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KARAMZIN Nikolai Mikhailovich

( Famous Russian writer, journalist and historian)

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Biography KARAMZIN Nikolai Mikhailovich
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Born Dec. 1, 1766, Mr.. in Simbirsk province, grew up in the village of his father, Simbirsk landowner. First spiritual food 8 - 9-year-old boy were old novels, develop in him a natural sensitivity. Even then, like the hero of one of his stories, "he liked to be sad, not knowing what" and "could have two hours of imaginative play and build castles in the air". On the 14 th year, Karamzin was brought to Moscow and sent to a boarding Shadena Moscow professor, he also visited the university in which it was possible to learn then, "if not a science, the Russian grammar". Shadenu he was obliged to practical acquaintance with the German and French. After graduating class at Shadena, Karamzin some time hesitated to choose activities. In 1783, Mr.. he tries to enter military service, which was written more minor, but at the same time retiring, and in 1784, Mr.. enjoys success in the secular society of the city of Simbirsk. At the end of that year Karamzin returned to Moscow and through fellow countryman п?.п?. Turgenev, moving closer to the circle Novikova. It began, according to Dmitriev, "Karamzin's education, not only copyright, but also moral". Influence of the circle lasted 4 years (1785 - 88). Serious work on himself, which required Freemasonry, and which so engrossed was a close friend of Karamzin, Petrov, Karamzin, however, did not noticeably. From May 1789 to September 1790, Mr.. He toured Germany, Switzerland, France and England, stopping mainly in big cities like Berlin, Leipzig, Geneva, Paris, London. Back in Moscow, Karamzin began to publish "Moscow Journal" (cm. below), where there were "Letters of a Russian Traveler". "Moscow Journal" ended in 1792, may be - not without connection with the conclusion of the fortress of Novikov and the persecution of the Freemasons. Although Karamzin, . from "Moscow Journal", . formally excluded from his program articles theological and mystical ", . but after the arrest of Novikov (before the final verdict), he published a rather bold ode: "By the grace" ( "As long as the citizen calmly, . can sleep without fear, . and willingly subservient to all your thoughts on life have, until ... you give all the freedom and light, not dark in the minds, until the confidence of the people is visible in all your affairs: a hitherto thou hallowed ..,
. calm your powers, nothing can stir up ") and almost came under investigation on suspicion that he was sent abroad Masons. Most of the 1793 - 1795 period Karamzin held in the village and prepared the two collections are called "Aglaia", published in autumn 1793 and 1794 years. In 1795, Mr.. Karamzin was limited to compile a "mixture" in the "Moscow Gazette. "Having lost the hunt to go under the black clouds", he launched into a light and led quite dissipated life. In 1796, Mr.. He published a collection of poems by Russian poets, entitled "Aonidy". A year later there was a second book "Aonid", then Karamzin conceived to publish a sort of anthology of foreign literature ( "Pantheon foreign literature"). By the end of 1798. Karamzin barely held his "Pantheon" through censorship, forbidding the publication of Demosthenes, Cicero, Sallust and t. forth, because they were Republicans. Even a simple reprinting old works of Karamzin difficulties encountered by censorship. Three decades Karamzin apologizes to readers for the passion of the senses "a young, inexperienced Russian Traveler" and wrote one of his friends: "Everything has a time and scene change their. When the flowers in the meadows Paphos lose for us the freshness, we stopped flying marshmallows and is in the room for philosophical dreams ... Thus, soon, my poor muse, or be completely retired, or ... will shift in Kant's metaphysics of poetry with Plato's Republic ". Metaphysics, however, was as alien to the mental storehouse Karamzin, as mysticism. From letters to Aglaia, and Chloe, he moved not to philosophy but to the historical studies. In "Moscow Journal" Karamzin has won the sympathy of the public as a writer, now in the Journal of Europe "(1802 - 03) he is in the role of the publicist. Mainly journalistic character and is composed Karamzin in the first months of the reign of Emperor Alexander I "The historical eulogy to Catherine II". During the publication of the journal Karamzin increasingly acquire a taste for historical articles. It receives, through the Deputy Minister of Education MN. Muravyova, the title of historian and an annual pension of 2000 rubles, in order to write a complete history of Russia (31 October 1803). Since 1804, ceasing publication of The Messenger of Europe, Karamzin fell solely to the compilation of stories. In 1816, Mr.. He published the first 8 volumes of "History of the State of Rossiyskogo" (in 1818 - 19 years of their second edition), in 1821. - 9 that, in 1824. - 10 th and 11 th. In 1826, Mr.. Karamzin died without having had time to finish the 12-second volume, which was issued D.N. Bludov of securities remaining after the deceased. During all these 22 years of drafting history was the main occupation of Karamzin, protect and continue the work begun by him in literature, he gave his literary friends. Prior to publication of the first 8 volumes of Karamzin lived in Moscow, where only went to Tver to the Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna (through it he gave the emperor in 1810, Mr.. his note "On Ancient and Modern Russia"), and lower at the time of the French occupation of Moscow. Summer he usually spent in Ostafyevo, the estate of Prince Andrei Ivanovich Vyazemsky, whose daughter, Catherine Andreyevna, Karamzin was married in 1804, Mr.. (Karamzin's first wife, Elizabeth I. Protasov, died in 1802). The last 10 years of life Karamzin held in St. Petersburg and became intimate with the royal family, . Although Alexander I, . who did not like criticism of their actions, . treated Karamzin restraint since the submission of "Notes", . in which the historian was plus royaliste que le roi,
. In Tsarskoe Selo, . where Karamzin was spending the summer at the request of Empress (Maria Feodorovna and Elizabeth Alekseyevna), . he often had with the Emperor Alexander frank political discussions, . hotly rebelled against the emperor's intentions regarding Poland, . not silent on taxes in peacetime, . absurd system of provincial finance, . of threatening military settlements, . a strange choice of some important dignitary, . about the ministry of education or eclipse, . the need to reduce the army, . only belligerent Russia, . the imaginary correction roads, . so painful for the people, . Finally, . the need to have firm laws, . civilian and government ",
. On the latter issue monarch answered, . how could he answer Speransky, . that will give fundamental laws of Russia ", . but in fact it is the opinion of Karamzin, . Like other councils of the enemy "liberals" and "servilistov", . Speranskii and Arakcheyev, . "remained barren for the beloved country",
. Death of the Emperor Alexander shook health Karamzin; polubolnoy, he daily visited the palace for talks with the Empress Maria Feodorovna, the memories of the late emperor passing to the reasoning about the tasks of the future reign of. In the first months of 1826. Karamzin suffered pneumonia and decided, on the advice of doctors to go in the spring in southern France and Italy, for which Nicholas gave him the money and placed at his disposal frigate. But Karamzin was already too weak to travel and 22 May 1826. died.
Karamzin as a historian. Start by Russian history without proper historical training, Karamzin did not mean to be an investigator. He wanted to make his literary talent to prepare the materials: "select animate, paint, and do so, from Russian history," something attractive, strong, worthy of attention not only Russian, but also to foreigners ". Preliminary work on the critical sources for Karamzin - only "a heavy toll, . offering of authenticity ": the other side, . and general conclusions from the historical narrative seems to him "metaphysics", . which is not suitable for the image and nature ";" knowledge "and" scholarship ", . "Wit" and "profundity" in the historian does not replace the talent to portray action ",
. Before the artistic challenge of history recedes into the background, even moral, which has set itself the protector of Karamzin, ants, critical history Karamzin not interested in philosophical deliberately removes. But previous generations, influenced Schlozer, developed the idea of critical history, among contemporaries Karamzin requirements critics were generally accepted, and the next generation began to demand a philosophical history. With his views on the task of the historian Karamzin has remained outside the dominant tendencies of Russian historiography, and not involved in its progressive development. Fear of "metaphysics" gave Karamzin as a sacrifice routine reporting on the progress of Russian history, has taken shape in the official Russian historiography, from the XVI century. According to this view, the development of Russian history is dependent on the development of monarchical power. Monarchical power the greatness of Russia in Kiev period, power-sharing between the princes was a political mistake, . the result of which was a specific period of Russian history, this political mistake was corrected state wisdom of the princes of Moscow - Russia collectors, however, were corrected and its consequences - the fragmentation of Russia and the Tartar yoke,
. Not making anything new in the general understanding of Russian history, Karamzin, and in developing the details are highly dependent on their predecessors. In the story of the first centuries of Russian history Karamzin was guided, mainly, "Nestor" Schlozer, not quite, but, having learned of his critical methods. For the later period the main tool for Karamzin the story Shcherbatova, driven almost to the time at which to stop the "History of the State of Rossiyskogo". Shcherbatov not only helped Karamzin navigate the sources of Russian history, but significantly affected the same presentation. Sure, . syllable of "Stories" Karamzin bears the stamp of his literary manners, . with all its conventions, but in the choice of material, . its location, . in the interpretation of the facts Karamzin guided "History" Shcherbatova, . departing from it, . not to the benefit of truth, . in the picturesque descriptions of the "action" and the sentimental depiction of the psychological "character",
. Features of literary forms History of the State of Rossiyskogo "brought her widespread among readers and fans of Karamzin as a writer. In 25 days, went all 3000 copies of the first edition of "History of the State of Rossiyskogo". But it is precisely those features that have made "History" excellent for its time, popular book, already deprived of the text of a serious scientific value. Much more important for the science of that time were extensive "Notes" to the text. Impecunious critical guidance, "notes" they contained many extracts from the manuscripts, most of the first published Karamzin. Some of these manuscripts no longer exist. The basis of its history Karamzin put the materials of the Moscow archives of the Ministry (then College) of Foreign Affairs, . which has already enjoyed Sherbatov (especially the spiritual and treaty ratification princes and acts of diplomatic relations with the end of XV century.), but he could use them more fully, . Thanks to hard by the Director of Archives, . NN,
. Bantysh-Kamensky and п-.пг. Malinowski. Many valuable manuscripts gave Synodal store (also known Scherbatov), . Library monasteries (Trinity Monastery, . Volokolamsky monastery and others), . which began at this time interested, . as well as the private collections of manuscripts Musin-Pushkin and Rumyantsev,
. Especially a lot of documents received from Karamzin Chancellor Rumyantsev, collects, through its many agents, historical materials in Russia and abroad, as well as from AI. Turgenev, who compiled a collection of documents of the papal archives. Extensive excerpts from all of this material, . which must be added found itself Karamzin southern Chronicle, . historian published in his "Notes", but, . limited role of the storyteller's art, and leaving almost entirely aside questions of the internal history, . He left the collected material in a completely undeveloped,
. All these features of "Stories" Karamzin's determined attitude to her contemporaries. "History" admired literary friends Karamzin and extensive audience of lay readers; educated circles found its backward on the general views and tendentious, specialists, researchers treated her disbelief, . and most venture - to write history when the then state of science - considered too risky,
. Even during his lifetime Karamzin appeared critical analysis of its history, and soon after his death, attempts were made to determine its overall importance in the historiography. Lelewel pointed out the unintentional distortion of the truth, "through the message predshedshemu time - the nature of this and because patriotichekih, religious and political passions. Artsybashev showed, . the extent to which harm "history" literary devices Karamzin; Pogodin summed up all the shortcomings of the "History", . Field and found a common cause of these shortcomings in, . that "Karamzin is not a writer of our time" and that his point of view, . in literature, . and in philosophy, . politics and history, . obsolete with the emergence in Russia of new influences of European Romanticism,
. In the 1830's "History" Karamzin made the banner officially "Russian" direction, and with the assistance of the same Pogodina made its scientific rehabilitation. Cautious objections Solovyov (in 1850-ies) silenced anniversary panegyrics Pogodin (1866).
Karamzin as a writer. Peter Ross gave the body, Catherine - soul. Thus, the famous verse, was determined by the reciprocal relationship of the two creators of the new Russian civilization. Approximately the same relation and are the creators of the new Russian literature: Lomonosov and Karamzin. Lomonosov prepared the material from which the literature; Karamzin breathed into him a living soul, and made the printed word expression of the spiritual life and part of the head of Russian society. Belinsky says, . Karamzin that created the Russian public, . which he had not been, . created readers - as well as readers of literature is inconceivable without, . it is safe to say, . that literature, . in the modern sense of the word, . We started with the era of Karamzin and began precisely because of his knowledge, . Energy, . delicate taste and talent,
. Karamzin was not a poet: he lacks the creative imagination, . taste of his one-sided; ideas, . he spent no different depth and originality, its great value it is most owes his active love of literature and the so-called humane sciences,
. Preparation Karamzin was wide, but it is misleading and lacks solid foundations, according to the Grotto, he "read more than the study". Serious its development begins under the influence of Friendly Society. Deep religious feeling, . inherited from the mother, . philanthropic efforts, . dreamy humanitarianism, . platonic love for freedom, . equality and fraternity on the one hand and supremely humble submission to the powers that be - on the other, . patriotism and admiration for European culture, . high respect for education in all its forms, . but the reluctance to Francophile and a reaction against the skepticism-cold attitude to life and against the mocking disbelief, . desire to study the native monuments of antiquity - all or borrowed from Karamzin Novikov and his associates, . or strengthened their influence,
. Example Novikova Karamzin showed that outside the public service can benefit their country, and drew up a program for him his own life. Under the influence of A. Petrova, and probably German poet Lenz, formed literary tastes Karamzin, representing a major step forward compared with those of his older contemporaries. Based on the views of Rousseau on the charms of "natural state" and on the right heart, Karamzin, followed by Herder, from poetry primarily requires sincerity, originality and liveliness. Homer, . Ossian, . Shakespeare is in his eyes the greatest poets, the so-called neo-classical poetry seemed to him cold and not its soul by Voltaire in his eyes - only "famous sophist", the simple folk songs excite his sympathy,
. In the "Children's reading" Karamzin to the principles of the humane pedagogy, which coined the "Emile, Rousseau, and which coincides with the views of the founders of Friendly Society. At this time, gradually developed and literary language of Karamzin, more than most to the great reform. In the preface to the translation of Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" he still wrote: "His spirit soar like a eagle, and he could not measure its soaring", "great spirits" (instead of genius) and T. n. But Petrov laughed "dolgoslozhno-protyazhnoparyaschimi" Slavic words, and "Children's Reading" the very purpose of forcing her to write the language of Karamzin's easy and conversational, and avoided "slavyanschiny" and the Latin-German design. At the same time, . or shortly after departure abroad, . Karamzin begins to feel his hand at versification, he was given easy rhyme, . and in his poems did not exist so-called floating, . but here his style is clear and simple, he was able to find a new theme in Russian literature and borrow from the German original and beautiful dimensions,
. His "ancient gishpanskaya historical song:" Count Gvarinos ", written in 1789 - the prototype of ballads Zhukovsky, his" Autumn "at the time struck an extraordinary simplicity and grace. Travel Karamzin abroad and which were the result of his "Letters of a Russian Traveler" - a fact of great importance in the history of Russian enlightenment. On the "Letters" Buslaev said: "many readers of their insensitive educated in the ideas of European civilization, . as it matured, along with the maturation of a young Russian traveler, . learning to feel his noble sentiments, . dream of his beautiful dream ",
. By calculating Galakhova, in his letters from Germany and Switzerland, the news of scientific and literary character is the fourth part, and if you delete messages from the Paris science, art and theater, will remain much less than half. Karamzin said that the letters were written, as it happens, my dear, on scraps of a pencil ", and yet it turned out that they are many literary borrowing - hence, they are written at least in part" in the silence of the office ". In any case, much of the material gathered Karamzin really expensive and down on scraps'. Another contradiction essential: how ardent friend of freedom, . disciple of Rousseau, . ready to fall on his knees before Fiesco, . be so contemptuously spoke of the Paris events of that time and did not want them to see anything, . but riot, . arranged the party "ravenous wolves"? Sure, . graduate of Friendly Society could not be treated with sympathy for the open revolt, . but, . fearful caution also played a significant role here: it is known, . as sharply changed their attitude to the First Lady of French journalism and to the activities of "States General" after July 14,
. The most careful treatment periods in the April 1790 letter, Mr.. shows, apparently, that the tirades in praise of the old order in France, written in the display. - Karamzin diligently worked abroad (among other things, learned in English), his love for literature was strengthened, and immediately upon his return he is a journalist. His "Moscow Journal" - the first Russian literary magazine, is really enjoyable to its readers. Here are samples and literary and theatrical criticism, for the time outstanding, beautiful, and everyone and extremely delicately outlined. General Karamzin was able to adapt our literature to the needs of the best, T. e. more educated Russian people, and, moreover, both sexes: until the ladies do not read Russian magazines. In "Moscow Journal" (as later in the Journal of Europe ") Karamzin had no employees in the modern sense of the word: his friends to send him their poems, and sometimes very valuable (in 1791. there appeared "The Vision Murza" Derzhavina in 1792, Mr.. Trend wife "Dmitrieva, . the famous song "Groaning under the yoke dove golubochek" it is, . play Kheraskov, . Neledinskogo-Mielec and other), . but all sections of the magazine he had to fill myself, and this was possible only because, . that he was from abroad brought a whole portfolio, . filled with translations and imitations,
. In "Moscow Journal" appear two stories Karamzin: Poor Liza "and" Natasha, Boyar's daughter, serving most vivid expression of his sentimental. Especially big success was the first one: poets praised the author or composed elegies to the dust of a poor Lisa. Turned up, of course, and epigrams. Sentimentalism Karamzin came from his natural inclinations and conditions of its development, as well as his sympathy for the literary school that arose at that time in the West. In the "Poor Liza" by openly declares that he "loves those things that touch the heart and cause a heavy shed tears of sorrow". In the story, except for the area, not a Russian but a vague desire to have a public poetry closer to life, yet satisfied, and these few. In the "Poor Liza" no character, but a lot of sense, and most importantly - it is all the tone of the story touched the soul and lead readers in the mood, in what seems to them by. Now the "Poor Liza" seems cold and fake, but the idea is the first link of the chain, which, through the romance of Pushkin: "Towards evening the fall foul", extends to "Humiliated and Insulted" Dostoevsky. It is from "Poor Liza" Russian literature takes a philanthropic direction, which says Kireyevsky. Imitators brought the maudlin tone of Karamzin to extremes, which he does not sympathize: in 1797, Mr.. (in the preface to the 2 nd book Aonid "), he advises" do not talk incessantly about tears ... this method is not reliable touch ". Natalia, Boyar's daughter "is important as the first experience of a sentimental idealization of our past, and in the history of Karamzin - as the first timid step, and the future author of" History of the State of Rossiyskogo ". "Moscow Journal" was a success, . at that time a very significant (in the first year he had 300 "subskribentov" and subsequently took his second edition), . but particularly wide popularity reached Karamzin in 1794, . he had collected from him all his articles and reprinted in a special collection: "My trifles" (2 nd ed., . 1797; 3rd - 1801),
. Since then its value as a literary reformer, it is quite clear: few literature lovers recognize his best prose writer, a large audience and it only reads with pleasure. In Russia at that time for all thinking people lived so bad that, according to Karamzin, "generous frenzy against the abuse of power has silenced the voice of personal care" ( "Note on the Ancient and Modern Russia"). Under Paul I Karamzin was ready to leave literature and searching for spiritual rest in the study of Italian language and reading of ancient monuments. Since the beginning of the reign of Alexander I-go Karamzin, . while still a writer, . became unprecedentedly high position: he became not only "singer Alexander" in the sense, . as Derzhavin was "singer Catherine", . but was an influential writer, . to the voice which is listened to and the Government, . and Society,
. His Journal Europe "- the same excellent for its time, literary and art publication, as the Moscow magazine," but at the same time and the body is moderately liberal views. It remains, however, Karamzin had to work almost entirely alone, that his name not colored in the eyes of readers, he is forced to invent a lot of nicknames. Journal Europe "has earned its name a number of articles on European intellectual and political life and mass transfer successfully selected (Karamzin wrote out the top 12 for the editorial board of Foreign magazines). From the artistic works of Karamzin in the Journal of Europe "is more important than other novel-autobiography" The Knight of our time ", which clearly reflects the influence of Jean Paul Richter, and the famous historical novel" Martha Governor's Wife ". The guiding articles published Karamzin expressed "pleasant views, hopes and desires of the current time," shared by the best part of that society. Turned, . the revolution, . threatens to swallow civilization and freedom, . brought them a huge favor: now "sovereigns, . instead, . to condemn the reason for the silence, . bend it to their side ", they" feel the importance of the alliance "with the best minds, . respect public opinion and try to get people's love of destruction abuse,
. According to Karamzin, Russia wants education for all classes, . especially literacy for the people ( "the establishment of rural schools are much more useful to all high schools, . being a true national institution, . true ground state of enlightenment "), he dreams about the intrusion of science into high society,
. In general, for Karamzin's "education is the palladium of Virtue", by which he means the manifestation of the private and public life of all the best aspects of human nature and the taming of the selfish instincts. Karamzin use and form of the story for their ideas in society: in "My Confession", he exposes the absurd secular education, which give the aristocracy, and unjust mercy, she provided. The weak side of the journalistic work of Karamzin's attitude towards serfdom, he says NI. Turgenev, slides on the subject (the "Letter of rural residents," he expressly opposes the granting of autonomy to the peasants to their farms under the conditions then). Department of criticism in the Journal of Europe "almost does not exist; Karamzin now is not such a high opinion of her, as before, he considers it a luxury for our still poor, literature. Generally Journal Europe "not all the same as a Russian traveler". Karamzin is not so, . as before, . awe of the West and finds, . that man, . and people is not good forever remain in the position of the pupil, and he attaches great importance to national identity and rejects the idea, . that "all people's nothing compared to human",
. At this time, Shishkov starts against Karamzin and his literary war, which reflect and finalizing the reform Karamzin in our language and partly in the direction of Russian Literature. Karamzin in his youth found his teacher in the literary syllable Petrova, enemy slavyanschiny; in 1801, Mr.. He expressed the conviction that only with his time in the Russian syllable noticed "pleasantness, called the French elegance". Still later (1803) he says of the literary syllable: "Russian candidate for authorship, dissatisfied with the books, should close them and listen to conversations around him to learn the language perfectly. Then a new problem: the best houses we say more in French ... What is left to the author? Invent, to write expressions to guess the best choice of words ". Shishkov rebelled against all the innovations (and, examples and takes a clumsy and extreme imitators Karamzin), sharply separating the literary language, with its strong Slavic element and three styles of spoken. Karamzin did not take the call, but for him to take the fight Makarov, Kachenovsky and Dashkov who oppress and Shishkov, despite the support of Russia's Academy and a ground to help his case Talks Russia lovers of literature ". Dispute can be considered done since the founding of Arzamas and Karamzin's entry into the academy in 1818, Mr.. In his opening speech, he expressed the bright idea that "words are not invented by the academies, they are born with the thoughts". In the words of Pushkin, Karamzin language freed from alien domination, and restored him his freedom, turning him to the living source of popular speech ". This live element was in short periods, . in conversational structure and lots of new words (such are, . example, . moral, . aesthetic, . era, . Stage, . Harmony, . catastrophe, . future, . influence who or what, . concentrate, . touching, . entertaining, . industry),
. Working on the history, Karamzin had recognized the good side of language sites and was able to put into use a lot of beautiful and powerful expressions. When collecting material for "History" Karamzin had a great service to the study of ancient Russian literature, according Sreznevsky, . "many of the ancient monuments Karamzin said the first word and no one does not say the word is not the way and without criticism,
. "The Lay of Igor's Host", "Instructions Monomah" and many other literary works of ancient Russia were known only to a large audience thanks to the "History of the State of Rossiyskogo". In 1811, Mr.. Karamzin was distracted from his main work of the famous compilation of notes on the old and new Russia in its political and civil relations "(published together with a note on Poland, in Berlin, in 1861; in 1870. - In "Russian Archive"), which panegyrist Karamzin considered a great feat of civil and other "extreme manifestation of his fatalism, are more inclined to obscurantism. Baron Korf (Life Speransky, 1861) says that the note is not a statement of individual thoughts Karamzin, but "skillful compilation of what he had heard about him". It is impossible not to notice the apparent contradiction between the many provisions of the note and by the humane and liberal ideas, . who expressed Karamzin, . example, . the "Historical eulogy to Catherine" (1802) and other journalistic and literary works of their,
. Note, as filed by Karamzin in 1819, Mr.. Alexander I "the opinions of Russian citizens" of Poland (published in 1862. in the book "Unpublished writings" cf. "Russian Archive" 1869), . show some civic courage of the author, . because of their sharp-frank tone had to excite the displeasure of the emperor, but the courage Karamzin could not be delivered to him in a serious fault, . as his objections were based on his respect for the absolute power,
. Opinions on the results of Karamzin strongly disagreed with his life (his supporters back in 1798 - 1800. considered him a great writer, and placed in collections near the Lomonosov and Derzhavin, and enemies, even in 1810, Mr.. asserted that he pours into his writings, and the Jacobin volnodumchesky poison "and clearly preaches atheism and anarchy), they can not be reduced to unity and is currently. Pushkin admitted him as a great writer, a noble patriot, a beautiful soul, he took his own as an example of hardness with respect to the criticism, indignant attacks on its history and the coldness of articles about his death. Gogol says about him in 1846: "Karamzin presents an unusual phenomenon. That's about someone from our writers can say that he performed the whole duty, nothing buried in the ground and given him five talents brought the other five true ". Belinsky holds just the opposite view and argues that Karamzin made less than he. However, the huge and beneficial influence on the development of Karamzin's Russian language and literary forms unanimously recognized by all.
Literature: I. Works and letters Karamzin. More complete and serviceable editions Karamzin are: "edition" (edition 4 th, 1834 - 35 and 5 th, 1848) and "Translations" (3rd edition, 1835). "Poor Liza" reprinted many times. Numerous reprints of selected passages from the Letters of a Russian Traveler ". The best edition of the History of the State of Rossiyskogo "- 2-e, Slenina (St. Petersburg, 1818 - 29;" Key "to him P. Stroyev, Moscow, 1836) and 5-e, Eynerlinga (with the "key" Stroyev, St. Petersburg, 1842 - 43). Separate volume edition of "Cheap Library Suvorin (without notes). Letters to Karamzin п-.пг. Malinowski "(publication of the Society of Lovers of Russia Letters," edited by MN. Longinov, 1860). The most important collections of letters Karamzin - to I.I. Dmitriev, published by Groth and baking for the anniversary Karamzin in 1866, on the same occasion, and the book came Stamp. Pogodin: NM. Karamzin in his writings, letters and contemporaries "(Moscow, 1866). Letters to the NI Krivtsov ( "Report of the Imperial Public Library in 1892, annex), to Prince P.A. Vyazemsky, 1810 - 1826 period ( "Old and Novelty", Book I, 1897; Wed. Journal Europe, 1897, V); to AI Turgenev, 1806 - 1826 years ( "Russian Antiquities", 1899, I - IV); correspondence with the Emperor Nicholas Pavlovich (Russian Archives ", 1906, I). From securities NM. Karamzin ( "Old and Novelty", Book II, 1898), "Note on the Ancient and Modern Russia" (published under the editorship of VV. Sipovskogo, St. Petersburg, 1914, Wed. text "Notes" in the 3 rd edition of the book AN. Pypin: "Social Movement under Alexander I"). - II. Research and articles on Karamzin: KN. Bestuzhev-Ryumin (in Russian Biographical Dictionary "1897); VV. Sipovsky, NM. Karamzin, author of Letters of a Russian Traveler "(St. Petersburg, 1899); NP. Barsukov, "Life and Works Stamp. Pogodin; NN. Bulich, "Essays on the history of Russian literature and education" (2 nd edition); his own, "Biographical Sketch of Karamzin (1866); Ikonnikov," historian Karamzin; P. Miliukov, "Main Currents of Russian historical thought" (8 th edition, St. Petersburg, 1913); SF. Platonov, "Speech of Karamzin" (Works, Volume I); "Antiquity" and "novelty", Book XIII, 1909 (from the diary of Princess EH. Mescherskaya of the last years of Karamzin), MN. Mazaev, "The cult of love" (Journal of Education ", 1901, September); article about the language of Karamzin; In. Istomin (in Russian philology Gazette, 1896, Volume XXXVI) and E.F. Buddha (in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1901, II). - III. Bibliography. SA. Vengerov, "Sources of the dictionary of Russian writers" (Vol. II, St. Petersburg, 1910).


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