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KOROLENKO Vladimir Galaktionovich

( Outstanding Writer)

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Biography KOROLENKO Vladimir Galaktionovich
photo KOROLENKO Vladimir Galaktionovich
Born July 15, 1853 in Zhitomir. According to his father he was an old Cossack family, mother - the daughter of a Polish landowner in Volhynia. His father, who served as county judge in Zhitomir, Dubna, Exactly, is a remarkable moral purity. The main outlines of his son described in a semi-autobiographical novel "In bad company", in the form of perfectly honest "Pan-judge", and more - in "Stories of my contemporary". Korolenko's childhood and adolescence spent in small towns, where the face of three nationalities: Polish, Ukrainian, Russian and Jewish. Loud and long historical life has left a number of memories and traces of full of romantic charm. All this, in connection with the half-Polish background and upbringing has left an indelible stamp on creative Korolenko and was clearly evident in his artistic style, brings his new Polish writers - Sienkiewicz, Orzheshko, Prusov. It harmoniously blended the best of both nationalities: Polish picturesque and romantic, and the Ukrainian-Russian intimacy and poetry. By the natural qualities came to the aid of altruistic tendencies of Russian social thought in the 70-ies. All these elements have created an artist with a highly poetic mood, with pervasive and all-conquering humanity. In 1870 Korolenko completed the course in Rovno realschule. Shortly before he died perfectly unselfish, his father, leaving a numerous family almost without any means. When in 1871 Korolenko entered the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, he had to endure the most severe hardship; dinner for 18 cents in the charity pastry cook, he could afford no more than once a month. In 1872, thanks to the efforts of an energetic mother, he was able to move to Moscow and do scholarship in Tepliy stan Agricultural Academy. In 1874, for filing on behalf of the comrades collective petitions, he was expelled from the Academy. Settling in St. Petersburg, Korolenko, together with his brothers for their livelihood for themselves and family proofreading work. Since the late 70-ies Korolenko is arrested and a number of administrative Car. After several years of exile in Vyatka province, he is in the early 80's was settled in eastern Siberia, 300 miles for Yakutsk. Siberia produced the unwitting tourist impressed and provided material for his best essays. Deco-romantic nature of the Siberian taiga, . appalling conditions of life of settlers in the Yakut yurts, . full of the most incredible adventure life tramps, . with their peculiar psychology, . types of truth-seekers, . next to the types of people almost amok - all this art is reflected in the excellent essays Korolenko of Siberian life: "Makar's Dream", . Memoirs Siberian tourist ", . "Sokolintse", . "In the department under investigation",
. True to the core cast of his creative soul - love the bright and lofty, the author almost never stops on the Siberian side of everyday life, and takes it par excellence in its most majestic and tune to high fashion manifestations. In 1885, Korolenko was allowed to settle in Nizhny Novgorod, and since then more and more frequently appeared in his stories Verkhnevolzhskaya life. Romantic in her little, . but a lot of helplessness, . misery and ignorance - and this is reflected in the stories Korolenko: "The solar eclipse", . "For the icon", . "The river is", . a semi-ethnographic "Pavlovsky essays, and especially in the essays, . fill a book, "In a year of famine" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1893),
. This was the result of vigorous activity on the device Korolenko soup kitchens for the hungry in the Nizhny Novgorod region. Newspaper articles about the organization of its famine relief in his time gave a number of very important practical guidance. Activism Korolenko for all time his 10-year stay in Lower was, in general, extremely bright. He became a kind of "institution"; around him were grouped the best elements of the region for cultural combat abuse of all kinds. Banquet given by him on the occasion of his departure from the Lower in 1896, received enormous size. Among the most brilliant episodes of the Nizhny Novgorod lifespan Korolenko belongs to the so-called "Multan case", . when, . thanks to the remarkable energy and skill Korolenko behaviors Protection, . were rescued from prison accused of ritual murder Votyaks,
. In 1894 Korolenko traveled to England and America and some of their impressions expressed in a very original story "No language" ( "Russian Wealth", . 1895, . ? 1 - 3 and separately), . several smacks of anecdote, . but in general, written brilliantly and with a purely - Dickensian humor,
. From 1895 Korolenko - member of the editorial board and an official representative of "Russian Wealth" - the journal to which he is now finally joined, before his works were often published in Russian Thought. In 1900, during the formation of the discharge belles-lettres at the Academy of Sciences, . Korolenko was among the first, . elected honorary academicians, . but in 1902, . in connection with irregular kassirovaniem election as an honorary academicians Gorky, . Korolenko returned her diploma with the written protest,
. Since 1900, he settled in Korolenko Poltava. - Korolenko began his literary career in the late 70-ies, but the large audience was not observed. His first novel "episodes from the life of the seeker" appeared in "Word" in 1879. The author himself, is very strict to himself and brought in his own published collection of his works are not all they print are not included in them "Episodes". And yet, despite the great artistic shortcomings, this story is extremely interesting as historical evidence of the moral recovery, embracing Russian youth 70-ies. The hero of the story - "The Seeker" - somehow organically, . to the bone penetrated the consciousness of, . that every person should devote themselves to the public good and to every, . who cares only about himself and thinks about his own personal happiness, . treated with undisguised contempt,
. The interest of the story consists in the fact that there is nothing exaggerated: it is not schegolyane altruism, and deep mood, penetrating man through and through. And in this mood - the source of all further activities Korolenko. With time no longer intolerant sectarianism, . disappeared contempt for other people's views and outlook, . leaving only a deep love for people and desire delved down in each of the best sides of the human spirit, . under what would be thick and, . a glance, . impenetrable crust washed everyday dirt they may hide,
. An amazing ability to find in each man is, . what, . in pendant Goethe ewig weibliche, . could be called das ewig menschliche, . most and was struck by the reading public in "Makar's Dream", . which, . after 5 years of silence, . interrupted only by small sketches and correspondence, . Korolenko second debut in Russian Thought "in 1885,
. What can be drab, uninteresting of the situation and the life that portray the author set himself. Almost obyakutivshiysya resident, lost under the Arctic Circle, the Siberian settlements drunk on vodka last money disgusting, . infused with tobacco, . Battered and his old woman for, . that drunk alone, . and not shared with her hideous drinking, . fell asleep,
. What could this dream almost lost all human form semi-savages, . officially considered to be a Christian, . but in reality, and God representing himself in Yakut image of the Great toions? And yet the author had noticed in this animal-like appearance of the divine spark smoldering,
. Power of creative power, he blew it, and lit her dark soul of the savage, so that she became close to us and understood. And he made it by, not resorting to idealization. Workshop hand giving a small space, sketch the life Makar, . He did not hide any tricks and none of his tricks, . but did it not as a judge and accuser, . but as a good friend, . looking for a loving heart all the mitigating circumstances and to convince the reader, . not in corruption Makara source of his departures from the truth, . but in, . that no one ever taught Makar distinguish good from evil,
. The success of "Makar's Dream" was a huge. Excellent truly poetic language, . rare original story, . extraordinary concision and yet the salience of the characteristics of persons and objects (the latter generally is one of the strengths of artistic talent Korolenko) - all, . in connection with the basic idea of humane story, . made a charming impression, . and the young writer was immediately allocated a place in the forefront of literature,
. One of the most characteristic of the parties succeed, . fallen to the lot as "Makar's Dream", . and other works Korolenko - the universality of this success, so, . not only the most thorough, . but the most enthusiastic sketch of Korolenko wrote a critic Moscow Gazette, . Govorukha-lad, . known for his hatred of anything "liberal",
. After the "Dream Makar" appeared a story "in bad company" - also one of the crown pieces Korolenko. The story is written in a very romantic style, but the romance freely poured out of the warehouse romantic soul of the author, and because the story does not tinsel glitter, and streaked with this literary gold. The action again takes place in an environment where only a very loving heart can open a glimpse of the human mind - in a bunch of thieves, beggars and various daft people tucked away in the ruins of the old castle of one of the towns of Volhynia. Society - really "bad", author withstood the temptation to make their outcasts Protestants against social injustice, . "humiliated and insulted", . although he could make it very easy, . having in his possession a creative colorful figures of Pan Tyburtsiya, . with its subtle wit and literary education,
. All the gentlemen from the castle "preispravno steal, . drunk, . extortion and depraved - and, . however, . Son Pan judge ", . accidentally become acquainted with "bad company", . nothing bad has not made out of it, . because once met the highest examples of love and devotion,
. Tyburtsy really something ugly has made in the past and the present continues to steal and to teach his son the same, but the small, slowly dissolving in the dungeon his daughter he loves madly. And such is the power of every true sense, . that everything bad in life, "bad company" bounces from the boy, . it is transmitted only pity the whole of society to Marusya, . and all the energy of his proud nature is directed at, . to facilitate, . than possible, . sad existence Marousi,
. The image of the little sufferer Marousi, . from which the "gray stone", . ie dungeon, . life sucks, . belongs to the graceful creatures to modern Russian literature, . and her death is described with the true pathos, . which is given only a few elected representatives of artistic creativity,
. The romantic tone and place of the story "in bad company" closely adjacent Polyessie legend "Les noisy". It is written almost fairy-tale style and the plot rather banal: the lord killed insulted in their conjugal feelings slave. But the details of the legends are designed perfectly, especially the beautiful picture of wave ahead of the storm the forest. Outstanding ability to describe the nature of Korolenko say here in all his glory. Watchful eye, he spied not only the general physiognomy of the forest, but also the individuality of each individual tree. General description of the nature of the gift is one of the most important features of talent Korolenko. He was raised altogether disappeared from the Russian literature, after Turgenev's death, landscape. Purely romantic landscape Korolenko, however, has little in common with the melancholy landscape of the author "Bezhina Grasslands". For all the poetic temperament Korolenko melancholy alien to him, and from the contemplation of nature, he pantheistically retrieves the same exhilarating heights and desire the same faith in the triumph of good, which constitute the main feature of his creative personality. By Volyn, the place of action, the stories belong to more Korolenko "The Blind Musician" (1887), "Night" (1888) and the story of Jewish life: "Yom Kinur". "The Blind Musician" is written with great skill, it has a lot of good individual pages, but, in general, the task of the writer - to give a psychological sketch of the development in sleporodzhennogo perceptions of the outside world - he did not succeed. For making art is too much science or, rather, scientific speculation, for science - too much of art. Truly wholesome can be called the story "Night". Discussions children about how children are born, passed with astonishing naivete. Such a tone is created only by the quality, for the writer's most precious - in memory of the heart, where the artist recreates in his mind the minutest details of past feelings and moods, in all their freshness and immediacy. In the story appear adults. One of them, a young doctor, successfully cope with the heavy labor, they seem to be a simple physiological act. But another interviewee two years ago with the same "simple" physiological act lost his wife and his life is divided. That's why he could not accept that this is all very "simple". And the author did not think, and for him death and birth, like all human existence - the greatest and most wonderful of mysteries. That was why the story is imbued with the whole trend of something mysterious and unknown, to an understanding which can not approach the clarity of mind, a vague impulses of the heart. Among Siberian stories Korolenko, except "Makar's Dream", a well-deserved reputation enjoyed "From the notes of Siberian tourist", the central figure of "ubivtsa". Pervasive humanity of the author expressed here with particular depth. Any other narrator, telling the story with the usual point of view, "justice" killings, in which an involuntary "murderer" was the avenger of a series of misdeeds and a deliverer of death of the mother with 3 children, perhaps this would have calmed down. But the "killer" - a man of unusual mental warehouse, he truth-seeker par excellence and does not satisfy his justice, achieved through the shedding of blood. Tossed in terrible anguish "murderer" and can not be reconciled with the terrible conflict of two equally sacred principles. The same collision of two great started underlies short story "On Easter night". The author does not have the intention to condemn the order, . which do not permit the prisoners to escape from prison: he only finds a terrible dissonance, . he only notes with horror, . the night, . when all the talk of love and brotherhood, . good man, . in the name of the law, . killed another person, . nothing bad in fact has declared himself not,
. The same is not biased, although only less than a dispassionate artist is Korolenko and in excellent story about a Siberian prison - "In the department under investigation". In a brilliant figure of half crazed Yashka by truth-seeker, on the one hand, with complete objectivity is attributed to the "people's truth, before which so obviously adored many of the closest to the author ranks the overall outlook of people. But at the same time, Korolenko loves his own, freely born in his sensitive soul, the truth is too lively love to bow before all of that comes from the people, just because it is popular. He is in awe before the moral force Yashka, but the entire spiritual seeker appearance of a "human law", a prototype of the dark figures of the split, the fanatics who burned themselves in the name of protecting rites - he's not in the least sympathetic. - Migrated to the Volga, Korolenko Vetluga visited the province where the Holy Lake, in the invisible Kitezh-hail, meet truth-seeker of the people - Believers of different persuasions - and are passionate debate about faith. And what he made of this visit? (story: "The river plays). "Heavy is not happy impression I took away from the shores of Lake St., from the unseen, but passionate vzyskuemogo people hail ... Similarly, in the stifling tomb, in the dim light of the fading lamps I spent all this sleepless night, listening to somewhere behind the wall someone reads the measured voice over prayers for the dead asleep forever popular thought ". Korolenko, least of all, however, considers the popular idea really asleep forever. Another story from the life of the Volga - "At the solar eclipse" - ends with, . that the same residents of a rural town, . are so hostile to "wit", . arrived to observe the eclipse, . imbued with astonishment at the science, . so wise, . that even the ways of God are led by her,
. The final question of the story: "When will ultimately dissipate the darkness of people's ignorance?" hear no discouragement, but the desire to prompt implementation of the cherished aspirations of the. Belief in a better future is generally the main feature of the spiritual beings Korolenko, a stranger to the corrosive reflection and not disappointed. This differs greatly from its two closest peers on the writer's rank, which he occupies in the history of modern Russian literature - Garshina and Chekhov. In the first, the abundance of evil on earth killed the belief in the possibility of happiness, in the second - the life of mediocrity planted unbearable boredom. Korolenko, despite many personal hardships, and, perhaps, just because of them, and do not despair, and not bored. For him, life carries many high enjoyment, because the victory of good he does not believe from the banal optimism, but because of the penetration of organic best beginnings of the human spirit. By mid-1890's a purely artistic activity Korolenko reached its climax. Among his works since then have wonderful essays and sketches, to which a particular need to note "the sovereign of drivers" and "Frost" (from the Siberian life), but new to the characteristics of the literary image of the author, they do not give. Since 1906, Korolenko began to print individual chapters the most extensive in terms of his works: his autobiographical "Story of my contemporary". According to the plan it had to be something typical for the most part. The author states that it "notes - no biography, no confession and no self-portrait," but at the same time, he "probably wanted to complete the historical truth, often sacrificing her beautiful or striking features of the truth of art". As a result of "historical" or, rather, an autobiographical prevailed over a typical. Also published as long as 2 of the "Stories of my contemporary", . mainly, . on the initial period of life Korolenko, . central point of which is the collision of three national elements in the era of the Polish uprising of 1863, . not typical of all-Russian point of view,
. Not typical of those forms of serfdom, which so impressed the young domestic surveillance gentry Ukraine. Very successful in Korolenko memories of the writers - the Assumption, St. Michael, Chekhov - that he united under the general title "had withdrawn". Among them are truly excellent essay on the Assumption, written with all the expressiveness of pure fiction, and Etude, however, warmed by this personal love for the writer and the man. Brilliant place in the literary form Korolenko has extensive journalistic work of his - his many newspaper and magazine articles devoted to different burning rage of the day. Korolenko heartfelt journalism is in close connection with its outstanding practical work. Wherever he lived, he always stood in the center of the active work aimed to alleviate the people's needs and disasters. This practical activity Korolenko is inseparable from the literary and form a single fused unit. It is difficult to say that, for example, in the "hunger gap year", or in performing the great impression "Consumer phenomenon" (1910) is a remarkable literary phenomenon, and that - the largest public credit. Overall, . high position, . which takes in the contemporary literature Korolenko, . - Is as much an expression of beauty, . at the same time intimate, . and fine artistic talent, . as the result of, . that he was a knight of the pen in the best sense of the word,
. Will happen if a natural disaster, it will condemn innocent people, to inaugurate a pogrom that will bring it up to a nightmare, before becoming a "domestic event, the death penalty, Korolenko already" can not be silent "in the words of Tolstoy, he was not afraid to talk about a" hackneyed plot ". And the sincerity of humanism Korolenko so profound and unquestionable that captures the reader quite apart from belonging to one or another political camp. Korolenko not "party member," he humanist in direct and immediate sense of the word. Works Korolenko always enjoyed great success in the book market. Released in 1886 1 st book of his "Essays and Stories" withstood 13, 2nd book (1893) - 9, 3rd book (1903) - 5, "The Blind Musician" (1887) - 12, "In the hungry year "- 6," No Language "(1905) - 5," The history of my contemporaries "(1910) - 2 editions. - The tens of thousands of copies dispersed issued by various publishing houses short stories Korolenko. First of any "complete works" Korolenko is attached to, "Cornfield" (1914, 9 volumes). A relatively complete bibliography is given in the written Korolenko detailed book Princess N.D. Shakhovskoi: "Vladimir Korolenko Galaktionovich. The experience of biographical characteristics "(Moscow, 1912). - Wed. Arseniev, . "Critical studies" (Volume II); Eichenwald, . "Silhouettes" (Volume I); Bogdanovich, . "During the fracture; Batiushkov, . "Critical Essays" (1900); Arseny Vvedensky ( "Historical Journal", . 1892, . Volume II); Vengerov, . "Sources" (Volume III); Vladislavlev, . "Russian Writers"; Volga, . "From the world of literary pursuit" (1906); W,
. Vetrinsky (Nizhny Novgorod Digest, 1905); Goltsev, "The painter and art critic; Yves. Ivanov, "Poetry and the truth of the world of love" (1899); Kozlovsky, "Korolenko (Moscow, 1910); Lunacharsky," Etudes "; Merezhkovsky (" Northern Herald ", 1889, 5); S. Nikolaev (Govorukha-lad) ( "The Russian Review", 1893, and separately); Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskii (Journal Europe ", 1910, 9, and" Collected Works ", 9); Poktovsky," Idealism in the works Korolenko "(Kazan, 1901); C. Protonopov (Nizhny Collection ", . 1905); Prugavin ( "Russian Gazette", . 1910, . ? 99 - 104); Skabichevsky, . "History of New Russian Literature"; Stolyarov, . "New Russian novelists" (Kazan, . 1901), Sedov (Journal of Memories ", . 1898, . 3); Treplev, . "Young Consciousness" (1904), Uman (Nizhny Novgorod leaf ", . 1903, . 130); Chukovsky, . Critical Stories "(1910),
. S. Vengerov.


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