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Guriev Dmitry

( Graf - Minister of Finance in the 19 century)

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Biography Guriev Dmitry
photo Guriev Dmitry
(1751 - 1825). He was educated at home. He served in the Senate. His marriage to Countess Saltykova led him into the circle of the aristocracy. He joined the persons that surrounded the young Emperor Alexander I - Novosiltsev Kochubei and others - and thanks to their promotion in 1802. was appointed Deputy Minister of Finance, Count Vasiliev, and then got into management and the Department of principalities and became famous emperor. Nevertheless, after Vasiliev was appointed the Minister of Finance not Guriev and Golubtsov, which remained Guriev friend. He made friends with Sperdnski, unwilling to Golubtsova is not allowed, as they said, Sperdnski intervention in the financial department. At dismissal Golubtsova Guriev was appointed Minister of Finance, although the reviews of persons close to him knew, he "had a mind unwieldy, and it was difficult to maintain a balance considerations". The then financial position has been shaken by the whole of the previous economic and financial policies. Taking care of the maintenance of the external prestige of Russia and the expansion of its borders, the government paid little attention to the economic situation of the population, and cared little about finances while they are already in the XVIII century. everywhere became the subject of special care, and in England as finance minister was linked with the post of prime minister. Financial plan, drawn up with the participation Sperdnski Balugyanskogo, Jacob and others, was taken to a small circle of people who shared beliefs Speransky (Kochubei Mordvinov, Campenhausen and Guriev). Developed their draft was introduced in the State Council (1810), which was sharply criticized. Although approval of the plan and holding it in life prevented a lot, especially the fall Speransky and World War II, he nevertheless had a great influence on our subsequent financial legislation; him back in 1816, Mr.. The basis of the plan was laid recovery of metallic currency, a means to that was to serve as a balance state revenues and expenditures change historically established system of tax. The deficit in 1810, Mr.. assumed at 65 million rubles in circulation was 577 million rubles, have fallen by 70% against the nominal value. Meanwhile, had to maintain the combat readiness of a large army. It was necessary to resort to the jurisdiction of new taxes and increasing old. In 1810, Mr.. increased surplus% levy on merchants' capital, imposed taxes on farmers and traders with foreign craftsmen widespread poll-tax on the Circassians and the villagers of the Jews; duty with copper increased by 3 rubles per pood; put half-point levy on houses in the capitals, raised the price of salt, . and stamp duties, . bill, . with borrowing letters, . Passport potatory,
. All these measures led to dissatisfaction not so much against the Minister of Finance, as against Speransky. Revenues are not enough to meet the needs of the treasury, thus giving the finance minister had to resort to the introduction in 1812. new taxes: the percentage of income, is obscene or owners of estates, with the broker and merchant of books; duties with tea and beer. Increased the price of stamped paper, and its use extended to the province malorossiyskie, ostezeyskie and Lithuanian. World War II worsened our financial situation. The sources of emergency funds is the issuing bills, borrowing from state-owned banks, the amounts of the Cabinet, with and t. n. The growth of the economy is not going to level with the needs of the treasury. Under such conditions, it seems necessary to take measures to improve the economic situation in Russia. Under prevailing at that time in theory and practice of view, the most effective way to see support for industry by raising the customs tariff. Raising rates took place in 1810, followed by a change in 1816, Mr.. Rate 1818 g. was compiled in a free spirit, but acted only to 1821, when the government rejected him. In order to increase the export trade have been taken to promote the export of alcohol. Samoyu heavily from the economic-financial measures were Gurieva extraction from the circulation of bills (their total amount reached in 1817, Mr.. 836 million rubles), to raise much of their value had fallen. In these types of loans have been made: two internal indefinite worth 113 million rubles, and two outside of 83 million rubles. Withdrawn from circulation of banknotes was 236 million rubles. Expected results of this measure did not have and caused a sharp condemnation from the future successor Gurieva, E.F. Cancrinite, which managed, however, take the consequences of policies Gurieva. Due to the rapid growth of expenditure needed a new increase in income: in 1821. was changed position on the duties of the serfs in 1819, Mr.. introduced breech sale of wine in 20 provinces. Financial management was so poor, . that the Minister of Finance could not provide the State Council report on the completion of the state of painting for several years, these reports were submitted to the State Council, only management Kankrin,
. Neither the society nor the State Council Guriev trusted not to use all of its projects met with sharp opposition, mainly from the chairman of the Department of State Economy Mordvinova. Defender Gur'eva was powerful then Arakcheev, representing the emperor of Mordvinova in a false form of. When Guriev Arakcheeva lost support, he had to leave, in 1823, Minister. Among the measures taken during the administration Gurieva, belongs to another agency of state commercial bank, with the subordination of its Board of public credit statutes. Vl. Sudeikin.


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