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Leontiev, Konstantin Nikolayevich

( writer and narrator)

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Biography Leontiev, Konstantin Nikolayevich
(1831 - 1891), original and gifted preacher extremely conservative views. Belonged to the Kaluga landowner family, studied medicine at Moscow University, was in the Crimean campaign, a military doctor, then to rural doctor in the Nizhny Novgorod region. Ten years (1863 - 1873) lived in Turkey, taking the consular office on the island of Crete, in Adrianople, Tulcea, Ioannina, Thessaloniki and Zitse. Upon his retirement, spent more than a year on Mount Athos, then lived mostly in his village. In 1880, Mr.. was assistant editor of the Warsaw Diary, then censor in Moscow. In 1887, Mr.. again resigned, settled in Optina and 4 years, taking secret vows with the name of Clement, he moved to Sergiev Posad, where he died. The first literary works Leontiev (from Russian life, . several novels and two novels: "Podlipki" and "In my edge", . in Fatherland Notes 1856 - 1866 period), . although not devoid of talent, . but, . on the later recognition of the author, . not represent a significant interest, . being written under the predominant influence of George Sand and Turgenev for ideas on style,
. Literary identity Leontief quite apparent in his novels: "From the life of Christians in Turkey" (published. separately in 1876, this includes the story "Sfakiot" novel "Stone of Sisyphus" and the beginning of the novel "The Egyptian Dove, not included in this collection). IS. Aksakov, hostile to political and religious views Leontief, who found a "voluptuous cult of the stick", was delighted by his eastern tales and say: "read them, and do not need to go to Turkey". While living in the Greco-Turkish cities in Leontyev there was a mental revolution. The old naturalist Georges-zandist, . who published, . incidentally, . already in adulthood "highly immoral (according to his own, . exaggerated withdrawal), . sensory, . pagan, . diabolical writing, . finely lewd, . nothing Christian in itself has no "- has become extreme and outspoken supporter of the Byzantine-ascetic religious ideal,
. This aspect of the new world is not exhausted by Leontief. It was generally devoid of integrity, one of the middle and ruling principle it was not, but some views differed certainty, directness and courage sequence. Slavophilism he called "dreamy and vague doctrine of. Wanting to bring their colorful thoughts and desire for some, even if only a formal unity, Leont'ev called himself a principled or ideological conservative (as opposed to crudely practical or empirical conservatism). Roads, . demanding and worthy escort he believed, . mainly: 1) the real and the mystical, . strictly ecclesiastical and monastic Christianity of the Byzantine and partly Roman type, . 2) strong, . concentrated monarchical state and 3) the beauty of life in a distinctive national forms,
. All this is necessary to guard against a common enemy - the egalitarian bourgeois progress, triumphs in modern European history. Hostility to this progress was the main "pathos" in the writings of Leontief. He developed a special theory of development, which originally ranged ideas of Hegel, Saint-Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer (who, incidentally, Leontiev not studied systematically). As Leontiev, . humanity as a whole and in parts of three consecutive passes through the state: the initial simplicity (like the body in the embryonic and neonatal period), . then positive partition (like the developed, . flourishing age of the organism) and, . Finally, . dilution and simplification of the equation or secondary simplicity (senility, . Dying and the expansion of the organism),
. So, . Germans in the era of migrations were the primary simplicity of life, . Europe and the beginning of the new middle ages - the dismemberment of flourishing life forms, . and the "educational" movement of XVIII century in the great French Revolution European humanity is firmly in the era of the dilution of simplification and expansion,
. From the above-mentioned European thinkers, who also noted the critical and negative nature of modern history, Leontiev differs in that it considers expansion to Europe and waiting for the final new and positive on Russia. In this he agrees with the Slavophiles, . but immediately, and differs from them in three essential points: 1) The current "expansion" of Europe, he finds a simple consequence of a general natural law, . and not any defect in the fundamental principles of her life, . from which if Russia is free: this Slavophile view Leontiev both explain and ridicules: "Truth, . truth, . wholeness, . love and t,
. n. We, as in the West - rationalism, lies, violence, struggle and t. n. I confess - I have it only excites a smile, not in such general and moral distinctions to build a practical hope. Touching and sympathetic childishness is - has already experienced the time of Russian thought ". 2) The new great future for Russia is both desirable and possible Leontiev, . not fatal and inevitable, . is thought Slavophiles: sometimes the future seems to him even unlikely - Russia has already lived 1000 years, . a destructive process egalitarian bourgeois started and we, . after the Crimean War and the liberation of the peasants,
. 3) In addition to the uncertainty in the performance of his desire for Russia, is the object of these desires was Leontyev not quite the one that Slavophiles. Here are the main features of its cultural and political ideal, . as he summarized it, "the state should be colorful, . difficult, . tightly, . caste and with caution adjustably, . generally severely, . sometimes up to ferocity, the church should be independent of the current, . hierarchy must be bolder, . power, . more concentrated, life must be poetic, . varied in the national, . apart from the unity of the West, the laws, . principles of government should be stricter, . People should try to be kinder person - one balancing the other, science must develop in a spirit of profound contempt for its usefulness ",
. Ideal Leontief was Byzantine, and not Slavic, he argued that "the Slavs" is a term without a specific cultural content, that the Slavic peoples who have lived someone else's beginnings. Their current culture is composed in part of the weak remnants of the traditional Byzantinism, the greater part - of the rapidly assimilated elements of progressive Europeanism. This second, hateful Leontiev element strongly predominates among the Slavs of the Austrian, and recently prevailed in the Balkans. Therefore, the merger of the Slavs with Russia, . sought by Panslavism, . not only can not be the goal of sound policy with the Russian point of view, . but it would be right for us dangerous, . as the new jets would strengthen the egalitarian progress of our democratic elements of decomposing and would weaken the truly conservative, . t,
. e. Byzantine beginning of our life. In the church-political dispute between the Greeks and Bulgarians Leontiev strongly sided with the first, thus broke with his boss, Ambassador at Constantinople, General Ignatiev, and with Katkov. Leontiev ardently desired, . to Russia conquered Constantinople, . but then, . to make it the center of the Slavic Liberal Democratic Federation, . then, . that in the ancient capital to strengthen and develop truly conservative cultural system and to restore the kingdom to the former Eastern Byzantine lines, . only the filled-national Russian agency forced agricultural community,
. Generally Leontiev in all spheres of thought very highly coercive relations, . without which, . his opinion, . life forms can not retain their separateness and sustainability; weakening of coercive power is a sure sign and, . however, . supportive of the cause of decomposition or dilution simplification "of life,
. In their contempt for the pure ethics and his cult of self-affirming power and beauty Leontiev anticipated many ideas of Nietzsche, is doubly paradoxical from the pen of Mount Athos and Optina novice monk. Leontiev religiously believed in the positive truth of Christianity, . uzkomonashenskom in the sense of personal salvation, and he hoped for a triumph of politically conservative principles in our country, . the taking of Constantinople by Russian troops at the base of the great neo-Byzantine or Greek culture of Russia and finally, . He loved everything aesthetically beautiful and strong,
. These three dominant motif in his writings, and the absence between internal positive relationship is the main drawback of his outlook. From the idea of personal dushespaseniya by monastic (as he understood Leontiev) logically implies indifference to worldly political interests and the denial of aesthetic interest, in turn,, . Politics, . even conservative, . has nothing to do with dushespaseniem and aesthetics, and finally, . becomes the point of view of aesthetic, . certainly ought to prefer the ideals of ancient paganism, . medieval chivalry and the Renaissance ideals of Byzantine monks and officials, . especially in their Russian Restoration,
. Thus, the three main items subject to guard the principle or ideological conservatism, not coordinated among themselves. Not free from internal contradictions, and hostility to the Leontief new European civilization, which he himself admitted that the inevitable phase of the natural process. Justly reproaching slavophiles for their childish condemnation of the West, he fell into even more childish. Slavophils were, . at least, . consistent: introducing the entire western history as the product of human wickedness, . they have this misconception sufficient ground for resentment and hostility, but the fierce attack deliberate investigation of natural necessity - worse, . than hitting a stone, . about who stumbled,
. Do not have sufficient grounds and hope Leontief, . associated with the conquest of Constantinople: why the entry of Russian soldiers and officials on the ground of education, . long-dead of natural causes, . should be not only stop in Russia has already begun the process of equalizing the mixing, . but a more conservative culture of an all-time great? Hopes and dreams Leontiev did not stem from Christianity, . he, . however, . professed as absolute truth,
. It remained unclear universal nature of this truth and the impossibility to take it to the half. But if the main motivation of which was formed worldview Leontiev, were not they agreed with each other, then each of them he took seriously and with enthusiasm, as evidenced by his whole life. His convictions, he sacrificed successfully launched a diplomatic career, resulting in seven years, suffered severe hardship. Much of the political, critical and journalistic works of Leontief was connected to them in the collection of "East, Russia and Slavianstvo" (M., 1885 - 1886). After that he published in "The Citizen" series of articles under the title: "Notes of the Hermit". One of them: "National policy as an instrument of world revolution" was published in pamphlet form (Moscow, 1889). When life Leontief him little attention in the literature, can be called only articles NS. Leskov ( "Voice", 1881, and "News", 1883) and Vl. Solovyov (Rus, 1883). After his death, except for obituaries, articles appeared in. Rozanov in The Russian Messenger "(1892), A. Alexandrova (ibid.), Vlad. Solovyov in The Russian Review "(1892), Prince. S. Trubetskoy in the Journal of Europe "(1892), and. Milyukov in Problems of Philosophy and Psychology "(1893), A. Tikhomirova in The Russian Review "(1894), Priest. I. Fudelya (ibid., 1895). The abundance of material for performance is particularly important article Fudelya father and A. Alexandrova. (Vl. Solovyov). Collected Works Leontief in Moscow in 12 volumes (in 1914. were published in 9 volumes). Letters to the Leontief Gubastovu published in The Russian Review "(1894, Book 9, 11, 1896, Books 1 - 3, 11 - 12, 1897, book 1 - 2 5 - 7, 1895,? 12). Wed. memories Gubastova on Leontyev - in a literary anthology memory KN. Leontief (1911), letters KN. Leonteva to A. Alexander's - in the "Theological Gazette (1914, March - December, 1915, January, and separately: Sergiev Posad, 1915). - See. AA. Leontiev "(" Theological Journal ", 1915, February);" K. Leontiev of Vladimir Soloviev and aesthetics of life "(Moscow, 1912); Griftsov" Fate Leontiev "(" Russian Thought ", 1913, 1 - 4), C. Kozlovsky "Dreams of Constantinople. Leontiev "(Voice of the past", 1915, III).


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Leontiev, Konstantin Nikolayevich, photo, biography
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