Kireyevsky Ivan( One of the founders of Slavophilism)
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Biography Kireyevsky Ivan
Born in Moscow on March 22, 1806, Mr.. Came from a family of nobles pole Belevsky county province of Tula, where he was and the family estate Kireevskys village Dolbino. In the sixth year Kireyevsky lost his father, who died of typhoid fever while caring for the wounded Russian and French. Kireyevsky remained in the custody of the mother, Avdotya Petrovna (cm. Elagina). A few months after the death of his father Kireevskoe, . Dolbino came in a close relative of the mother Kireevskoe, . poet Zhukovsky, . lived here for almost two years, . the end of 1815, raising their grandchildren, nephews Zhukovsky wanted to make "one of the principal affairs of life",
. Although this intention he failed to implement, yet between him and nephews established lifelong strong attachment. Mood Zhukovsky had influence Kireevskoe in the same patriotic spirit, as well as impressions of the 12 th year, the taste for literary pursuits was also developed in Kireyevsky Zhukovsky, advised the mother to put all children on the writers' way. Ten years Kireyevsky already read the best works of Russian and French literature, twelve years old - well-known German. The final influence, tested in childhood, it was for Kireevskoe stepfather's influence, Alexei A. Elagina, for whom his mother came in 1817, Mr.. In my father's library Kireyevsky found the philosophical works of Locke and Helvetius, but his stepfather sent him from British empiricism and French sensationalism to German metaphysics. Instead of the previous discussions of literary evenings in the village Dolbino were filled with philosophical arguments and reasoning. In 1822, Mr.. Elagin moved to Moscow for further training Kireevskoe. Here Kireevsky brothers take home lessons from the best university professors - Snegirev Merzljakov, Tsvetaeva, listening to public lectures shellingista Pavlov taught in English. In 1824, Mr.. Kireyevsky enlisted in the Moscow archives foreign counterparts, which is meeting at this time a circle of talented young people. Impact of new teachers and friends did not change the direction Kireyevski, but gave this direction more awareness. Already in 1827, Mr.. Kireyevsky very definitely puts their life goals. "We will return" - he wrote Koshelev - "right of the true religion, graceful acceptance of morality, excite a love for truth, stupid liberalism replace respect for law, and the purity of life must raise over the purity of style". And means for this moralistic propaganda was already selected Kireyevsky. "I think that regardless of service can I be useful to his country, rather than eating all the time in the service. I can be a writer ... In this field, my actions will not be useless: I can say this without arrogance ... Whole life with the main objective to form, I can-I have no weight in the literature? I'll have it and give literature its direction ". Having fallen in love his second cousin, NP. Arvenevu, Kirevsky asked for her hand and was refused. Disclaimer This so shook him morally and physically, that doctors have for him the necessary travel. In January, 1830. Kireyevsky went abroad, not in order to learn how he first dreamed of, but in order to disperse. "Not a single impression, during the first month, I took fresh heart, and every gust of attention cost me effort". Four months later, acute sense of past, but heavy precipitation remained almost forever in my heart Kireevskoe. "For me, youth is strange and enviable quality", says 24-year-old Kireyevsky; "just bubbling with delight I see the same feeling with which legless invalid looks to Remove the movement of their comrades". After an eight-month stay abroad, where Kireyevsky met his escape to Germany before his brother Peter, he hurried back to Russia, alarmed by rumors of cholera. Trip abroad did not broaden my horizons Kireevskoe. Like his brother, he listened to the professors' lectures in Berlin and Munich, met with professors, campus life outside of his interests do not go, and to that extent, he was interested mainly philosophy, theology, history. He met personally with Schelling and Hegel, but teaching them, or were not new to him, or impressed; the strongest impressions of life abroad with the two brothers were purely negative. More from Germany Kireyevsky wrote: "No to all the world worse than the people, callous, stupid and annoying the Germans! Bulgarin before them a genius!" A year later, on return, Kireyevsky received permission to publish the journal "European of the". Pushkin welcomed the new edition, the magazine was attended by "all the aristocrats," according to Pogodin. Editor himself, made a long-planned article: "XIX Century". Often seen in this article Westernising expression of opinion, which if kept Kireyevsky in the early 1830's. Indeed, Kireyevsky proves it was necessary to borrow from the West, education - but only in order to allow Russia to become the head of humanity and acquire world-historical role. Education Kireyevsky undoubtedly already knew at that time as the assimilation of external knowledge and technology and is already going out of the Russian national character display features of the Russian "philosophy" or "of wisdom", . as he later put it, he has already built its understanding of the Russian character and Russian philosophy in the Christian beginning: in the eastern form,
. He lacked only the Berlin Schelling's lectures, to give their views of the final wording. "A European" (see) was banned on second piece, on suspicion that Kireyevsky, under the guise of literary criticism, wishes to engage in political propaganda. Only the energetic intercession of Zhukovsky Kireevskoe warned expulsion from Moscow. Since then there comes a twelve-year period of inactivity, . explaining how so very impressed, . is produced on Kireevskoe prohibition of "European", . and the habit of idle pastime "on the sofa, . with a pipe and coffee, . which is not once mentioned friends Kireyevsky and he has a 26-ies,
. Probably played a role here, and his marriage Kireevskoe on time favorite girl (1834). "It's a pity - he wrote about the brothers Kireevskys Granovsky - that the rich gifts of nature and information, rare not only in Russia but everywhere else, are killed in them without any benefit to society. They are fleeing from all activities ". Pogodin expressed the same with his usual lack of ceremony: "And. Kireyevsky become effeminate and izlenilsya ". Public animation 40-ies raised, however, and the mood Kireevskoe. With the return of Herzen Moscow salon disputes have more acute, turned to literature, caused a sharp and precise formulation of views and led finally to the open split. Kireyevsky refute Hegel and Schelling, in the spirit of the latter, in opposition to the philosophy of thought and logic - philosophy of feeling and faith. First to exhaust the meaning of his European life, the second was to make the special property of Russian. Perhaps this renewed interest in philosophy and a desire to develop its long-standing idea in a precise form prompted Kireevskoe search for the Department of Philosophy at Moscow State University. Disgraced publisher of the "European" was, however, the refusal. Slightly more successful was an attempt to return to the literary activity, which Kireyevsky thirsty then "as the fish is not fried craves water". In 1845, Mr.. But Pogodin was difficult to work, besides censorship difficulties and illness repulsed Kireyevski hunt to "Moskvityanin; releasing three books, he quit his job and again for seven years, stopped. Their religious and philosophical ideas he managed to make only in 1852, published in Slavophil circle "Moscow Collection". But this attempt to time-based edition of the difficulties encountered by the censorship. Article Kireevskoe was noted as particularly harmful, and 2 of the first volume of the Moscow Collection "was released in the light," not so much because it was said, how much for that papered ". After the prohibition of "Compendium" Kireyevsky again went to the village. "Do not lose the intent - he writes from the village Koshelovu, - write when you can write a course of philosophy. Now, it seems, this time for Russia to have their say about the philosophy, to show them heretics, that the truth of science only in the truth of Orthodoxy. Incidentally, it is true that these concerns about the fate of the human mind can provide an owner who knows when and whom to send to their job ". These lines are well express the sentiments of the last years Kireevskoe "Substantial all books and all thinking" - he wrote the same Koshelev - "find the holy Orthodox elder, . which could be your leader, . which you would have to report their every thought and hear about her is not his opinion, . more or less intelligent, . but the proposition of the Holy Fathers ",
. Soon after the wedding Kireyevsky met zealots Novospassky Monastery father Filaret. From Dolbin he often traveled to neighboring Optina desert, the monastery helped in the publication of the holy fathers, and became very close with his confessor, Father Macarius. In this spirit Kireyevsky met the first years of the reign of Alexander II. Slavophile circle planned to publish the magazine "Russian talk" and Kireyevsky sent to the "Conversations" article "On the necessity and possibility of new beginnings for the philosophy. This was a prelude to the presentation of its own system Kireevskoe but continued left unwritten, since June 11, 1856, Mr.. Kireyevsky died in St. Petersburg, where we arrived for a meeting with his son. Together with the article in the Moscow Collection ", the article" Russian Talks "remained the main monument of the religious and philosophical outlook Kireevskoe (exposition of the views Kireevskoe cm. Article Slavophilism). Compared with extensive plans for the young years this result was very modest. In addition to the adverse conditions of literary activity, this lack of literary exuberance can not be linked with those small sympathy, which caused views Kireevskoe outside his inner circle of friendly. "Both brothers Kireevskys," wrote Herzen, "are sad shadows ... Unrecognized alive, not delivshie their interests, they do not take off the shroud. Prematurely grown old face Ivan Kireevskoe bore traces of the sharp pain and struggle ... His life was not successful ... His position in Moscow was a difficult. Perfect closeness, empathy he was not with his friends, not with us ... Beside him stood his brother and friend Peter. Sad, as if tears had not yet dried out, like yesterday visited the disaster, both brothers appeared in the talks and rallies. I looked at Kireevskoe as the widow or mother, son lishivshuyusya. Life deceived him, in front of all was empty - and the one consolation: Wait a little, you can rest and you ".
By "complete works" Kireyevski, issued in 1861, and included materials for biographies Kireyevski. Valuable information about Kireevsky Barsukova scattered in the works: "The Life and Works Pogodina" and the biography of AI. Koshelev, compiled NP. Kolyupanovym. Biography Kireevskoe in "Russian Archive" (1894,? 7) has the character of a compilation. Letters and. and P. Kireevskys from abroad were published in "Russian Archive" in 1894,? 10. On the views of PV. Kireevskoe cm. AN. Pypin, "Characteristics of literary opinion"; KN. Bestuzhev-Rumin, in "Notes of the Fatherland" (1862, # 1 - 3); Pisarev, "Russian Don Quixote" ( "Works", St. Petersburg, 1894, Volume II); F. Ternovskii, "Two ways of spiritual development", in "Proceedings of the Kiev Theological Academy" (1864, 4); T. G. Masaryk, "Slovenske studie. I. Slavjanofilstvi Ivana Vasiljevice Kirejevskeho "(Prague, 1889), PG. Vinogradov, "I.V. Kireyevsky and the beginning of the Moscow Slavophilism "(in Problems of Philosophy and Psychology", 1891). Other Articles cm. I have. Kolubovskogo, "Materials for the History of Philosophy in Russia" (VI); I.V. Kireyevsky in applications to the philosophy and psychology "(Book 5). P. Milyukov.