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Dmitriev, Ivan Ivanovich

( Famous fabulist)

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Biography Dmitriev, Ivan Ivanovich
photo Dmitriev, Ivan Ivanovich
Born September 10, 1760, the estate of his father, the village Bogorodsky, Simbirsk province, Syzran County, died Oct. 3, 1837, Mr.. Moscow.
At the 8 th year, he was sent to a boarding house, first in Kazan, and then in Simbirsk, where his teaching was limited to only the first rule of French and German languages. At the 11 th year Dmitriev was taken from school and further education continued under the guidance of his parents. Rebellion Pugachev made his father with his family to move to Moscow, where Dmitriev spent two years. Here he witnessed the execution of Pugachev, a description which it abandoned in his notes ( "Look at my life"), was subsequently made by Alexander Pushkin in "History of the Pugachev rebellion". On the 14 th year Dmitriev went to St. Petersburg to serve in the Guard Semenov regiment, and soon began to write poetry. His first experiments in rhyming "were so weak that the author himself had destroyed them. Friendship with one of his colleagues, FI. Kozlyatevym, a man well educated and a great connoisseur of literature, became for Dmitrieva "age" in which he "started to get in the way of literature". Using an extensive library and guidance Kozlyateva, Dmitriev thoroughly acquainted with the works of all the best writers of French literature, as well as with the Roman and Greek classics in the French translations. After that, Dmitriev became friendly with Karamzin and Derzhavin. Introducing the latest, according to Dmitriev, "opened the way for him to Parnassus" and in his house, he made friends with almost all modern writers. In Karamzin Dmitriev found not only a friend, but also the head of a literary work, advice and guidance which clearly subordinate. The young friends were soon on the literary career, translated from the French. After that, were resumed and interrupted experiments in rhyming, and in 1791. in the Moscow Journal, which published Karamzin, the appearance of many works of Dmitriev, of which attracted the special attention of the public and deserve the greatest praise of the critics of his tale Trend wife "and the song" Golubok ". The latter was immediately put on music and has received the widest circulation. Following the "Moscow Journal" Karamzin began to publish "Aglaia" and "Aonid" in which Dmitriev also participated. 1794, in his own words Dmitrieva, was for him the most "piiticheskim Year". This year, written by his best works: a fairy tale - "Air Tower", "Prichudnitsa, odes -" On the Volga, "" The voice of a patriot to the taking of Warsaw "," Ermak "and the satire" The Stranger sense, immediately deliver him an honorable place among the contemporary poets. In 1795, Mr.. came the first edition of his poems, entitled "And my trinkets". In the same year Dmitriev started to publish a songbook, which includes his own songs and songs of other poets, and which was released in 1796, entitled: "Pocket Songbook, or collection of the best secular and vulgar songs". At the end of 1796, Mr.. Dmitriev, at their own request, was dismissed, with the rank of colonel. He wanted to introduce myself to Emperor Paul and bring him gratitude for the production of the rank, . suddenly on the day of the Nativity, . morning, . Dmitriev was a chief of police and took him to the palace, . where he met his colleague Captain Likhachev, . also just dismissed resign,
. Soon came the emperor, who told them that, because of an anonymous denunciation, though they were in wait for his life, he was ordered to find donositelya keep them under arrest. The absurdity of the denunciation became apparent after 3 days, and this case had the most favorable impact Dmitrieva. Called in 1797, Mr.. Moscow for the coronation of Paul I, he was showered with the graces of the emperor and received the title of assistant minister in the newly established department of specific estates. In the same year he was transferred to the chief prosecutor 3rd Department of the Senate, and the next granted in the real chief prosecutors. In 1799, Mr.. Dmitriev, resigned and was awarded the rank of Privy Councilor, and moved to Moscow. During the 7-year stay in his resignation, but a few fables and poems (among other things, "Travel N. N. in Paris and London ", a small humorous poem written about the alleged departure V.L. Pushkin abroad), they were not written by a single major product. Release to 1805. first complete collection of his works Dmitriev ended his literary career and since then has not written anything new. In 1806, Mr.. he was appointed a senator, where he was charged obrevizovat of provincial supervisors at the execution of the imperial manifesto of the recruitment of militia Zemsky. In 1808, Mr.. Dmitriev, by order of the Emperor inspected the Ryazan and Kostroma province, and in 1810, Mr.. was almost the same time appointed a member of the Council of State and Minister of Justice. Joining the management of the Ministry, Dmitriev, in his own words in his memoirs, "at the first survey found that many lacked a successful run of this machine". Unnecessary instance, wire cases of officials, totally unprepared for the service - all this, according to Dmitriev, demanded radical change. "Paying special attention to the Senate, - says Dmitry in his memoirs - is meant to be a model for other tribunal, I was eager to safeguard their dignity, the return of his former importance". But the assumption Dmitriev reforms was destined to fail. Met with disapproval, they, on the occasion of the war begins in 1812, were postponed for some time. Service troubles began soon forced to leave the service Dmitrieva. In 1814, Mr.. He was dismissed in the same year moved to Moscow, where from 1816 to 1819, Mr.. was chairman of the committee to assist the residents of Moscow, affected by the invasion of the French. Having accomplished this last order of Emperor Alexander I, for the successful completion of which he was awarded the rank of the actual privy councilor and the Order of Vladimir I of degree, Dmitriev finally left the service activities. The last years of his life Dmitriev held almost continuously in Moscow, and went abroad only for a short time at home, and in 1836, Mr.. visited Dorpat, where he went to the family of Karamzin. With keen interest he watched the news of recent literature, . visiting scholars and literary society, . supplemented its extensive library, . conducted an active correspondence with all the best representatives of our literature and made notes, . yielding a wealth of material for dating with many of his contemporary persons and events, . especially as the literature of the time,
. They were published after his death in 1866, entitled "Looking at my life". Fables and tales Dmitrieva, although they are almost all translated from the French, considered the best of his literary ornament wreath, to which many have contributed to their external quality - easy language, relaxed and smooth versification. Hereby lot of his talent was clearly satire. Satirical direction can be seen in many of his works, but it is most strongly expressed in a "foreign-wing. Satire it was offered to distribute the motions of writing odes. Osmeivaya odopistsev, . Dmitriev was not referring to University or Derzhavina, . and their many imitators, . the majority of whom not only did not possess the poetic gift, . but did not realize, . what is the essence of poetic works in general,
. The historical significance of satire Dmitrieva enormous. It destroyed the passion to write odes and contributed to the decline in direction lozhnoklassicheskogo lyrical poetry. No less is known and used his small poems - epigrams, epitaphs, inscriptions to portraits and, finally, sentimental love songs, so which came to taste the era. Trying to free the poetic language of the heavy and antiquated forms, to make it easy, smooth and attractive, Dmitriev was the transducer Russian poetic language. In this respect, the history of literature is addressed Dmitrieva, along with the name of Karamzin, the converter prose. Editions of works from 1795, Mr. Dmitriev. by 1893. were seven. In 1825, Mr.. published a small book of his "Apology in quatrains, most of which was transferred from Mollevaut. Then 1798. by 1893. There were five editions of his "Basen, tales and apology" (the latter joined with the publication in 1838). I. Florida.


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