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Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich

( Famous Russian satirist, and founder of our modern belles-lettres)

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Biography Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich
photo Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich
The younger son of the Ruler of the Moldavian Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich Cantacuzene and Cassandra, was born in Constantinople, 10 September 1709, Mr.. As the mother he was a descendant of the Byzantine emperors. Unlike his father, . Prince Constantine, . father Antiochus, . Prince Dmitry, . wholeheartedly devoted himself to peaceful activities, . not justify its militant name (Cantemir means any relative of Tamerlane - the ancestors of Cantemir recognize their ancestor itself Tamerlane, . - A blood-iron; Tartar origin of the names undoubtedly Cantemir),
. Family of Prince Dmitri, including the future satirist, accompanied him in his travels and campaigns. This explains that Cantemir assimilated so completely the spirit of the Russian language and displayed in his satires such a profound knowledge of contemporary Russian life. Initially, his teachers were the Greeks, but already the seventh year of his life in the family Cantemir entered educator, one of the most gifted students Zaikonospassky Academy, Ivan Ilyinsky. Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, . who loved literature and who managed to instill this love and Antioch, . in the testament refused all his possessions to those of their sons, . which show the greatest location for scientific pursuits, . and he was referring to Antiochus, . "in the mind sciences, and all the best",
. Indeed, the other brothers were ordinary people, tastes Antiochus shared only by his sister Mary, that was the basis of their friendship for life. Correspondence brother and sister during the prolonged absence of the first of Russia (cm. Shimko, "New data to the biography aq. Cantemir and its closest relatives, "St. Petersburg, 1891) casts a bright light on the mood of these two men, gentle and humane in a time when the surrounding society is marked by their savagery and brutality. This correspondence in other respects is of great importance for the characterization Cantemir: it explains, . why he could not advantageous marriage with the heiress of the time, . Princess Barbara Cherkasy, . daughter of an influential statesman,
. The reason was unwillingness to abandon the literary and scientific studies. Diplomatic activity Cantemir devoted himself mainly because, . that being abroad gave him the opportunity to expand their education and at the same time freed him from direct participation in the political struggle, . involving the machinations and intrigue,
. Cantemir love for science was utilitarian in nature, in Peter's spirit: he valued, and science itself, and his literary work only in so far as they could bring Russia to the well-being, and the Russian people - fortunately. This is mainly determined by the value of Cantemir as a public figure and writer. In the thirteenth year of his life he lost his father. Home Education Cantemir supplemented by short-term stay in the Greco-Slavonic Academy and the Academy of Sciences. The latter has Cantemir undoubted benefit. He especially appreciated the lecture Bernoulli and Gross and retained throughout his life a great liking for mathematics and ethics. But his extensive education, he owes much of his personal. As a youth, he closely followed the European literature, the most diverse branches of knowledge. This is evidenced by his handwritten notes in the calendar for 1728, Mr.. By assuming, still in his early youth, the question of the means of dissemination of knowledge in Russia, liveable, and the elimination of ignorance and superstition, he admitted that the most important institution of schools and considered it a task for the government. Seduced by the powerful work of Peter, . Cantemir pinned all their hopes on monarchical power, and very little hope for independent initiative of the clergy and nobility, . the mood which he saw a clear dislike or even hatred of education,
. In its most powerful satires he was up in arms against the "gentry zlonravnyh" and against the ignorant representatives of the Church. When, in the reign of Empress Anna Ioannovna, we were talking about granting political rights of the nobility (nobility), Cantemir strongly advocated the preservation of public order established by Peter the Great, January 1, 1732, Mr.. Cantemir had gone abroad to take up the post of Russian resident in London. The internal political life of Russia, it did not take more than participation, consisting initially (until 1738) Russia's representative in London, and then in Paris. Activities Cantemir, . a diplomat, . still little explored, not even published a complete collection of his communique, has released only the first volume, . under the editorship of Professor Aleksandrenko, . embracing the first two years of diplomatic activity Cantemir in London ( "communiques from London", . Moscow, . 1892),
. Best job evaluation Cantemir in this field are working Stoyunina: "A Book. Cantemir in London and Paris "(" Vestnik Evropy, 1867 and 1880), far, however, does not exhaust the question. The author tells in detail about the adverse conditions, . which was surrounded by Cantemir, . as a diplomat, a lack of material resources, . curtailing or delay of more than modest salary, . diverse orders, . burdens Cantemir (in-kind "priiskaniya skillful workers" or purchase "ezzhennyh horses"), . - But it is not shaded, . that Cantemir still managed to gather a wealth of material, and gave his government reports, . amazing breadth of vision and a comprehensive assessment of political figures and conditions,
. Literary activity Cantemir started very early. Already in 1726, Mr.. published his "Symphony of Psalms", composed in imitation of the same labor Elias: "The Four". In the same year Cantemir translates from the French "A certain Italian letter containing uteshnoe critical description of Paris and the French - a little book, which mocked the French customs, even then gradually penetrate to us. In 1729, Mr.. Cantemir translates philosophical conversation "Table Kevika - philosopher," which expressed views on life, it is appropriate ethical views of the Cantemir. In the same year appeared the first of its satire, so enthusiastically greeted by Theophanes Prokopovich and immediately established between them is the close alliance. Some biographers portray the matter as, . like union between Prokopovich and Kantemir held on the basis of a general hostility to Golitsyn, and that as Prokopovich, . and Cantemir pursued personal goals, . - First, . fearing for their political influence, . second, . indignant at the injustice Galitzine, . influenced by his father's legacy, . t,
. e. state at 10000 shower, got my brother Cantemir, Prince Constantine Cantemir, zhenivshemusya the daughter of Prince Golitsyn (cm. "Old and New Russia", 1879, Volume X, page Korsakov on the process of Prince Constantine Cantemir with my stepmother, nee Princess Troubetzkoy). Actually Prokopovych Cantemir and could not sympathize with Golitsyn as a representative of the old boyar party is opposed to the reforms of Peter; personal considerations played a very minor role here. This is evident from the fact that Cantemir no use of his involvement in the coup in 1730, Mr.. for personal enrichment, although this would not be difficult for him. Dedicating the first satire (characterized entitled "On blasphemes doctrine") rave poems, . best representatives of our church, . Prokopovich and Rabbit, . hastened to publicly acknowledge, . they consider a close alliance with the 20-year Preobrazhensky Lieutenant quite natural and legitimate, . when he, . talented in poetry, . up in arms with them against the enemies of Peter and his educational affairs,
. All further satire (there are 9) are only a more detailed development of the ideas contained in the first. The first place they took the people, with its superstition, ignorance and drunkenness, as the main causes of comprehending it all disasters. Served a higher class is a good example to the people? The clergy is not much different from most people. Merchants only think about how to deceive people. Nobility to the practical case completely incapable of not less people inclined to gluttony and drunkenness, and yet considers himself better than other classes of surprised that he did not want to give power and influence. Administration for the most part corrupt. Cantemir castigates not only of representatives of the lowest administration: yesterday, Makar all seemed idiot ", but it is now a temporary worker, and the picture changes once. Satirist our addresses with the word bitter truth and to the authorities. "Few Well profiteth your name even though the king's son, should it ever be in the manners of vile you as equal psarskim". It is with great courage and extraordinary for its time, the power of verse proclaims that "must be clean, who is there, not pale, rises, where the watchful eyes of the whole nation leads". He considers himself and others entitled to boldly proclaim such ideas, because he feels himself "a citizen" (this is a great word to them for the first time introduced into our literature) and is deeply aware of the "civil" duty. Cantemir should recognize the ancestor of our accusatory literature. He first laughed at us "laughter through tears" (which is also given to them for the first time in our literature), and laughed at them at a time when it seemed that all any free speech it is simply unthinkable. 1729 and 1730 were the years of greatest prosperity talent and literary activities Cantemir. He not only wrote in this period of his most famous satire (first 3) but also translated the book Fontenelle, Conversations on the set of worlds "by providing its detailed comments. Translation of this book was a kind of literary event, because its conclusions radically contradict superstitious cosmography of Russian society. Under Elizabeth, she was banned as "disgusting faith and morals". Besides, . Cantemir shifted some of the Psalms, . began to write a fable, . and in the dedication of his satires paved the way for a later renowned compilers OD, . with, . however, . not skimp on the satirical remarks to clarify the expectations, . that Russian "national" imposes on the authorities,
. Have the same character and his fables. He is the first time resorted to "Aesopian language, speaking of himself in epigram" On Aesop, "that" not being straight, straight I know all said, "and that" many thoughts I have corrected, teaching the truth is false ". After moving abroad Cantemir, except for the first three years, continued to enrich the Russian literature of the new original and translated works. He wrote lyrical songs that gave expression to his religious feeling, or praised science, acquainted the Russian reading public with the classical works of antiquity (Anacreon, K. Nepos, . Horace, . Epictetus and others), . continued to write satire, . which displays the ideal of a happy man or pointed to the sound pedagogical practices (Satire, . VIII), . prejudging, . to a certain extent, . task, . subsequent implementation Betsky, and pointed to the ideal of a good administrator, . concern, . to "truth blossomed in favor of common people", . that "the passions are not shaking their scales" of justice, . to "tears of the poor do not fall on the ground" and sees "its own benefit in the overall usefulness" (letter to the prince N.YU,
. Trubetskoy). He translated and contemporary writers (such as "Persian Letters" of Montesquieu), was a guide to algebra and reasoning of prosody. Unfortunately, many of these works have not survived. In a letter to "the addition of Russian poetry", he opposes the ruling we have Polish syllabic verse, and makes an attempt to replace it with tonic, more typical of the Russian language. Finally, he wrote and religious-philosophical discussion, entitled "Letters of nature and man, imbued with deep religious feeling of a man standing at a height of education. Agonizing death broke early this feverish activity. Cantemir, died March 31, 1744, in Paris, and was buried at Moscow monastery of St. Nicholas Greek. Literature devoted Cantemir, still small. For collection of his essays, edited by P.A. Efremova, attached biography Cantemir composed Stoyuninym. The most thorough critique of Cantemir still Dudyshkina paper is placed in the "Contemporary" (1848). Set of all written about Cantemir and attempt to separate light of his political and literary activities in Sementkovsky: "aq. Cantemir, his life and literary activity "(St. Petersburg, 1893; biographical Library F.F. Pavlenkova) and "The ancestor of our accusatory literature" ( "Historical Journal", March, 1894). Satire Cantemir Abbe Venuti translated into French) "Satures du pr. Cantemir ", 1746) and Shpilkerom in German (" Freie Uebersetzung der Saturen des Pr. Kantemir ", Berlin, 1852). R. Sementkovsky.


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Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich, photo, biography
Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich, photo, biography Cantemir Antioch Dmitrievich  Famous Russian satirist, and founder of our modern belles-lettres, photo, biography
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