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Dimitri I

( The Pretender)

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Biography Dimitri I
photo Dimitri I
king of Moscow in 1605 - 1606 years. The origin of the person, as well as the history of its emergence and adoption of the name of Prince Dimitri, son of Ivan the Terrible, still remain dark. The government of Boris Godunov, the news of the appearance of a person in Poland, called Dimitri who stated in their charters of its history as follows. Yuri Otrepyev, . son of the Galician boyar's son, . Bogdan Otrepiev, . childhood he lived in Moscow in the menials of the boyars Romanovs and Prince Boris Cherkassky; navlekshi on suspicion of Tsar Boris, . He took monastic vows as a monk, . with it took the name Gregory, . and, . moving from one monastery to another, . got in Chudov Monastery, . which attracted the attention of the patriarch Job, . who took him to her for publishing the letter, Gregory bragging about the possibility of him to be king in Moscow reached Boris, . who ordered the exile of his supervised in the Kirillov Monastery,
. Alerted time, . Gregory managed to escape to Galich, . then in Moore, . returned to Moscow, . ran together with one monk Varlaam in Kiev, . the Crypt Monastery, . moved from the prison to Prince Constantine Ostrog, . then entered the school in Goscha and, . Finally, . determined to serve the Prince of Hell,
. Vishnevetskogo, which for the first time and announced his alleged royal origin. This story, repeated later by the Government of the Tsar Basil Shuisky, which entered the greater part of the Russian chronicles and legends, and based mainly on testimony or "izvete" referred to Barlaam, was first fully accepted by historians. Miller Shcherbatov, Karamzin, Artsybashev, SM. Dimitri Soloviev identifies with Gregory Otrepyev. Already very early, however, arose and doubts about the correctness of such otozhestvleniya. For the first time such a question was raised in the press Metropolitan Platon ( "Brief History of the Church", ed. 3rd, p.. 141), then more specifically deny the identity and Dimitri Otrepiev п-.пг. Malinowski (Biographical information about Prince D.M. Pozharsky, Moscow, 1817), Stamp. Pogodin, YA.I. Berednikov (Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", 1835, VII, 118 - 120) and especially NI. Kostomarov. The question of the identity of the first Dimitri remains open. Almost proven can be considered only that he was not conscious liar and is only an instrument in the hands of others, for the overthrow of Tsar Boris. Another Shcherbatov considered the true culprits appearance of the pretender discontented boyars Boris; opinion is shared by most historians, some of which have a significant role in the preparation of the pretender assign the Poles, and in particular, the Jesuits. Reliable Dimitri story begins with its appearance in 1601, Mr.. the court of Prince Konstantin Ostrog, where he joined Goschu, in the Arian school and then to Prince Al. Vyshnevetskoho, who announced his alleged royal origin, caused by this, according to one story, a disease for another - insult to him Vishnevetsky. Last believe Dimitri, as well as some other Polish nobles, the more so at the outset and were the Russian people, confessing to Dimitri allegedly murdered Tsarevich. Especially became close friends with Dimitri voivod Sandomirskii, Yuri Mnishkom, in whose daughter, Marina, he fell in love. He tried to start relations with King Sigismund, in which the following is probably the advice of his Polish-wishers, expected to act through the Jesuits, the latter promising to adhere to Catholicism. Curia, . seeing the emergence of Dimitri long wished the case to convert to Catholicism, Moscow State, . asked its nuncio in Poland, . Rangoni, . enter into relations with Dimitri, . explore its intentions and, . turning to Catholicism, . assist him,
. In early 1604, Mr.. Dimitri in Krakow was presented to the King Apostolic Nuncio, April 17 accomplished its transition to Catholicism. Sigismund recognized Dimitri, had promised him 40,000 zlotys annual maintenance, but not formally made on his behalf, is allowed only wishing to help the prince. During that Dimitri had promised to give Poland, Smolensk and Seversk land and enter the Moscow State Catholicism. Back in Sambor, . Dimitri gave his arm to Marina Mnishek; proposal was accepted, . and he gave his bride entry, . to which undertook not to embarrass her in matters of faith and give her full possession of Novgorod and Pskov, . than in those cities should have been left for Marina even if its barrenness,
. Mnishek scored for the future son-in-a small army of Polish adventurers that joined 200 Little Russia Cossacks and a small detachment of the Don. With these forces Lzhedimiry August 15, 1604, Mr.. opened the campaign, and in October crossed the border of Moscow. Charm behalf of Prince Dmitry Godunov and discontent soon made themselves felt. Morawski, Chernigov, Putivl and other cities surrendered without a fight Dimitri; held only Novgorod-Seversky, where the voivod was P.F. Basmanov. 50 thousandth Muscovite army under the command of Mstsislauye yavivsheesya to the rescue of this city, was routed Dimitri, with its army of 15000. VI. Shujskij defeated Dimitri, 21 January 1605, when Dobrynich, but then the Muscovite troops occupied futile siege Rylsk and Krom, and meanwhile Dimitri entrenched in Putivl received new reinforcements. Unhappy with the actions of their governor, King Boris sent to the army P.F. Basmanova before summoned to Moscow and generously awarded, but Basmanov could not stop being enacted Troubles. April 13 Tsar Boris died suddenly, and all the army on May 7, with Basmanov the head, switched sides to Dimitri. June 20 Dimitri triumphantly entered Moscow, proclaimed before the king Fedor Borisovich Godunov had earlier been killed sent Dimitri, . with his mother, . and survived his sister Xenia Dimitri made his mistress and later she was tonsured,
. A few days after their arrival in Moscow Dimitri has revealed plans boyars against him. VI. Shuya was caught in the blossoming of rumors about impersonation of a new king, and gave Dimitri the court's Cathedral, consisting of clergy, the boyars and ordinary people, was sentenced to death. Dimitri replaced it with a reference Shuisky, with two brothers, in the suburbs of Galicia, and then returning them to the road, completely forgiven, returning them to the estate and Boyars. The patriarch Job was deposed, and his place was elevated Archbishop of Ryazan, Greek Ignatius, on 21 July and Dimitri crowned king. As ruler of Dimitri, on contemporary reviews, distinguished by uncommon energy, great ability, broad reformist designs and very high notion of his power. "Meaningless and the exigencies of books themselves have long tempted," says of him, Prince Khvorostinin and adds: "Autocracy above human practice to arrange". Dimitri thought to open his subjects free access to Western Europe for education, . intimacy with the foreigners, . dreamed up an alliance against Turkey from the emperor germanskogo, . kings of the French and Polish, . Venice and Moscow State, its diplomatic relations with the Pope, and Poland were sent, . mainly, . this goal and to confess to him the imperial title,
. Pope, the Jesuits and Sigismund, had counted to see Dimitri humble instrument of its policy, made a mistake in the calculation. He behaved quite independently, refused to impose Catholicism and the Jesuits, and has allowed to Marina, on arrival in Russia, externally performed rites of Orthodoxy. Quite indifferent to the differences of religions, he avoided, however, annoy people. He resolutely refused to make any land concessions to Poland, offering cash incentives to assist him. Deviations from the old customs that have become particularly common since the arrival of Marina, and the obvious partiality to foreigners Dimitri irritated some adherents among the king's old, but the masses of the people treated him kindly. Nevertheless Dimitri died victim of a conspiracy against him arranged by the boyars, with VI. Shuiski headed. Convenient excuse conspirators gave Dimitri wedding. Another 10 November 1605, Mr.. held in Krakow betrothal Dimitri, who was replaced with the ambassador from Moscow Vlasov, and May 8, 1606, Mr.. Moscow was accomplished and the marriage Dimitri and Marina. Using the stimulation of Muscovites against the Poles, . have driven to Moscow with Marina and allowing a different excesses, . conspirators, . the night of 16 to 17 May, . ring the alarm, . announced people came running, . that the Poles beat the king, . and, . sending the crowd at the Poles, . themselves broke into the Kremlin,
. Caught unawares, Dimitri first tried to defend himself, then fled to the musketeers, but the latter, under pressure from the boyars threats, gave him, and he was shot Valuev. - Wed. Kostomarov "Who was the first Dimitri?" (St. Petersburg, . 1864) and "Time of Troubles, the Moscow State" (volume IV, . V and VI "historical monographs"), Kazan "Research on the identity of the first Dimitri" ( "Russian Messenger, . 1877, . ? 8, . 9 and 10); Pierling "Rome et Demetrius" (II., . 1878); P,
. Pirling "From the Time of Troubles" (St. Petersburg, . 1902); Bestuzhev-Ryumin "Review of developments Troubles era" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", . 1887, . ? 7); Platonov "ancient stories and legends about the Time of Troubles" (St. Petersburg, . 1888) and "Essays on the history of the Troubles"; Ikonnikov, . article in Kiev of University Izvestia "(1885, . ? 2 and 3, 1889, . ? 5 7); Hirschberg "Dymitr Samoswaniec" (Lviv, . 1898); Shchepkin "Wer war Pseudo-Demetrius I" ( "Archiv fur slawische Philologie" Jagic, . t,
. XX); Ptashitsky "Letter to the first pretender to Pope Clement VIII" (St. Petersburg, 1899).


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