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Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova

( princess, the president of Russia Academy of)

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Biography Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova
photo Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova
Born March 17, 1743, daughter of Count Roman Vorontsov Illarionovich. Brought up in the house of his uncle, the Vice-Chancellor Mikhail Vorontsov Illarionovich. "Excellent", according to the conception of the time, her education was limited to learning new languages, dancing and drawing. Only by reading the hunt Dashkova became one of the most educated women of her time. Favorite writers of it were Beyle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Boileau. Travel abroad and acquainted with many famous writers have contributed to its further development. From the early years of its occupied policy. Even as a child, she rummaged in the diplomatic papers of his uncle and followed the Russian policy. Time of intrigue and swift coups contributed to the development of her ambition and desire to play a historic role. Understanding the Grand Duchess Catherine (1758) and personal to her position made Dashkova its most devoted supporter. They also tied and literary interests. The final convergence with Catherine occurred in late 1761, on accession to the throne, Peter III. Conceived coup, Catherine elected by their main allies, Grigory Grigorievich Orlov and Princess Dashkova. First publicized among the troops, the second - among the dignitaries and the nobility. Thanks Dashkova were brought to the side of the Empress Count NI. Panin, Count K.G. Razumovsky, I.I. Betsky, Baryatinsky, AI. Glebov, GN. Heat and other. When the coup occurred, other persons, against expectations Dashkova, occupied a dominant place in the yard and in the affairs of state, however, cooled off and the relationship of the Empress to Dashkova. Some time after the death of her husband, Brigadier Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Dashkova (1764), Dashkova held in a village near Moscow, and in 1768, Mr.. took a trip to Russia. In December, 1769. She was permitted to journey abroad. During 3 years she has visited Germany, Britain, France, Switzerland, is often seen and conversed with Diderot and Voltaire. 1775 - 1782 years, she again held abroad, for the sake of educating his only son, a graduate course at the University of Edinburgh. In England Dashkova met with Robertson and Adam Smith. At this time, her relationship to the Empress somewhat improved, and she was offered the post of Director of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and Arts. By thinking Dashkovoj opened Russia Academy (October 21, 1783), which had one of the main objectives of improving the Russian language; Dashkova was its first president. New displeasure Empress Dashkova incurred the publication in "Rossiyskaya Featre" (published in the Academy) tragedy Knyazhnin "Vadim" (1795). This tragedy has been withdrawn from circulation. In the same dated 1795. Dashkova traveled from St. Petersburg and lived in Moscow and Moscow region of his country. In 1796, immediately after his accession to the throne, Emperor Paul Dashkova removed from all its positions and ordered to live in the Novgorod her estate. Only with the help of Empress Maria Feodorovna Dashkova were allowed to settle in the Kaluga province, and later in Moscow. In Moscow, not taking more part in literary and political affairs, Dashkova died on January 4, 1810, Mr.. Greatest attention should be paid no political role Dashkova, which lasted very long, but its activity in the academy and in the literature. Upon appointment of the Director Academy Dashkova uttered speech in which he expressed confidence that science will not be the monopoly of the academy, but "being assigned to the entire country and rooted, will flourish". For this purpose, were organized by the Academy of public lectures (annually, within 4 summer months), enjoyed great success and attracts many listeners. Dashkova increased the number of students, fellows of the Academy from 17 to 50, students of the Academy of Fine Arts - from 21 to 40. In the course of 11 years as director Dashkova academic high school showed its activity not only on paper. Several young people were sent to complete the education in Goettingen. The establishment of the so-called "translation department (instead of the" assembly translators "or" Russia's assembly ") was intended to bring Russian society the opportunity to read the best works of foreign literatures in their native language. At that time it appeared a number of translations, mainly from classical languages. On the initiative of Dashkovoj founded the magazine "L'fans of Russia's words", released in 1783 - 1784 years (16 books), and wore a satirical journalistic character. It was attended Derzhavin KHERASKOV, Kapnist Fonvizin, Bogdanovich, Knyazhnin. There have been moved "Notes on Russian history," Catherine, her own "There were tall tales, her answers to questions Fonvizin. Most Dashkova inscription in verse belongs to the portrait of Catherine and the satirical "The message to the word: so". Other, more serious publication: "The new monthly essays" ran from 1786 until 1796, Mr.. When Dashkovoj launched a new series of memoirs of the Academy, under the title "Nova acta acad. scientiarum petropolitanae "(since 1783). By thinking Dashkovoj published in the Academy collection: "Russia Featr". The main scientific enterprise was the publication of the Academy of Russia "Explanatory Dictionary of Russian language". In this collective work belongs Dashkova collection of words on the letter "h", "N", "Y", add to the many other letters, she also worked very hard over the explanation of words (mostly denoting moral quality). Conserve academic sums skillful economic management by the Academy - the undoubted merit Dashkova. In 1801, accession to the throne of Emperor Alexander I, Russia Academy members unanimously decided to invite Dashkova again to take the chair at the Academy, but refused Dashkova. She wrote poetry in Russian and French (mostly in letters to Catherine), . translated "The experience of epic versification" Voltaire ( "innocent exercise", . 1763, . separately, . St.Petersburg, . 1781), . translated from English (in the "work experience of a free collection of Russia", . 1774), . uttered several academic speeches (written under the strong influence of speeches University),
. Some of her articles published in the "Other Education" 1804 - 06 years and in the "New monthly essays". She also owned comedy "Toisiokov, . or weak-willed person ", . written at the request of Catherine the Hermitage Theater (1786), . and the drama "Wedding Fabian, . Greed for wealth or punished "(continued drama Kotzebue" Poverty and the nobility of soul "),
. In Toisiokove (person who wants to "and then the CIO") of the form, LA. Naryshkin, which Dashkova do not get along, but he is opposed to the character of the heroine Reshimovoy - author of comedies. An important historical document is Dashkovoj memoirs, first published in English Mrs. Vilmot in 1840, with additions and changes. French text of memoirs, belonging undoubtedly Dashkova, appeared later ( "Mon histoire", in "Archives of Prince Vorontsov," a book XXI). Telling a lot of valuable and interesting information about the coup in 1762, about his life abroad, court intrigues and t. d., memoirs Dashkova not differ impartiality and objectivity. While praising the Empress Catherine, it almost makes no factual basis to this praise. Often detected in the "Notes" as if the accusation of ingratitude Empress. Far short of the very fact underscores the selfless Dashkova. - Wed. D. Ilovajskij "Dashkova" in his "Collected Works" (1884); A.S. Suvorin "Dashkova" (St. Petersburg, 1888); Ogarkov "E.R. Dashkova "(St. Petersburg, 1893, Curriculum Library Pavlenkova); Vengerov" Sources ". A. A-ko.


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Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova, photo, biography
Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova, photo, biography Dashkova Ekaterina Romanova  princess, the president of Russia Academy of, photo, biography
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