the student graft rampant, more and more it captivated. In 1847, Mr.. he moved back to Moscow, becomes a teacher of jurisprudence in the 1-st Moscow school, actively cooperating in the "Moscow City Newssheet" and tries to settle down. Marriage to L.F. Korsch, sister of famous writers, briefly made him a man of proper lifestyle. In 1850, Mr.. Grigoriev arranged in Moskvityanin "and became the head of the remarkable circle, known as the" young editorial Moskvityanin ". Without any effort on the part of representatives of the "old version" - Pogodin and Shevyrov, . somehow by itself around their magazine met, . the expression Grigorieva, . "young, . bold, . drunk, . but honest and brilliant talents "circle of friends, . It was comprised of: Ostrovsky, . Pisemsky, . Almazov, . A,
. Potekhin, Crypt-Melnikov, Edelson, Mason, Nick. Berg, Gorbunov, etc.. None of them was Slavophil orthodox sense, but all of them "Moskvityanin" attracted by the fact that here they were free to base their social and political ideology on the foundation of Russian reality. Grigoryev was the chief theoretician and cup-bearer. In the fight with the St. Petersburg journals weapons opponents most often directed precisely against. This struggle Grigoryev was conducted on a principled basis, . but he usually answered on the basis of ridicule, . both because, . the Petersburg criticism, . in the interval between Belinsky and Chernyshevsky, . could not advance people, . capable of the ideological dispute, . and because, . Grigoriev that his exaggerations and eccentricities himself gave occasion to ridicule,
. Special mockeries caused him with nothing incongruous enthusiasm Ostrovsky, . which was not easy for him a talented writer, . A new herald of the truth "and which he commented on not only the articles, . but poems, . and very poor - for example, . "Elegy - ode - a satire:" Art and Truth "(1854), . caused by the submission of the comedy "Poverty Is No Crime,
. We love Tortsov no joke proclaimed here by the representative of "pure Russian soul" and raised in reproach "old Europe" and "America ode-young, the sick dog's old age". Ten years later, he Grigoriev horror recalled his outburst and the only thing she found justification in the "sincerity of feelings". Such tactless and extremely harmful to the prestige of ideas, they protected, Tricks Grigorieva was one of the characteristic phenomena of all his literary work and one of the reasons for his low popularity. And the more he wrote Grigoriev, the greater grew his unpopularity. In 1860 it reached its climax. With its foggy and confused arguments about "organic" method to such an extent he was not at court in an era of "the seductive clarity of the goals and aspirations that have over him and ceased to laugh, even stopped and read it. Big fan of talent Grigorieva and editor of "Time", . Dostoevsky, . indignantly remarking, . that the article does not directly cut Grigorieva, . friendship offered him once under the pseudonym, and although this is smuggled to draw attention to your Articles,
. In Moskvityanin "Grigoriev wrote before his termination in 1856, . then worked in the Russian Conversation ", . "Library for Reading", . original "Russian Word", . where there was a time one of three editors, . in "Russian World", . "Torch, . "Son of the Fatherland" Starchevsky, . Russian Messenger Katkov, . but firmly get him nowhere been,
. In 1861, Mr.. arose "Time" Dostoevsky brothers, and Grigoriev, he again entered onto the literary stage. As in "Moskvityanin, here grouped the entire circle of writers," natives "- fear, Averkiev, Dostoevsky and others - interconnected by common likes and dislikes, and personal friendship. By Grigoryev they are treated with sincere respect. Soon, however, he sensed, and in this environment, what the cold attitude to his mystic broadcasting, and he was in the same year moved to Orenburg, a teacher of Russian language and literature in the Cadet Corps. Not without the enthusiasm took g. the matter, but very rapidly cooled, and a year later returned to St. Petersburg and again began a disorderly life of literary Bohemia, to the seat in a debtors' prison inclusive. In 1863, Mr.. "Time" was banned. G. moved to the weekly "Anchor". He edited a newspaper and wrote theater reviews, unexpectedly enjoyed great success, thanks to the unusual animation, which g. introduced in reporterskuyu routine and dryness of theatrical marks. He analyzed the game of actors with the same care and with the same passionate enthusiasm, with which it related to other arts events. He, besides thin taste, showed great familiarity with German and French theorists of Performing Arts. In 1864, Mr.. "Time" is resurrected in the form of "Epoch. Grigoriev again undertakes the line "the first criticism, but not for long. Hard drinking, which passed directly into the physical, agonizing ailment, cracked powerful body Grigoriev: September 25, 1864. He died and was buried at Mitrofaniyevskom cemetery, next to the victim of the same wine - a poet Lev Mey. Scattered in different and largely malochitaemym magazine article Grigorieva were in 1876, Mr.. collected NN. Insurance in one volume. If successful, the publication is expected to issue further volumes, but the intention is still not done. Grigorieva unpopularity in the big audience, thus continuing. But in a close circle of people specifically interested in literature, the value Grigorieva significantly increased in comparison with its zagnannostyu in life. Writing any precise formulation of critical views Grigorieva difficult for many reasons. Clarity was never part of the critical talent Grigorieva, extreme confusion and darkness presentation vain to scare away the audience of his articles. Some indication of the main features of outlook Grigorieva hinders complete lack of discipline of thought in his articles. With the same carelessness with which he burnt physical strength, it spent its intellectual wealth, without taking the trouble to establish a definitive plan of articles, not having strength to resist the temptation to talk immediately about the issues encountered along the way. Due to the fact that a significant portion of its articles placed in the "Moskvityanin," "Time" and "Age", where things were headed by either himself or his friends, these items directly affect their carelessness. He himself knew very lyrical mess of his writings, he once described them as "careless article, written unbuttoned", but that he enjoyed as a guarantee of their complete "sincerity". For all his literary life he never met with any certainly explain his world. It was so unclear even his closest friends and admirers, . that his last article - "The Paradoxes of organic criticism" (1864) - as usual, . unfinished and treating about a thousand things, . except the main subject, . is a response to an invitation from Dostoevsky to present, . Finally, . critical profession de foi its,
. G. itself more and more willing to call his criticism of "organic", . in contrast to the camp as "theorists" - Chernishevsky, . Dobrolubova, . Pisarev, . and criticism from "aesthetic", . protects the principle of "art for art's sake, . and criticism of "historical", . by which he meant Belinsky,
. Belinsky g. was placed unusually high. He called him "immortal champion of ideas," with the great and powerful spirit "," with the kind of true genius'. But Belinsky saw art as merely a reflection of life and the very concept of life he was too direct and "goal is logical". According Grigoryev, . "Life is something mysterious and inexhaustible, . abyss, . absorbs any final reason, . immense expanse, . which often disappears, . as a wave in the ocean, . logical conclusion of any kind was clever head - something even ironic and yet full of love, . generates from itself the worlds of the worlds ..,
. Consistent with this "organic view recognizes the starting point for their creative, direct, natural, vitality. In other words: not one mind, with its logical requirements and generated by their theories and mind plus life and its organic manifestations ". However, the "snake position: that there is - it is reasonable to" Grigoriev strongly condemned. Slavophiles mystical admiration for the Russian national spirit, he acknowledged the "narrow" and only Khomyakova put high, . and that because, . that he was "one of the slavophiles thirst ideal combined astonishingly with faith in the infinity of life and therefore not rest on ideal'chikakh Konstantin Aksakov etc.,
. In the book of Victor Hugo on Shakespeare G. saw one of the most solid formulation of "organic" theory, followers of which he considered as Renan, Emerson and Carlyle. A initial, huge ore "organic theory, according to Grigoryev, -" the works of Schelling in all phases of its development ". Grigoriev proudly called himself a disciple of the "great teacher". From the adoration of the organic life force in its various manifestations follows conviction Grigorieva, . the abstract, . naked truth, . in its pure form, . available to us, . that we can master only true color, . expression of which can only be a national art,
. Pushkin is great is not one size of his artistic talent: he is great because they realize in himself a number of foreign influences into something quite independent. Pushkin was the first time isolated and clearly delineated "our Russian physiognomy, the true measure of our social, moral and artistic sympathies, a full description of the type of the Russian soul". With special love was stopped on the individual, therefore, G. Belkin, just almost not commented Belinsky, the "Captain's Daughter" and "Dubrovsky". With the same love he stayed at the Maxim Maximovich of "A Hero of Our Time" and the special hatred - on Pechorin as one of those "predatory" types, which are completely alien to the Russian spirit. Art, by its very nature, not just national - it is even locally. Any talented writer - there is inevitably "the voice of known soil, terrain, having the right to public life as a type, color, as the ebb, the shade". Summarizing thus the skill to almost bessozatelnomu creativity, Grigoriev did not like to even use the word: influence, as something too abstract and little spontaneous, and introduced a new term "trend". Together with Tyutchev Grigoriev said that nature is not cast, not heartless face "that directly and indirectly
It has a soul, it is freedom,
It is love, there is language.
Talents true covered by these organic "trends" and the tune is echoed them in their works. But since a truly talented writer is a spontaneous echo of organic forces, he must surely reflect some yet unknown aspect of the nation-organic life of the people, he should say "new word". Each writer, therefore, G. examined primarily in relation to that, he did say "new word". The most powerful "new word" in modern Russian literature, said Ostrovsky, he opened a new, unknown world to which it relates is not negative, but with deep love. The true value Grigoryeva - in the beauty of his own spiritual identity, a deeply sincere desire for limitless and bright ideal. Stronger than all confused and vague reasoning Grigorieva operates the charm of his moral being, which is a truly "organic" the penetration of the best beginnings of a high and lofty. Wed. about it "Age" (1864, N 8, and 1865, N 2); Vengerov Young Edition Moskovityanina "(Journal Europe", 1886, N 2); Shah Poroniants "Critic-exceptionalists" (St. Petersburg, 1899 ) A. Mikhailov A. Grigoriev (St. Petersburg, 1900); A. Grigoriev (son) "Lonely Critic" ( "Week", 1895, N 8 - 9); Vengerov Sources Dictionary of Russian Writers. S. Vengerov.

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