Guchkov Alexander( Political activist)
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Biography Guchkov Alexander
Alexander Guchkov was born October 14, 1862, Mr.. in Moscow, in a family of merchants, known in business circles in Russia. Another of his great-grandfather, FA. Guchkov, belonged to the "merchant class". His father, Ivan Efimovich Guchkov, 60-ies. XIX century. a guild elder council of the Moscow merchant, . then - a member of the Moscow branch of the Council of Trade and Manufactures, . honorary magistrate Moscow, . served in the Moscow office of the State Bank, . elected to the elders of the Moscow Exchange Committee,
. His sons - twins Nicholas and Theodore, Alexander and Constantine - were successors to his case.
Alexander graduated from the 2-th Moscow gymnasium at Razgulyai - one of the largest and most prestigious secondary schools in the late XIX century. Where trained many well-known public figures of Russia, artists, writers, scientists. Tendency to humanities predetermined his further education. In the first half of the 80-ies. He graduated from the History and Philology of Moscow University, then studied in Berlin and Heidelberg University in Germany.
Even in Moscow University, he worked in a circle of young historians, lawyers and economists. It made their first lectures that later became prominent scientists: P.N. Miliukov, AA. Kiesewetter, SF. Fortunatov, AA. Manuilov, VF. Deryuzhinsky. However, the active nature Guchkov alone had little training in science. In 1888. He was elected an honorary magistrate in Moscow. In the early 90-ies. worked in the state of the governor of Nizhny Novgorod, in the Moscow city administration. From 1893 to 1897. was a member of the City Council in Moscow. With his active participation was completed the construction of water supply in Mytishchi and conducted the first stage of sewage. In 1894, Mr.. for the difference in service, he received his first award - the Order of St.. Anna III Art.
In 1895 - 1896 he. Guchkov visited the Ottoman Empire, has moved through Tibet. In the next three years he served as junior officers of the Cossack to protect hundreds of CEL in Manchuria, on horseback traveled through China, Mongolia, Central Asia. Volunteered to serve in the Boer War on the side of the Boers, where he was wounded and taken prisoner by the British. In 1903, Mr.. he visited Macedonia during the anti-Turkish uprising.
During the Russian-Japanese War 1904 - 1905 he. Guchkov was at the front as the representative of the Moscow City Duma and the Committee conducted. kn. Elizabeth Feodorovna, as well as Assistant glavnoupolnomochennogo Rossiyskogo Red Cross Society in the Manchurian army. Spring 1905. He was taken prisoner by the Japanese because they do not leave the wounded soldiers and stayed with them in the hospital.
In the revolutionary 1905. Guchkov emerged as one of the leading figures of the liberal movement. He participated in Zemstvo urban congresses. He became one of the leaders of the Right, "Shilovsky, minority. Participated in the creation of the Union of October 17, becoming its leader. Since 1906. was chairman of the party Central Committee, participated in all of its congresses and conferences, has become one of the ideologists Octobrism. Supporter of constitutional monarchy with a strong central executive, as well as - "one and indivisible" empire, he still recognized the right of individual peoples to cultural autonomy. Guchkov considered necessary to avoid sudden drastic political changes that, in his view, threatened the historical evolution of the country and could destroy Russia's statehood.
In 1907, Mr.. Guchkov III was elected to the State Duma, where he headed a faction Octobrists and the commission of the Duma Committee on Defense. From March 1910 to March 1911. was chairman of the State Duma. Initially, he supported the ongoing P.A. Stolypin reform. As a direct and uncompromising man, he often came into conflict with Duma deputies, can sometimes before the collision. So, he challenged to a duel P.N. Milyukova, fought with Count Uvarov. In several speeches, . on the activities of the Military Ministry, . Ministry of the Interior and the Synod, . it is extremely sharply criticized the grand dukes and Rasputin, . that caused the anger of the court camarilla, . and in particular to themselves emperor and empress,
. His denunciation of Rasputin called Alexandra Feodorovna simply pathological hatred. Nicholas II, according to VN. Kokovtsov sincerely glad Guchkov failure in the Duma elections in autumn 1912.
When the First World War, Guchkov as an authorized Rossiyskogo Red Cross Society is actively engaged in organization of hospitals and providing them with medicines, equipment and personnel, often went to the front. He was one of the founders and chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee, a member of the Special Meeting on national defense.
His popularity and influence in the war have increased dramatically. In September 1915. He was elected a member of the Council of State of Commerce and Industry of the Curia. War Guchkov finally convinced of the need for regime change. He spoke about it and 25 October 1915. at a meeting of the Presidium of the Progressive Bloc, brought together many leaders of the State Duma and State Council in opposition to the government. Mode favorites, magicians, clowns, "- so he called the ruling circles of Russia in 1915. Soon he came to think about whether a dynastic coup and the creation of the Ministry responsible to the Duma from the liberal politicians. However, he did not put the question of ending the war and did not offer a radical socio-economic reforms.
However, even the implementation of existing projects do not have enough time, but mainly Forces. Attempts Guchkov and his supporters to bring any of the senior officers to the plans for the removal of public affairs, Nicholas II did not succeed: the majority of the generals, even sympathetic to the idea of the coup, has flatly refused to take part in the conspiracy. Later he Guchkov noted that "Russian society in the face of their governing circles not conscious of the need of the coup and provided an opportunity for" blind natural forces: meet this painful operation "- the overthrow of the autocracy.
Sam Guchkov played a prominent role in the culminating act of monarchical drama in late February - early March, 1917. When the imperial power in the capital fell, he insisted that "rapidly and vigorously" to save the monarchy: not entering into any agreement to that effect with the Petrograd Soviet, go to Nicholas II in Pskov and bring abdication in favor of an heir ". March 2, together with VV. Shulgin, he arrived in Pskov; taking them, Nicholas II stated that "has decided to abdicate the throne: in favor of his brother Michael". 3 March, they were brought together in Petrograd an abdication. The former empress, becoming simply "citizen Romanova, especially indignant over the fact that the abdication took, among others, and Guchkov, seeing it as an act of" terrible humiliations ". (For this same reason, in exile on it will be quite attempt).
In the first part of the Provisional Government (2 March) Guchkov received the portfolio of military and naval minister. Observing the increasing chaos in the country, he considered it possible and necessary to implement stringent measures to suppress parallel to the Provisional Government authorities - Councils. But this tactic was not supported by the Cabinet of Ministers (except P.N. Milyukova), and on May 2, after "April" crisis of government, Guchkov resigned.
However, public activities, he does not have: a member of the State Conference in Moscow (August 1917), a member of the Interim Council of the Republic of Russia (Pre-parliament). He is ideologically, organizationally and financially supported general L.G. Kornilov in his preparation for decisive action to establish "order" in the country. After the Kornilov "rebellion" in August 1917. Guchkov was arrested in among the principal organizers and leaders, but a few days he was released.
He went first to Moscow and then in the autumn of 1917 - in Kislovodsk. In southern Russia, were among the accumulations of many "ex" who had built after the Bolshevik seizure of power different plans for the future, Guchkov longed above all "upsides" to the new rulers of Russia.
He was one of the first, in December 1917, gave $ 10 thousand. Rub. General M.V. Alexeyev, when he began to form the Volunteer Army.
Several times the Soviet authorities tried to arrest Guchkov. Spring 1918. He went underground, illegally hiding near Essentukov, and then moved to Ekaterinodar.
As an authorized delegation Rossiyskogo Red Cross Society at the Volunteer Army, he is actively developing its logistics. In Ekaterinodar he approached the general AI. Denikin, trying to understand himself and explain the reasons for the unpopularity of Denikin, the White Army in the people, the psychological problems among officers. In January 1919. at the request of Denikin, he left for Paris at the head of the special mission entrusted to negotiate with the governments of Western Europe on the provision of material assistance VSYUR.
His departure, in fact, became Guchkov emigration. On the way to France, he visited Turkey and Italy. In May, together with his former aide in the War Ministry, Lieutenant-General DV. Filatevym he made a presentation at a joint meeting of representatives of Russian emigre organizations and the Entente. At the talks in Paris with French President P. Poincare he tried to prove the need for increased financial and military assistance to the White armies.
Summer, he held talks with leaders of Britain. In a letter Denikin Guchkov noted that "by happy coincidence" led by the War Office should have. Churchill - a man fully understands the danger of Bolshevism and the world believes England "the only savior of Russia". "A man of strong will and a strong adventurous, infinitely ambitious, make Russian question springboard for a bold leap for power, but an unprincipled man, with a high degree of adventurism:" - so he characterized the Churchill. In general, however, he found that the intervention in Russia did not enjoy the support of the English people.
In his correspondence with Churchill Guchkov demanded the speedy application of deadly attack on Bolshevism, and mastery of Moscow and Petrograd. He offered to recruit volunteers in Bulgaria to fight the Soviet regime and to create an army of Russian prisoners who were abroad. Partly the result of his perseverance has been the provision in August 1919. British government financial assistance to the Government of the Russian North-West region, established with Yudenich in Revel (Tallinn).
Guchkov shared Churchill's views on the possibility to use in conjunction with the white army troops in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. He played an important role in the organization of transport from England to the territory of the Baltic countries of weapons and ammunition to the white.
In August 1920,. Guchkov briefly came to the Crimea to the general P.N. Wrangel. Between them established full understanding. Wrangell Guchkov considered one of the most "serious" Russian politicians in exile. When the Russian army of Wrangel evacuated from the Crimea to Turkey, Guchkov made great efforts to preserve it.
In February, 1921. in a letter to Wrangel Guchkov reported that he and other former members of the State Council and State Duma deputies decided to set up in Paris, Russian parliamentary committee for the protection of the "Russian cause" before the Western European governments. Such committees have appeared in Berlin, Istanbul, London. According Guchkov, they included people, "which shared a lot in the past that in the future diverge in their ways, but which at the moment paralyzed ardent love for the Motherland".
In 1921 - 1923 he. Guchkov was chairman of the Russian parliamentary committee. He tried not to miss any opportunity to fight the Soviets. However, it is rather strict attitude to the choice of allies and fellow travelers in this fight. Thus, he warned Wrangel from any contact with Captain gm. Kolchak Vladivostok. In January 1922. Wrangel proposed Guchkov mobilize emigre forces, mainly commercial and industrial and banking circles, to disrupt scheduled in Genoa economic negotiations with Soviet Russia. But this venture failed because of serious disagreements that existed among Russia's emigration.
In April 1922, Mr.. attempted to integrate the various emigrant trade and industrial groups. In Paris a meeting of their representatives. Guchkov, knowing the situation, did not appear to him. Brothers Ryabushinskys, speaking at the meeting, stressed that the basis for the future Russia will be the army, business class and the intelligentsia. It has puzzled Guchkov. He asked Wrangel in the letter: where are the workers and peasants? S.N. Tretyakov on the sidelines of the meeting stated that Russia can not become strong without the U.S. capital, and Wrangell for America is not a suitable candidate for the place of all-Russia leader. Riabushinskii, stating the location of the army, at the same time expressly requested not to claim money. Guchkov saw clearly that the Russian businessmen, immigrants are afraid to take any moral and material obligation, to compromise themselves coupled with Wrangel. Therefore, he advised Wrangel not establish strong ties, but did not break anyone.
In late 1922. Guchkov made the actual initiator of the coup in Bulgaria, . Considering this is the only way to save stationed there part of the Russian army (army of Wrangel, . outnumbered forces itself Bulgaria, . represented a serious danger to a reformist government,
. Stamboliyski, formed mostly of members of the Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union). Russian officers participated in the preparation of the coup, and 9 June 1923. Stamboliyski government was overthrown.
Since late as 1922. Guchkov insist on moving the center of gravity of the struggle against Bolshevism in Russia. He offered to "infiltrate" in Russia by all means: "individually, in groups, in the form of enterprise, trade, industrial, publishing, etc., that, in his view, was to help get the" leaders in the field ". Simultaneously, he emphasized the importance of terror, which can disrupt the Soviet government.
In May 1923. Lausanne white terrorists killed a Soviet diplomat, Bolshevik VV. Vorovsky. Swiss court has acquitted the killers. Behind the scenes, both before and after "all this staging" a very great activity showed Guchkov. He gathered with the help of intermediaries, some amount of money, instructed a group of emigrants on the compilation of "indictment" of Soviet power, which was supposed to speak at the trial of a Swiss lawyer T. Ober (according Guchkov, "a prominent founder of the Swiss fascism").
When the summer of 1924. initiated T. Aubert was created to combat III League International, which participated in the leadership of Russia's emigrants Guchkov called to assist the "white Internazionale Aubert.
Evaluating the situation in Russia, with the current transition to the NEP and the worsening after Lenin's death struggle in the top of the RCP (b), he thought it possible the establishment there of a military dictatorship. In his view, it could be a regime of military and civilian "special", perhaps - "right-wing Communists, to whom he attributed Trotsky, considering him" a man of realpolitik. According Guchkov, Trotsky had eliminated all chances of Stalin, with the Red Army, but lost that fight because of the slowness and hesitation.
Anti-Bolshevik struggle was one of the main activities Guchkov in exile. In correspondence with P. Sorokin he requested to find in America people or organizations that can help in this matter. In 1927, Mr.. Western anti-Soviet campaign intensifies. This was facilitated by the British government, speaking in February with the accusations against the Soviet. In April, in a letter to P.B. Struve Guchkov posed the problem as specific as: "physically destroy the ruling of a handful of Kremlin". And identify ways to: "a collective political murder". He considered it justified in terms of morality and patriotism, and for reasons of expediency. He advised to establish connection with the "fighters" in Russia, if not their peers, but simply fellow travelers, to help people, what has emigration: drugs, relationships, authority. At the same time, he bitterly admitted helplessness, feebleness of emigrants, their lack of burning and readiness to sacrifice.
Emigration Guchkov away from political organizations. Moreover, it is very strongly guarded its political independence. This, according to Milyukova, caused more than distrust. But he Guchkov admitted that it "simply not enough".
He criticized European governments for the recognition of the Soviet government and commitment to economic cooperation with the USSR. To counteract this initiative Guchkov Information Office was established at "Russian Economic Bulletin" in Paris. It was to collect information about the economic situation in the USSR and deliver this information to interested individuals and organizations. The bureau, together with AI. Guchkov included: NI. Guchkov, N.D. Avksent'ev, N.A. Bazili, A.P. Bogaevsky, VM. Zenzinov, AV. Kartashov, AI. Konovalov, S.N. Tretyakov, S.E. Troubetzkoy, NS. Timashev other.
In 1931, Mr.. the initiative of scientists at Stanford University in the U.S. published a book GY. Socolinicova "Financial Policy of Soviet Russia" that cover the new economic policy and the success of monetary reform in the USSR. It caused a great resonance in the West. And Guchkov, . seeking to "right the wrongs, . which has done book, . asked the Russian emigres in the United States to find the strength and means for publishing a book of alternative, . where advised to include materials 1-st Soviet Five-Year Plan, . in which he saw "the whole meaning of Russian communism",
Guchkov, living first in Germany and then in France, participated in many all-Russian congresses, often traveled to countries, where compatriots, he worked in the Directorate of Foreign Rossiyskogo Red Cross Society. In the early 30-ies. He spearheaded the coordination of aid to the starving in the USSR.
Stock famine relief was one of the largest among the Russian emigration. March 26, 1934, Mr.. initiative Guchkov General Directorate Rossiyskogo Red Cross appealed to Russian emigres to help the people of the USSR. By this time he worked in Yugoslavia, the Main Committee for Famine Relief to Soviet Russia, . Germany created an alliance of Germanic subjects - immigrants from Russia and Ukrainian Committee for Famine Relief, . Austria emerged Committee for Famine Relief in Soviet Union,
. In May 1934. Paris meeting took place, aiming to create a special body to coordinate aid to the starving. It was attended by representatives of about 20 emigre organizations - professional, women's, youth, artists, etc.. At the same time, a number of organizations, Russian emigrants declined to participate in the meeting under various pretexts. All this is indicative of serious contradictions within the emigration in relation to the USSR. The Meeting agreed to coordinate the activities of all participating organizations, based on the principles of humanism and mercy.
Guchkov constantly and with a keen attention to studying all the information about the situation in the USSR, monitored the situation among Russia's emigration, analyzed the ratio of the leading politicians of the West to the Soviet government, especially T. Roosevelt. He led an active correspondence, published numerous articles, made various records and information on these issues.
Russia, emigration, and Guchkov including, anxiously watching the developments in Germany after Hitler came to power. Guchkov saw the threat of another war. As the spring of 1917, he was convinced of the approaching another world cataclysm. True, he hoped common sense Germanic industrialists and financiers, the fact that they can "hide" Hitler's own. Many immigrants felt that Guchkov exaggerates the danger. Guchkov told that they only lull themselves with dreams and hopes for the preservation of peace. "It's not that there would be war or not, this dilemma is not! - He declared. - In fact, the war has already taken on the political map of the world its fateful place. There is also no doubt that the new basic and unavoidable conflict of the main opponents will be the Soviet Union and Germany ". But the question of which side should be Russia's emigration to the war, he went from.
By the beginning of 30-ies. Guchkov became one of the most serious rossievedov in the West. Their information and their conclusions, he directed the governments and parliaments of the countries of Western Europe, he corresponded with prominent politicians: D. Doumergue, K. Kramar and other.
Soviet intelligence agencies, which managed to penetrate the military and political centers of emigration, acutely interested in the activities of Guchkov and his entourage. Soviet scouts were able to recruit his daughter Vera. Apparently, she went to cooperate with them not for material reasons, but for ideological: her husband, an Englishman P. Trail, was a Communist, fought in Spain against the fascists and died there in 1937. He could play a role and a deep patriotism, which is characteristic for all Guchkovs: many immigrants saw as the positions of the Soviet Union on the world stage as their homeland again goes into the category of leading world powers. In the late 30-ies. In the midst of repression, she visited the Soviet Union. According to reports, it has saved itself from the arrest of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs NI. Ezhov, forcing her to leave. (Soviet victory in World War II had convinced her of the correctness of his choice, and she wrote a book full of praise for the USSR and Stalin. With special gratitude she remembered Jeе+owe. Only the 60-ies. it will gradually become disillusioned with the communist ideology. Died VA. Guchkov in 1986, was buried in the cemetery in Cambridge, UK).
Winter 1935. Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov health has deteriorated, but he was not before treatment. He agreed to take the medication, but refused to go into hospital, because it meant for him to break the usual way of science. Only in October 1935. he agreed to undergo examination. Doctors Hospital Busik identified his bowel cancer. He experienced severe pain and therefore did not cease activity. He even moved to a private hospital Mirabeau, where he was freer. He dictated the letter, talking on the phone (on the bedside table was a phone), talked with visitors. Diagnosis of concealed from him, and Guchkov was convinced of the fast recovery. He even put a condition to doctors: "I need to be able to work. This - my condition. Existence without work, I do not need ".
And in the last months of life AI. Guchkov continued to ponder the question: whether it was inevitable revolution and civil war in Russia? He believed that to avoid them little chance because of the "weak monarch" and undermine the moral foundations of the ruling class. He wrote the memoirs, but they were left unfinished:
Guchkov died in Paris on February 14, 1936, according to Milyukova, "solitary, taciturn, among strangers, and not quite figured out". Memorial liturgy was held in the church of Alexander Nevsky. It was attended by almost all the prominent representatives of emigration. And the "left" and "right" policy, military, writers and artists came to honor his memory: N.D. Avksent'ev, MA. Aldanov, V.L. Burtsev, M.V. Vishnyak, Prince aq. Golitsyn, Prince VV. Vyazemsky, R.B. Gul, AI. Denikin, P.N. Miliukov B.I. Nikolaevka, NV. Plevitskaya and many others. Guchkov body was cremated and the urn containing the ashes is installed in the columbarium at the cemetery Pere Lachaise in Paris.
Guchkov AI. Collection of speeches in the Third State Duma (1907 - 1912). SPb., 1912. AI. Guchkov says. M., 1993.
Rodzianko M.V. The collapse of the empire. 2 ed. L., 1929.
Kerensky п-.пг. AI. Guchkov / / Modern notes. 1936. ? 60.
VV Shulgin. Days / VV Shulgin. Days. 1920. M., 1989.