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Dal Vladimir Ivanovich

( famous lexicographer)

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Biography Dal Vladimir Ivanovich
photo Dal Vladimir Ivanovich
Born November 10, 1801, Mr.. Ekaterinoslav in the province, in the Lugansky works (hence the nickname Dahl: Kazak Lugansk). Father was a Dane, versatile educated linguist (he knew even Hebraic language), theologian and physician, mother - a German woman, the daughter Freytag, the Russian translation of Gesner and Iflanda. Dahl's father had Russian citizenship, and in general was an ardent Russian patriot. After graduating from the course in the Marine Corps, Dal several years he served in the navy, but without making the sea, resigned and entered the University of Dorpat, who graduated from medical faculty. Hiking his life as a military doctor, brought him to the inhabitants of different regions of Russia, and materials for the future "Explanatory Dictionary", which he began to gather early, all grew. In 1831, Mr.. Dal was involved in the campaign against the Poles, and distinguished himself at the ford across the Vistula at Ridiger Yuzefova: in the absence of an engineer, Dahl brought a bridge, defended him at the crossing and then he destroyed it. Superiors, he was reprimanded for failure to perform their regular duties, but the Emperor Nicholas I awarded him the Order. After the war, Dahl joined an intern in the St. Petersburg Military Hospital and the land became close to Pushkin, Zhukovsky, Krylov, Gogol, linguistic, Prince Odoyevsky. His first literary experience ( "Russian Fairy Tales. The first Good Friday, St Petersburg, 1832 - retelling of folk tales) found his ethnographic inclinations. This book had brought trouble to the author. On a tip-off Buе-haryn it was banned, and Dahl was taken in compartment III, but on the same day released through the intercession of Zhukovsky. Nevertheless Dal long time could not publish anything under your name. For seven years he served in Orenburg, during this time accompanied in 1837. heir (later Emperor Alexander II) in his trip to the edge and was involved in an accident Khiva expedition in 1839, Mr.. In 1836, Mr.. He came to St. Petersburg and was present at the death of Pushkin, from whom he received his ring-talisman. All this time, Dahl did not leave and medicine, especially ophthalmology addict and homeopathy (one of the first Russian articles in defense of homeopathy belong Dahl: "Contemporary", 1838, N 12). In 1834 - 1839 he. he released "There were tall tales". In 1838, Mr.. Dahl was selected (for their natural and historical works) in the corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, in 1841, Mr.. appointed Secretary to the LA,. Perovskoy, assistant minister of principalities, and then headed (privately) his special office as Minister of Internal Affairs, and together with H. Milyutin made and entered "city regulations in St. Petersburg. During this time he published the article: "One and a half words of the current Russian language" ( "Moskvityanin", . 1842, . I, . N 2) and "Nedovesok" to this article (ibid., . Part V, . N 9), . brochures on skopcheskoy heresy "(1844, . rarity) and "On the Jews slew of Christian children" (1844), . novel "The Adventures of H.H,
. Violdamura and Arsheta "(1844). In 1846, Mr.. came "Kozak edition of Luhansk". At the same time, Dahl was for the military establishments textbooks of botany and zoology, and published several novels and essays in the "Library for Reading", . Fatherland Notes, . Moskvityanin and collection Bashutskogo "Our", . including articles on Russian proverbs ( "Contemporary", . 1847, . Book 6), . On beliefs, . superstitions and prejudices of the Russian people "(" Pictures ", . 1845 - 46, . 2 nd Edition, . St.Petersburg, . 1880),
. From 1849 to 1859, Mr.. He was manager of the unit of the Nizhny Novgorod office, which gave him an opportunity to gather diverse ethnographic material. During this time, published articles and essays Dahl: "The Russian dialects" (Journal of the Imperial Geographical Society, . 1852, . Book 6, reprinted in the "Explanatory Dictionary"); "sailors 'leisure', . written on behalf of the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich (St. Petersburg, . 1853); a series of articles about the dangers of a literacy without education ( "Russian Conversation", . 1856, . Book III; "Fatherland Notes, . 1857, . Book II; "St.-Petersburg Vedomosti, . 1857, . N 245) and a series of essays (100) of Russian life (a separate publication: "Paintings of Russian life", . St.Petersburg, . 1861),
. In the Lower Dal prepared for publication "Proverbs" and brought to the processing of the dictionary letter P. After moving to Moscow, Dahl began to appear in the light of his "Dictionary" (1 st edition, 1861 - 68, second edition, St. Petersburg, 1880 - 82 and 3rd edition, edited by Professor IA. Baudouin de Courtenay, St. Petersburg, 1903 - 1909) and published another major work life Dahl: "Proverbs of the Russian people" (Moscow, 1862, 2 nd edition, St. Petersburg, 1879). During this time appeared in print essays and articles Dahl: "Complete Works" (St.-Petersburg, . 1861; 2 nd Edition, . St.Petersburg, . 1878 - 84); "Tale" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1861), "The Soldiers' leisure" (2 nd Edition, . St.Petersburg, . 1861), "Two forty byvalschinok for the peasants" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1862); note on Russian dictionary ( "Russian Conversation", . 1860, . N 1); controversy with Pogodin of foreign words and Russian spelling ( "Russian", . 1868, . N 25, . 31, . 39, . 41),
. In 1868, Mr.. Dahl elected an honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences (cm. detailed analysis of the Grotto, Schrenk and Ruprecht in the record of the 4 th Lomonosov Prize award, an application to XVII T. Memoirs of the Imperial Academy of Sciences ", 1870; article AN. Pypin in the Journal of Europe ", . 1873, Book 12 Kotlyarevskogo in "Conversations Lovers Society of Literature of Russia", . 1868, . Issue 2; notes Nikoliд+ "Philological Notes", . Voronezh, . 1871, . N 6, . 1875 - N 3, 1876 - N 2; additions and notes Shane: application to XXV t,
. Memoirs of the Imperial Academy of Sciences ", 1873, and Naumov, St. Petersburg, 1874). Assembled them lyrics Dal gave Kireevsky, fairy tales - Afanasyev. Rich, while the best collection of paintings lubok Dahl arrived in the Imperial Public Library and subsequently entered in the publication Rovinsky. In the last years of life Dahl carried away and svedenborgianstvom spiritualism, engaged in transcription of the first books of the Bible in the vulgar language ( "chronicles"; cm. his story in his memoirs Melnikov), printed a new "Pictures of Russian life" in the Russian Messenger (1867 - 68). Died Sept. 22, 1872, taking more in 1871. Orthodoxy (until then was a Lutheran). Materials biography Dahl: Article II. B. "VI. Dal "(" Russian Archive ", 1872, N 10), an autobiographical note by Dahl (not finished yet, the same, N 11)," Memories of VI. Dale (with the recovery of his letters and the other full autobiographical note), YA.K. Groth ( "Notes of the Imperial Academy of Sciences", 1873, Volume XXII); "From the memoirs of the late VI. Dale "(" Church Chronicle ", 1873, N 37)," Memories of Dale "PI. Melnikov (Russian Messenger, 1873); Biography Maximova, a detailed bibliography in the Reference encyclopedic dictionary "Starchevsky (St. Petersburg, 1855, Volume IV);" Blogs T.G. Shevchenko ( "Basis", 1861 - 62) and AV. Nikitenko ( "Russian Antiquities", 1889 - 90); "Dal, according to the memoirs of his daughter, E. D. "(" Russian Messenger ", 1879, N 7). Detailed Biography Dahl is still no. The most complete characterization of the Dal - y AN. Pypin, "History of Russian Ethnography" (Volume I); about his attitude towards the peasant question cm. y VI. Semevsky ( "peasant question", Volume II, page. 273 - 278). The primary importance Dahl - as a collector, an ethnographer. Neither the Marine Corps, nor the faculty of medicine could not give him adequate scientific training, and he remained to the end of amateur self-taught. At its present path Dahl came purely by instinct, and to collect materials he went first, without any specific scientific purposes. Only a personal relationship to the writers Pushkin's era, as well as to Moscow Slavophiles, set specific goals of its activities. In nature, Dahl, despite the natural history education received in the Tartu University, there was something prevented him from making a calm and precise scientist. The reason for this was partly restless wandering life, . partly a tendency to poetic creativity, . partly, . perhaps, . Some indigenous, . Organic lack all spiritual stock Dahl (remember his enthusiasm homeopathy, . spiritualism, . Swedenborg and t,
. etc.). His dictionary, a monument enormous personal energy, hard work and perseverance, is valuable only as a rich collection of raw material, vocabulary, and ethnographic (different explanations of rituals, beliefs, cultural objects and m. etc.) are not always reliable. Dahl could not understand (cm. his polemic with AN. Pypin at the end of IV t. Dictionary), which links to another "Russian ear, the" spirit of language "," on the world, the whole Rus ", if it is impossible to prove," whether in print, who and where I say "kind words" allowances "," posobka "(from" manual ")," kolozemitsa "," kazotka "," glazoem and T. etc., do not prove anything and the value of the material does not elevate. The characteristic of the Dahl's words: "From time immemorial the grammar, I was in a kind of dysfunctional, unable to apply it to our language and estranged from her not so much on common sense, but by some dark sense that she is not misled, and t. d. (Naputnoe slovo to the Glossary). This discord Dal with grammar could not affect his vocabulary, which is located on the etymological system of "nest" in a reasonable manner, but had not afford Dahl. Due to this he had "pole" (borrowed from the German "Deichsel") stands in relation to the "blowhole", "breathe", "space" - with "simple" and t. d. Nevertheless Dictionary Dahl is still a unique and valuable tool for everyone dealing with the Russian language. Dahl is one of the first was also engaged in Russian dialectology, and was an excellent practical connoisseur of Russian dialects, . knew how to two or three spoken words to determine the residence of the speaker, . but I could never take advantage of this knowledge and give a scientific description of whom he knew dialectical features,
. As a writer, novelist Dahl is now almost completely forgotten, although at the time of his highly placed admirers, such as Belinsky and Turgenev. Many of his novels and short stories suffer from a lack of this art, deep feeling and a broad perspective on the people and life. More home pictures, . captured on the fly jokes, . told by a kind of language, . briskly, . vividly, . well-known sense of humor, . sometimes fall into mannerism and pribautochnost, . Dahl did not go, . and its main merit in this area is wide use of ethnographic material,
. His prices are some of ethnographic essays Dahl not lost and still. S. Bulich.

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