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DANILEVSKY Nikolai Yakovlevich

( publicist, scientist and practitioners in the field of national economy)

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Biography DANILEVSKY Nikolai Yakovlevich
1822 - 1885) - publicist, . naturalist and practitioners in the field of national economy, . in the main his literary work "Russia and Europe presented the special theory of Pan-Slavism, . which forms a connecting link between the ideas of old and emerging slavophiles lacks definite principles of nationalism,
. Native of the province of Orel, the son of the honored general Danilevsky educated at the Alexander Lyceum, and then he was an auditor at the Faculty of Natural Sciences at St. Petersburg University. Being engaged in specially botany, he nevertheless enthusiastically studied the socialist system of Fourier. He holds a Master's candidate, and to withstand the test, he was in 1849. arrested in the case Petrashevsky. After 100 days in the Peter and Paul Fortress, . He presented a note vouchers, . which has proved its political innocence, . and was released from court, . but expelled from St. Petersburg and is defined in the Office of the First Vologda, . and then the governor of Samara, in 1853, Mr.,
. He was sent to a scientific expedition, . under the command of the famous Baer, . for the study of fishing on the Volga and Caspian Sea, . in 1857, . ranked among the Department of Agriculture, . He was sent to the same research on the White Sea and Arctic Ocean,
. After this expedition, which lasted three years, he made many of the same, but less significant, trips to various edges Russia. Danilevsky produced the current legislation on the part of fishing in all waters of European Russia. By purchasing an estate on the southern coast of Crimea, Danilevsky joined energetic fight against phylloxera. Main work Danilevskii "Russia and Europe", first printed in the journal "Zarya". First separate edition (erroneously shows the second) came out in 1871, the second (erroneous 3rd) in 1888 and the third (wrongly 4-e) in 1889. Another extensive work Danilevsky, "Darwinism", appeared in 1885. In two thick books (which after the death of the author has attached additional issue) Danilevsky puts Darwin's theory with a detailed analysis predpostavlennoy to prove its complete futility and absurdity. This criticism, resulted in enthusiastic praise NN. Strakhov, unconditional supporter Danilevsky, expert naturalists generally reacted negatively. In hot attack by well-known botanist, professor of Moscow Timiryazev came into sharp debate with Mr. Insurance, Danilevskii essay was reviewed by academics and Famintsynym Karpinsky. First, . having reviewed the entire book chapter by chapter, . comes to the following conclusions: "Among the objections cited them, . relatively very few belong to the author of Darwinism, the vast majority of, . and, moreover, the most compelling, . more or less claimed were his predecessors (the specified Naegeli, . Agassiz, . Baer, . Katrfazh and in particular three-volume essay Wiegand); Danilevsky they only circumstantially developed and supported by new examples of places ..,
. "Book Danilevsky I consider useful to zoologists and botanists, it collected all the objections made by Darwin and places of interest scattered evidence for which science will remain grateful Danilevsky". Academician Karpinsky, . sorting out of Paleontology Darwinism, . it gives the following assessment: "The author can be regarded as an outstanding man of mind and very diverse and significant knowledge, but in the field of geology the attention of his, . often embracing even the details, . not deprived and major gaps,
. Without a doubt, this circumstance, as well as a bias that was established even before considering the geological side, the belief in the injustice of the theory of evolution was the reason that Danilevsky came to a conclusion with which we can not agree "(see. Journal Europe ", 1889, Book 2). Composing Danilevsky submitted to the Academy of Sciences for the prize, was awarded her.
Besides the two mentioned books Danilevsky published in various periodicals many articles on the part of his specialty, part journalistic nature. Some of them were published NN. Insurance in 1890, entitled: "Collection of political and economic articles N.YA. Danilevskii; there, and a detailed list of all their written. The main view is the author of "Russia and Europe", which, incidentally, he does not hold with perfect consistency, is very different from the mindset of former Slavophiles. Those maintained, . that the Russian people have a world-historical mission, . as the true bearer of universal final education; Danilevsky, . opposite, . denying all common human task in the history, . believes Russia and the Slavs only particular cultural and historical type, . but the most extensive and complete,
. Seeing in humanity just an abstract concept, . devoid of any real value, . and at the same time challenging the conventional division: geographical (in parts of the world) and historical (ancient, . average and a new story), . Danilevsky, . as well as the German historian Heinrich Rц+ckert, . presented as the real carriers of the historical life of several separate "natural groups", . he, . as named by the foreign, . denotes the term "cultural-historical types",
. Every tribe or family of nations, . characterized by specific language or language group very close to each other in order, . that the affinity of their felt directly, . without deep philological research, . is an original cultural and historical type, . if any, on their spiritual deposit is capable of historical development and have already appeared from infancy,
. Such types, . already appeared in the history, . Danilevsky has 10: Egyptian, . Chinese, . Assyrian-Babylonian-Phoenician [also known as Chaldean or drevnesemitichesky], . Indian, . Iranian, . Jewish, . Greek, . Roman, . neo-Semitic, . or Arabian, . and Germanic-Romance, . or European,
. Russia to form a new Slavs, who would soon emerge cultural-historical type, quite distinct and separate from Europe. These no doubt, by Danilevsky, natural groups he considers two more dubious type (American and Peruvian), "died a violent death and who had not managed to make its development". With regard to the new America, then its value is not revealed to Danilevskogo, and he hesitates to admit whether it or not, for generating a particular cultural-historical type. - The beginning of civilization, a cultural-historical type does not convey to the people of another type: each type produces it for themselves, with greater or lesser influence of alien civilizations preceding or contemporary. Such influence Danilevsky permits only in the sense of "soil fertilizer, all the same educational and determining the impact of alien spiritual principles he denies absolutely. - All the cultural and historical types are equally original and of themselves found its contents of his historical life, but not all exercise is content with the same completeness and versatility. Danilevsky, . as Rц+ckert (although in a somewhat different distribution), . recognizes four general level of cultural and historical activities: activities of religious, . proper culture (science, . Arts, . industry), . political and socio-economic,
. Some historical types of concentrating their forces at one of those areas (because the Jews - the name of religion, . Greeks - the culture in the narrow sense), . others - showed itself at once in two or three directions, but only Russia and the Slavs, . of belief Danilevskii, . given uniformly to develop all four areas of human activity and to exercise full "chetyrehosnovnuyu" culture,
.
Recognizing the humanity of an empty abstraction, Danilevsky sees in the cultural-historical type of university and a final for us an expression of social unity. If that group, . he says, . which we attach the name of cultural and historical type, . and there is absolutely supreme, . it, . anyway, . the highest of all those, . interests may be conscious for the person, . constitutes, . hence, . ultimate limit, . to which can and should extend the subordination of the lower interest higher, . private donation to the general objectives,
. - "The interest of humanity" is a meaningless term for a man, whereas the word "European interest" is not an empty word for a Frenchman, a German, an Englishman. Likewise, Russian and any other Slav "idea Slavs must be the idea, above freedom, above science, higher education". In this last word Danilevskii theory is its self-condemnation. Since every culture lies precisely in the development of science, education, true freedom and t. etc., in addition to those higher interests which have universal significance, the supposed "the idea of Slav" limited to the ethnographic characteristics of this tribe. Forgetting, . that cultural-historical type of need is culture, . Danilevsky exposes some Slavs an und fur sich, . recognizes the supreme principle feature of most of the tribe, . regardless of the historical problems and cultural content of his life,
. Such an unnatural separation of ethnographic forms of their universal content could only be done in the field of abstract reasoning, when comparing the same theory with actual historical facts, it appeared to them in opposition,
. History knows no such cultural types, which are exclusively for themselves and from themselves cultivating educational beginning of its life. Danilevsky exhibited as a historic law Nontransferability cultural began - but the real movement of history is primarily in the transfer. So, . originating in India, Buddhism was referred to the peoples of the Mongolian race and set himself the spiritual nature and cultural-historical fate of the entire East and North Asia, the mingled peoples of the Near East and North Africa, . constituted, . on Danilevsky, . several distinct cultural-historical types, . assimilated first began raising Hellenism, . then the Roman citizenship, . furthermore, . Christianity is a religion, and finally the Arabian prophet, Christianity, . yavivsheesya among the Jewish people, . even in two hours had violated the supposed "historical law", . because he first gave the Jews this religion to the Greek and Roman world, . then these two cultural-historical type once again made such an illegitimate transfer of two new types: the Roman and Germanic, Slavic, . prevented them to fulfill the requirement of the theory and establish their own religious beginning,
. Religious differences within Christianity itself is also not consistent with the theory, . For one of Danilevsky Germanic-Romanic world is divided between Catholicism and Protestantism, . and the Slavic world - the same between Catholicism and Orthodoxy, . which had also been formulated by the Slavs, . but is entirely taken from Byzantium, . t,
. e. from another, alien cultural and historical type. - In addition to these private contradictions, . theory of individual cultural and historical groups are at odds with the overall direction of world-historical process, . consisting in a sequential increase (ekstenzivnom and intenzivnom) real (though half unaccountable and involuntary) of solidarity between all parts of the human race,
. All these parts are currently, . despite national enmity, . religious and Class, . live a common life, . by virtue of the actual fatal connection, . is expressed, . first, . in their knowledge of each other, . What was in antiquity and the Middle Ages, . secondly, . - In continuous political relations, . scientific, . trade and finally in the involuntary economic cooperation, . through which any industrial crisis in the United States immediately recognized in Manchester and Calcutta, . in Moscow and in Egypt,
.
Logical support for his theory Danilevsky thinks to find in a completely erroneous discrimination of the genus and species. Mankind, in his opinion, is the genus, t. e. abstract concept that exists only in generalizing thought, while cultural-historical type, tribe, nation, the essence of the concept of species that correspond to the reality. But logic does not allow such antithesis. Genus and species are relative concepts, which express only a relatively degree of commonality conceivable subjects. What is the genus in relation to one, there is a view in relation to another. Mankind is born to families and look to the world of living beings, just as the Slavs is the kind of respect for humanity and the race for the Russian or the Polish nation, . which, . in turn, . can be regarded as a genus in relation to closer groups, . her embrace,
. In terms of empirical realism "man in general" there is only an abstract concept, not the object that exists in reality, but it just does not exist in reality and European in general, "" Slavs in general ". Moreover, it is not about the general concept of "man", . but about humanity, . as a unified whole, . and if you can deny the reality of this whole, . it is only in the same sense and on the same grounds, . which have the force and against the reality of tribal and national groups,
. In terms of ethical, . recognize the extreme limit of human responsibility and the highest goal of our cultural and tribal group, . to which we belong, . as something more concrete and specific as compared with humanity - it means for a consistent mind-free way to open any further lowering of moral demands,
. The interests of national (in the narrow sense) is much more specific, . clearly defined and the interests of a cultural-historical type (even assuming the actual existence of such), just as certainly, . that the interests of any class, . class or party is always defined and specific national interests, and finally, . no doubt there can be, . that for all his personal selfish interests are with all the clearest possible, . most certain, . and if these properties determine the range of moral, . then we will have no other duties, . as only think about themselves,
.
In the statement of his view on the history Danilevsky put a special excursion on the impact of ethnicity on the development of science. Here he seems to forget about his theory, instead of speaking on the expression of cultural-historical types in the scientific field, is only indicated on the impact of different national characters: English, French, German, and t. d. Differences in the development of every science several major powers (an artificial system, . empirical laws, . rational law), . Danilevsky found, . that scientists are certain nationality mostly able to build science in one way or another a degree,
. These generalizations are, however, only approximately correct, and assigned Danilevsky rules are the same exceptions, and how many cases of. In any case, this issue is not in any direct relation to the theory of cultural-historical types. Occupy a considerable part of the book Danilevskii arguments about the decline of Europe and of the distinctive features of Russia (Orthodoxy, the community and t. etc.), does not represent anything new compared to what was suggested earlier Slavophiles. More original for the time, . when the book appeared, . political views Danilevskii, . which he summarizes in the following words: "In continuation of this book, we always hold the thought, . that Europe is not only something alien to us, . even hostile, . that its interests not only can not be our interests, . but in most cases directly opposed to them ..,
. If it is impossible and dangerous to remove themselves from European affairs, . it is quite possible, . useful and even necessary to look at these things always and continuously with our special Russian point of view, . applying to them as the sole Criterium assessment: what relationship may be one or the other event, . drain line, . one or the other activities of influential individuals to our special Russian-Slavic goals, as they may be a barrier or facilitating imN to indifferent in this respect to persons and events that we must remain completely indifferent, . as if they lived and took place on the moon, so, . which may bring us closer to our goal, . should strive to promote and fully resist to, . which can serve as an obstacle to her, . not paying the slightest attention to them regardless of value - at, . what are the implications for Europe itself, . for mankind, . for freedom, . for civilization,
. Without hate, without love (for in this alien world, nothing can, and should not initiate any of our sympathy, . neither our antipathies), . indifferent to the red and white, . to demagoguery and despotism, . of legitimacy to the revolution and, . the Germans and the French, . to the British and the Italians, . Napoleon, . Bismarck, . Gladstone, . Garibaldi, . - We must be faithful friend and ally to, . who want and can contribute to our united and unwavering goal,
. If the price of our alliance and friendship we make a step forward towards the liberation and unification of the Slavs, . approaching Constantinople, . - Not quite for us anyway, . kupyatsya whether this price Egypt France or England, . Rhine frontier - French or vogezskaya - Germans, . Belgium - Napoleon or Holland - Bismarck ..,
. Europe is not accidental, but essentially hostile to us, therefore, only when it is at enmity with itself, can it be safe for us ... It is the balance of political forces in Europe is harmful and even fatal for Russia, and violation of his whoever that may be of benefit and blessing ... We must, therefore, dismiss the thought of any kind was solidarity with the European interests ". The object for which we should, Danilevsky, get rid of all human feelings toward foreigners and to educate himself and to his odium generis humani - lies in the formation of Slav federation, with Constantinople as its capital. In drawing up the plan of this federation, . gave him some popularity in the literary and political circles of Bohemia and Kroatsii, . Danilevsky greatly facilitated his task: one of the main Slavic peoples doomed them to complete abolition, . for betraying the future of cultural-historical type, but the members of the Slavic federations should be "willy-nilly" to make three non-Slavic peoples: Greeks, . Romanians and Hungarians,
. This plan, based on the partition of Austria and Turkey, realized after a fierce struggle between Russia and the European Coalition, predvodimoy French, our only ally in Europe will Prussia. - "Russia and Europe, we have gained fame and became the subject only after the death of the author, thanks to the coincidence of the basic ideas of the prevailing public mood. Supporters Danilevsky, . contributed to the success of his book outside, . have not done anything for internal development and the development of his historical views, . probably, . due to the inability to reconcile these views with the actual content of world history,
. Critical theory dismantled Danilevskii: Schebalsky, Academician Bezobrazov, Professor Kareev, Vl. Solovyov Miliukov; unconditional apology it appeared repeatedly N. Strakhov; Danilevsky had a strong influence on attitudes to. Leontief, which recognized him as one of their teachers
. Regardless of the evaluation of its historical and journalistic work, . must establish Danilevsky rights to think independently, . strongly convinced, . upright in expressing their thoughts and having a modest, . but indisputable achievements in the field of natural science and the economy,
. Vl. Soloviev.


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