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Koni Anatoly

( The well-known legal activist and writer)

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Biography Koni Anatoly
photo Koni Anatoly
Born January 28, 1844 in St. Petersburg (about his parents, cm. below). He studied at the German School of St. Anne and the second St. Petersburg High School, enrolled in 1861 in Saint-Petersburg University, Mathematics Department, in 1862, joined the law faculty of Moscow University, . where he graduated with a degree candidate,
. In view of the dissertation submitted to them: "On the right of self-defense" ( "Moscow University Izvestia, . 1866), . Kony was meant to be sent abroad to prepare for the Department of Criminal Law, . but, . due to a temporary suspension of these assignments, . entered the service first in the state control, . then in the War Department,
. With the introduction of judicial reform Kony moved to the St. Petersburg trial chamber for the post of Assistant Secretary, . and in 1867 - in Moscow, . Secretary of the Chamber of the Moscow prosecutor Rovinsky, in the same year was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney first Summy, . then the Kharkov District Court, in 1869 transferred to the same position in the St. Petersburg District Court, took part in the introduction of judicial reforms in the Kazan district, . as the prosecutor of the Kazan district court, in 1871 he was appointed Attorney of the St. Petersburg District Court, four years later was appointed vice-director of the Department of the Ministry of Justice, . In 1877 - Chairman of the St. Petersburg District Court, . In 1881, the Chairman of the civil department of the St. Petersburg Judicial Chamber, . in 1885 - the chief prosecutor of Cassation Department of the Senate, . 1891 - Senator,
. Thus horses survived to important judicial posts first thirty years of judicial reforms and has witnessed the changes that occurred during this time in the litigation in relation to it as the government authorities and society. The future historian of the internal life of Russia during this period will find in the judicial and social activities Kony valuable guidance for determining the nature and properties of the tides, . who experienced Russian court, . since the mid 60-ies,
. In 1875 Connie was appointed a board member of management institutions of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, in 1876 he was one of the founders of the Law Society at St. Petersburg University, from 1876 to 1883 was a member of the commission, . established under the chairmanship of Count Baranoff, , . in 1894 - in Odessa, . for sending the case of the death of the ship "Vladimir", in 1890, Kharkov University was elevated to the degree of Doctor of Criminal Law (honoris causa); in 1892 was elected the Moscow University in honor of its members,
. With unwavering dedication to serve as the charters of Kony court during their hobbies, and during a skeptical attitude toward them. Such tireless service to the cause of justice was not easy. "It's hard judicial office - said Kony in one of his articles - perhaps not one office did not give so little not poison anything joys and sorrows, and accompanied by such tests do not lie on the outside, but in itself ". He has created, through its lively type of prosecutor and judge, proving by example that can serve as the state protection of legal interests, not forgetting the individual defendant and not turning it into a mere object of research. As Judge, . He reduced - to put it in his words - "man can in a place and time of the beginning of a great justice in the earth, . relationships ", . but as the prosecutor was "accused the judge, . knew how to distinguish the crime from the misfortunes, . Accusation of truthful testimony ",
. Russian society Kony is known in particular as he. Overcrowded courtrooms in cases before his involvement, coincidence of a large audience on his literary and scientific language, the success of his court speeches, when they appeared in the press - all this serves to confirm. Quintilian expressed the opinion that he should be a good man (bonus vir). Horses correspond to this view of the speaker. He was educated under the influence of literary and artistic environment, . to which belonged to his parents, at the Moscow University, he attended lectures Krylova, . Chicherin, . Babsta, . Dmitrieva, . Belyaeva, . Solovyov, hearing these lectures has laid a solid foundation in its philosophical and legal education, . and personal relations with many representatives of science, . belles lettres and practical support in him a keen interest in various phenomena of mental, . public life,
. Extensive, not confined to a special area of knowledge, erudition, with a happy memory, gave him ample material with which he could use as a literary artist. Judicial his speech always of high psychological interest, which developed on the basis of a comprehensive study of the individual circumstances of each case. With particular care he stayed at clarifying the nature of the accused and only by giving a clear idea of "who is this man," went on to further exploration of the inner side of the offense. The nature of man he served for him the subject of observations not only by external accretions, but also by the special psychological elements, which consists of "I" man. Install the latest, he sorted out what impact they could have on the nucleation will be realized in the crime, and carefully noted the measure of participation of the living conditions of the person. In the context of everyday life figure he found "the best material for the correct judgments about the case" because "the colors, which imposes life itself, always faithful and never erased". Forensic speech Koni fully confirm the fidelity Taine remarks that a few touches of vivid portrait delineated in a position to facilitate comprehension of the individual, rather than the whole written about her dissertation. Under the dissecting knife Kony revealed the secret of his organization's most diverse types of people, as well as varieties of one and the same type. These, . example, . types Solodovnikova, . Sedkova, . Princess Scherbatova, . as well as people with defects will, . as Chikhachev, . who knew "only wish" and do not knowing how to "want", . and Nikitin, . "which assesses all intelligence, . but the heart and conscience, stand behind a great distance ",
. Highlighting the basic elements of personality and finding in them a source to understand the crimes investigated, . Kony because they do not forget not only the elements of relatively minor, . but even the facts, . apparently little irrelevant, he believed, . that "for every criminal case there are some real, . primary side of his circumstances, circumstances, . which sometimes overshadowed the simple and clear outline of his ", . and he, . as a carrier of prosecutorial, . felt obliged to remove, . as an extra crust, . actually grew stratifying,
. Peeled random and extraneous appendages, psychological elements found in the person of a connoisseur of fine horses, understanding of which are available all the fine nuances of thought and feeling. The strength of his oratory was expressed in the image not only static but also the dynamics of mental powers of man, he showed not only that there is, but also how the existing formed. This is one of the strongest and most notable aspects of his talent. Psychological studies, for example, the tragic history of spouses and Yemelyanovs Agrafena Surikova, or the history of relations between the accused of counterfeiting shares Tambov-Kozlovskaya railroad, are the high interest. Motives, . a sign, . indicating the internal state of mind a person, . received in the eyes of the horses of particular importance, he always took care not only about setting the legal liability of the defendants, . but also consonant with a fair distribution between them of moral responsibility,
. Form speeches Kony always simple and alien to the rhetorical ornaments. His word is justified true sayings of Pascal, that true eloquence laughs eloquence as an art, developing the rules of rhetoric. In his speeches, no phrases, which Horace gave a characteristic known as "lip". It should not be methods of the ancient speakers, . seeking to influence the judge by flattery, . intimidation and general excitement of the passions - and yet he is in a rare degree has the ability, . distinguishes the best representatives of the ancient eloquence: he knows in his speech to increase the amount of things, . not distort the relationship between them and the reality,
. "Recovering a perverted criminal perspective" was the object of his constant worries. Its relation to the defendants and in general to participate in the process of individuals were truly humane. Anger and bitterness are often excited by long handling of pathological phenomena of psychic life, foreign to him. Moderation of his, however, was far from weak and did not rule out the harsh assessment of persons and actions. Peculiar sense of proportion due to the fact that it, by just remark KK. Arseniev, the gift of psychological analysis is connected with the temperament of the artist. In general we can say that Kony is not so much attracted, as argued in his speech, abounding in images, comparisons, generalizations and pointed remarks, gave her life and beauty. Vl. LM
. From 1894 to 1899 horses participated in the commission for the revision of judicial charters, . defending in their separate opinions to the basic principles, . advocating for the tenure of judges, . the abolition of the judiciary rural chiefs, . failure to send the police investigative functions,
. In 1900, he moved from the Criminal Cassation Department in the general meeting of the Senate. In the same year was elected an honorary member level belles lettres Academy of Sciences. In 1907 he was appointed a member of the Council of State. In the Senate, he fought tirelessly, sometimes not without success, to administrative practice in sectarian affairs, especially in the pursuit shtundistov. Council of State Kony never joined one of the Soviet group. From the chair he spoke frequently, not leaving without assessing the nearest single bill on the judicial part. From the speeches on other topics attracted the general attention of speech on issues of religious policy, public morality (eg, guardianship popular temperance, the abolition of betting) and Public Education. Connie enjoys broad public and well-deserved reputation not only as a judicial orator, but also as a lecturer and as a writer. In addition to the talent of exposition, brightness of images and similes, his essays and lectures differ informative and thorough development of topics. In choosing topics Kony infinitely varied. For several years in the St. Petersburg Law Society Kony spoke in annual meetings with the obituaries of deceased judicial figures and imprinted in the memory of listeners images of the principal figures of the judicial reform: Zamyatnina, . Butskovskogo, , . Stoyanovskii, . Zarudny and Kovalevsky,
. At the annual meeting in 1891 he made his first speech, . dedicated to the memory of forgotten it was a philanthropist, Dr. Haas; then Koni read many times and talked about Haase, . was his biography, . reprinted several times, . and made the name "incorrigible philanthropist as" one of the particularly popular in our names,
. Especially issued his speeches and lectures on Pushkin (1899), VS. Soloviev (1901), aq. Gradovsky, I.F. Gorbunova, IA. Goncharov, DA graph. Milutin, "On the moral principles of criminal procedure", "On the philosophical views of Prince Odoevsky", "On measures to combat prostitution," "On the French literature of the late XIX century, on Renan," On the French philosopher-poet Guillot ". His literary monograph horses placed in a special legal publications in the general press: in the Journal of Europe ", in" Historical Messenger, in the "Book Week" in the newspapers "the Order", in "Russian Archive" and other. Proceedings of the non-judicial detention in 1906, Connie joined in the book "Sketches and Reminiscences" (St. Petersburg, 1906). His judicial speech reprinted several times (4 th edition, 1905). In 1912 and 1913 he published two volumes of "The path of life" (1-st volume, 3rd edition, 1014), in 1914 - "Fathers and Sons judicial reform". This Dictionary Coney wrote the article: "Tolerance", "Haas and others. Tag and the correct characterization of Kony as a writer, gave a letter to him V.O. Klyuchevskii: "You opened my Turgenev, Dostoevsky, Nekrasov, Pisemsky, turned literary silhouettes, as they seemed to me, in vivid, vivid images ... From your stories, . so for me new, . I could not bear disappointment, . opposite, . enriched only reserve their sympathy: the daily reality, . you portray these masters, . specific, . sometimes minor cases, their lives, . you recounted, . they are not less attractive, . often even more attractive, . than in his works,
. How many of them historic, and at how tragic!.. I wish I see a brave man, a historian of that, that is, our, times, who decided to dispense with Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and t. d. not in the chapter on the literature, and in the department of social types, and you in this department, willy-nilly will have to take place in the footnotes of Pushkin Pimen ". Horses are the main force of his great characteristics of people with whom he met and encountered "on the path of life". In his memoirs, the bright procession pass, except the above, LN. Tolstoy, Pirogov, Stasц+levich, Chuprov, Klyuchevskii, Arseniev, Dril, KK. Groth, Plevako, Prince AI. Urusov Shamshin and many others. "All of them - as rightly wrote VD. Nabokov - covered with a peculiar light, gentle and loving, but sometimes penetrating deeply and opening the abyss and rapids, which do not speak the official biographies ". - See. Vengerov "Sources" (Volume III); L. Lyakhovetsky "Characteristics of well-known judicial speakers; B. Glinsky "Russian judicial eloquence; L. Vladimirov "Safeguard speeches and public lectures; A. Levenstim "п-.пг. Coney (Kharkov, 1903), Michael "Recent works", articles and notes in journals: K. Arseniev (Journal Europe ", 1888,? 4), H. Davydov ( "Russian Thought", 1905, No. 12), B. Glinski ( "Historical Journal, 1906, No. 2), F. Batiushkov ( "God's World", 1906, "7), L. Eug. (Journal Europe ", 1906, No. 2), A. B. ( "God's World", 1896, No 6), Eichenwald (Problems of Philosophy and Psychology, 1897, # 1), "The Herald of Europe" (1905,? 10, 1906, # 1 and others).


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Koni Anatoly, photo, biography
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